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A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 



VOL. XV.— No. 2. 
Established 1881. 



PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY, 1895. { 



Help One Another. 



“ Help one another,” the snowflakes said, 

As they cuddled down in their fleecy bed ; 

** One of us here would quickly melt, 

But I’ll help you and you’ll help me, 

And then what a big white drift we’ll see ! ” 

** Help one another,” the maple spray 
8aid to its fellow-leaves one day ; 

“ The sun would wither me here alone. 

Long enough ere the day is gone ; 

But I’ll help you and you’ll help me, 

Aud then what a splendid shade there’ll be.” 

“ Help one another,” a grain of sand 
Said to another grain just at hand : 

“ The wind may carry me over the sea. 

And then, O, what will become of me? 

But come, my sister, give me your hand, 

We’ll build a mountain and there we’ll stand.” 
— Anonymous. 



American Federation of Labor. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 
FOURTEENTH ANNUAL CONVENTION. 

The fourteenth annual convention of 
the American Federation of Labor was 
held in Denver, beginning on December 
10 and ending on the 18th. 

The U. B. was represented by the 
delegates elected last September at the 
Indianapolis Convention, viz., Hugh Mc- 
Kay, Boston ; D. P. Rowland, Cincin- 
nati ; James J. Linehan, Chicago, and 
P. J. McGuire, Philadelphia. 

The attendance, owing to the great 
distance of the convention city from the 
industrial centres of the country, was 
not as large as has been the case in recent 
years. However, what the convention 
lacked in numbers it made up in interest. 
It can easily be said that, says the Chi- 
cago Eight Hour Herald , the session just 
closed was by all odds the most sensa- 
tional in the history of the Federation. 
Among the work accomplished was an 
almost entire change of officers, the re- 
moval of headquarters, and the con- 
sideration of a political platform. The 
following is a list of the newly-elected 
officers : 

John McBride (Columbus, O.) .... President 
P. J. McGuire (Phlladeiphia) 1st Vice-President. 
James Duncan (Baltimore) . 2d ” 

Rhody Kenehan (Denver) . . 3d 11 u 
T.J. Elderkin (Chicago). . .4th ** 

Augustine MoCraith (Boston) . . . .Secretary 

John B. Lennon (New York) Treasurer 

Delegates to British Trades | Samuel Gompers. 

Union Congress , , , J P.J, McGuire. 

Of the above Mr. McBride represents 
the United Mine Workers ; McGuire, the 
carpenters; Duncan, the stone cutters; 
Kenehan, the horse shoers; Elderkin, 
the seamen ; McCraith, the printers ; 
Lennon, the tailors. Indianapolis was 
selected aB the official headquarters for 
the coming five years, beginning January 
1, next. 

The political programme as finally 
agreed on by the convention was as 
follows ; 

First-- Compulsory education. 

Second— The repeal of all conspiracy and 
penal vwa affecting seaman and other workmen 
inoo 0Vs ated in the Federal and State lawsiof the 
Unite States. 



Third — A legal workday of not more than 
eight hours. 

Fourth— Sanitary inspection ’of workshops, 
mine and home. 

Fifth— Liability of employers for injury to 
health, body or life. • 

Sixth— The abolition of the contract system in 
all publio work. 

Seventh— The abolition of the sweating sys- 
tem. 

Eighth— The municipal ownership of street 
cars, water-works and gas and the electric 
plants for public distribution of heat, light and 
power. 

Ninth— The nationalization of telegraphs, tele- 
phones, railways and mines. 

Tenth— The abolition of the monopolv system 
of land holding and the substitution therefor of 
a title of occupancy and use only. 

Eleventh— Direct legislation and the principle 
of referendum in all legislation. 

Twelfth— The abolition of the monopoly privi- 
lege of issuing money and substituting therefor 
a system of direct issuance to and by the people. 

The next convention will be held in 
New York city, in December, 1895. 

It must be said the Denver Convention 
of the A. F. ofL. Bet itself squarely on 
progressive trade union principles, and, 
in the political measures agreed on, Bim- 
ply reiterated the position the Federation 
has held for years on each one of the 
twelve planks agreed on. No new polit- 
ical departure was taken, nor no new 
political party formed. 

Of the work of the Denver Convention 
and its significance we shall have more to 
say from month to month. 




Samuel Duncan Parnell, a sturdy old 
union carpenter, was the pioneer of the 
Eight-hour day in New Zealand. An 
immense concourse of people followed 
his remains to the grave a few years ago. 
October 10th, last year was celebrated 
quite generally in New Zealand as the 
anniversary of the adoption of the eight- 
hour day, and iB known as Labor Day. 

Donald Gruer, a union carpenter, 
member of Union 28, Chicago, 111., was 
shot by one of the Marquette Building 
workmen on December 3d. He died of 
bis wound two days later at St. Luke's 
Hospital. It iB alleged the shooting was 
done by a member of 'the Knights of 
Labor carpenters. The Brotherhood 
men and other trades came out on strike 
some eight weeks ago in sympathy with 
the union electrical workers, whose rules 
had been violated. Immediately there- 
after the Amalgamated carpenters went 
into the Marquette Building and took the 
places of the Brotherhood men and have 
scabbed it ever since, despite all en- 
treaties to act as honorable men. The 
scabs now working on the job are all 
armed and ready to fire on the slightest 
provocation. This is the second fatal 
shooting growing out of this strike on 
the Marquette Building. 



To Subscribers, Advertisers and Readers. 

The non-issuance of January Carpen- 
ter will be made good to you all. To 
subscribers and advertisers it will be 
made good in their accounts. To our 
readers it will be made good in the en- 
richment of its columns with many new 
features and departments. 




Louis Eugene Tossey. 



Above is a portrait of our second Gen- 
eral Vice-President, L. E. Tossey. He 
was born July 24, 1849, in Detroit, Mich. 
At the close of his apprenticeship in 1870 
he joined a union of carpenters in his 
native city, and from 1872 to 1887 was a 
resident of Northern Michigan. 

In 1887, Brother Tossey returned to 
Detroit, joined Carpenters' Union 59 and 
later, through the consolidation of 
Unions 32 and 59, he became connected 
with Union 421, of which he is now a 
member and an active worker. He has 
held various official positions of trust 
and honor in the Carpenters' Unions of 
Detroit, and also in the Trades and Labor 
Council of that city, being president of 
the latter body in 1890 and 1893— the 
only union man in Detroit ever honored 
by two terms in that office. 

L.E. Tossey is a sanguine, enthusiastic 
union man, and strongly devoted to the 
U. B. and its advancement. He is a 
plain, straightforward and practical 
worker and speaker, and is held in the 
highest regard as a manager or foreman 
on first-class buildings, lie has been 
delegate and officer in the State Federa- 
tion of Labor of Michigan a number of 
timeB, and was president of that body in 
1890. In fact his whole heart and every 
energy is devoted to the advancement of 
tl?e labor movement. 



The Editor of “The Carpenter” Seri- 
ously Sick. 



At the Denver Convention of the 
American Federation of Labor last 
December, toward the close of the session, 
General Secretary, P. J. McGuire, was 
taken ill with a severe case of catarrh 
and hoarseness. This finally grew worse 
until a fully developed case of “La 
Grippe " was manifest, accompanied by 
laryngitis. 

From time to time there were hopes of 
betterment, and spells of relief were ex- 
perienced. But at last Secretary McGuire 
had to succumb and remain away from 
all official duty, as well as public speak- 
ing. 

After a trying time and several medical 
operations General Secretary McGuire is 
now restored to duty, though not as yet 
in the best of health. 

The January iBsue of The Carpenter 
did not appear for above reasons. For 
this and any other shortcomings we 
crave the indulgence of our members and 
readers. 

Representative Farr of Scranton Intro- 
duces a Mechanics 5 Lien Law in the 
Legislature of Pennsylvania. 



In the session of the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania two years ago, Hon. John 
R. Farr of Scranton, Pa., was very suc- 
cessful in pushing a plain Bimple Me- 
chanics' law through both House and 
Senate by a very decisive majority, at the 
instigation of the United Brotherhood 
of Carpenters. But the bill was vetoed 
by Gov. Pattison on very flimsy technical 
grounds. This session of the Legislature 
Representative Farr has again introduced 
a bill which is now in the hands of the 
Committee on Judiciary General, and 
the cry is now raised by interested specu- 
lators, banks, and capitalists, that the 
bill is unconstitutional. At present, by 
decision of the State Supreme Court, the 
provisions of the Mechanics' Lien law 
now on the statute books of the State of 
Pennsylvania in favor of the workmen, 
is unconstitutional. So that the men 
of the building trades of the Key- 
stone State are now practically'without 
any law for security in payment of their 
wag? Let each and every TJ. B. Union 
in the State and every branch of labor 
deluge their Representatives and Sena- 
tors with letters calling for the enact- 
ment of the Farr lien law. We must 
have a lien law for adequate protection 
and payment of workmen’s wages. 



1 We love no triumphs sprung: from force— 
They stain their brightest cause : 

’Tis not in blood that liberty 
Inscribes her civic laws. 

She writes them on the people’s heart, 

In language clear and plain ; 

True thoughts have moved the world before 
And so they shall again.”— Charles Mackay. 









Labor« 



King of the mighty bruin am! iron hand ! 

Who on the brow of thin rude earth huth 
placed 

A »tarry crown ! And who hath richly 
Her bosom rude with jewel» rare and grand ! 
With all the splendor* of thy magic warn!. 

Still like nome p)or aud paltry »lave thou’rt 
beat, 

Starved, naked, trembling to the tyrant s feet, 
Moot wretched, abject thing in all the land ! 



Report or Canvassers of Geueral Vote on 
Resolutions and Amendments to 
the Constitution. 



pHiLAi)BLpnU| PAi> Jan . 8( 1895 . 
no hath richly kw ** 1 We, the undersigned, Board of Can* 
I» rare and «rami ! vaBSe ra appointed by General President 
„ Charles E. Owen., in «Kord.«« with th. 
instructions of the Indianapolis Conven- 
iii to the tyrant's feet, tjon, have completed the count of the 
i K in ait the land • general vote on the resolutions and 
amendments as submitted to the Local 
Lift thy «real, broud Unions. We remained in session. Janu- 
ary », 5 , 7 and 8 , 18 !» 5 , and as a Board of 
atiate. ravi-ntuK uniw. (j anva8Bers we have counted the votes on 

,,vn another taw ^ ^ re80 , ationB #n(1 the thirty-six 



and oor members as citizens are at liberty The welcome of the bright «nähme, 

to join them, if they choose. But ns beaming through a pure atmosphere, 
wage workers, as carpenters and joiners, gives you Godspeed in your convocation, 
we must be united in the United Brother- The roar of Ute moan am torrents 
hood, regardless of party politics, creed through their granite channels calls 

or natiouality . . .. 



P. J. McGuire, <1. 8. 



Address ok W klcomb. 



attention to object lessons of persistent 
effort, aud join in a greeting from the 
cloud-capped summits. 

From every trail anil pass, from every 



Th. addr.ee of ».loom, delivered by «*»»■>. “ d *“• 

Ilhodv Keneban, l-reeldeutol the Heaver “ d P' ak ' , f,om I " rk ' 

Trade, eeil Ltfer Ammhly. .1 the “ " 1 «“ M ,nm th ‘ men wh ° . , 



Riy© iu Iby manhood! Lift thy gr©»l, broutl unions. >v 

brow i ary I, 5, 7 and 

This Moloch, who»© innaliate, ravening umw, (j ftn y ft g 8 e r 0 W< 
That never yet hath known another law n 

But vll© uggraiidlRAinent of »elf! Aye, now 
Rite i thou’rt Kurth'» King! and da»b him amendments, 
from on high, The underai 



Fourteenth Annual SeBeion of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor at DfBVjf, 
December 10 , 1804 , is indeed a unique 
gem. We ^ive it verbatim : 



from on high, The undersigned Board of Canvassers 

And mi© o'er all, aa thou *houUI»t 'noath the Local Unions voted, and 0,11*2 

• kyl is the highest toUl.number ot votes cast 

-BtiMt'MD Mostimkb, In the Chicago Tima. ^ ^ OQ0 reao lution or amendment. 

— VVe find the returns summarized are as 

follows (to publish them in detail would 
economic Progress. cover mftny pageB of Xhk Carhbntkr). 



Kcouoiulc Progress. 



Afr. Prttideni and Delegate* : continent, it remains for you to so do* 

The pleasure of welcoming the inter- ' Rnd doterm|ne ,, iat i tB restored 

national representatives of organised wed pulsillioIl8 will cause the 

labor to Colorado cannot be portrayed in ul> ,n„it nM 



If we could lay aside that jealousy and Resolution i 3578 2155 

sense ot justice which we habitually M 2 4287 1681 

adopt in our comparisons of differences “ * * JJJ® 1 

in modes of life, and which invariably 2 • 4310 hw 

accompany our consideration of social ** 3 4027 2015 

conditions, and ask ourselves what in M 4 4617 1330 

realUy is progress, and what are the steps " ® '!.’!!! saos 2 *ai Lost 

and conditions actually and imperatively „ 7 ’ ' . ’ ’ . 26» 3143 Lo»t 

required to secure it, we should find, 1 *• g 3976 1712 

think, that much of what we condemn in M y 4878 P 77 

the rich is but the experimental work " shs 

which needs to be done before the people „ 19 ]]]', ’4112 1225 

can safely adopt a new custom, •» 13 4390 1020 

Some one must have dyspepsia before M 1 4 4693 530 

the world can know its cause and avoid " J® 

it, or know its cure and use it. Someone „ 17 * ] * ’ * ’ mi 1W7 i Mi 

must first live in a four-story house, try •« ig 2588 2852 Lo»t 

41 sanitary plumbing / 9 new modes of M i® 235,0 2881 I ' OAl 

ventilation and 41 all the modern improve* " “ ^ 

rnents,” and those who first try them aa ’ ' * ’ * '4303 811 

must suffer and, it may be, die from the ** 23" 4480 015 

mistakes neceesarily made in proving 44 24 4734 3yu 

what is right and healthful or wrong and JJJJ ££ 

dangerous. •• 27 ?ms 1217 

The existence of the producer or la- •• is 3900 1887 Lo»t 

borer cannot be put to these risks. On “ 20 3070 4187 

him rests all the hopee of the human race " * ^ 

and if a mistake is made and he is lost, «• w * | \ \ ’ 44fw 473 

the future is irretrievably ruined. But “ 33 4292 42ft 

the rich may test the health giving '* 34 3370 11 3 ® 

qualities of new fashions in furs and “ “ ^ 

silks, in riding and driving, in 44 ragouts 99 

and 44 patd de foi gras , 99 in sports and From the above returns it is evident 
pastimes, and if in finding which are that Amendments Ö, 7 , 17 , 18 , 111 , 4 J 0 , 21 , 
useful and which are harmful, a few— 28 , and 85 are lost. They have not 
more or less— of them perish, others can received the necessary two-thirds vote 
be found to take their places. And when required by the Constitution. Amend- 
a good and useful thing is found and ments 1 , 2 , 8, 4 , 5 , 8 , 0 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 





For. 


Against. 




1 . . 


. . . .8578 


2155 




2 . . 


. . . .4287 


1681 




3 . . 


. . . .85*5 


1791 




1 . . 


... 5605 


242 




2 • . 


. . . .4310 


1454 




3 . . 


.... 4027 


2015 




4 . . 


. . . .4617 


1330 




5 . . 


. . . .5162 


615 




0 . . 


. . . .3308 


2881 


Lost 


7 . . 


. . . .2632 


3143 


Lost 


8 . . 


. . . . 3270 


1719 




2 . . 


. . . .4878 


577 




10 . . 


. . . 42.2 


«99 




11 . . 


. . . .5240 


385 




19 . . 


. . . .4112 


1225 




13 . . 


. . . .4350 


1020 




14 . . 


. . . .4623 


535 




15 . . 


. . . .4478 


803 




18 . . 


.... 3742 


1110 




17 . . 


.... 3224 


1287 


Lost 


18 . . 


. . . .2588 


2659 


Lost 


12 . . 


.... 2320 


2881 


Lost 


20 . . 


. . . .3050 


2145 


Lost 


21 . . 


.... 1218 


3081 


Lost 


23;. . 


. . . .4803 


811 




23 . . 


. . . .4460 


016 




24 . . 


. . . .4731 


820 




2ft . . 


. • • .4406 


620 




28 . . 


... .8841 


1372 




27 . . 


. . . ?M8 


1217 




28 . . 


. . . .3608 


1667 


Lost 


22 . . 


. . . .3676 


1107 




80 . . 


... .4421 


429 




31 . . 


. . . .4434 


419 




82 . . 


. . . .4450 


473 




33 . . 


. . . .4292 


42ft 




34 . . 


. . . .3579 


113ft 




36 . . 


. . . .2792 


2010 


Lost 


38 . . 


.... 8912 


1009 





tested, the world is richer by the dis- 
covery. 



realities and actual blessings that come 
to the laborer are derided (for they are 
within the reach of all and too common 
to be valued), while the fashionable 
miseries of the rich still tempt us into 
those new fields, the exploration of which 
opens the way to progress. 

In this view ot human activities — and 



cents to 910 on a u racket, 99 yet cannol 
keep square on the books of their organ 



laatlon, and kick like males if dues are Bat there are political organisations for 
raised five cents more a month. that purpose outside of the trade unionA 



44 Hold to you the hands you once beheld, 
To show they still are free . 99 
As you assemble at the base of the 
great range which hides the land of the 
setting sun, you rest in the heart of the 
continent, ft remains for you to so de- 
liberate and determine that its restored 



, , . ... arteries of commerce anil agriculture to 

formal utterance* by her cituen^ who >n|| boum| with motive power 

deeply approbate the graNe iinportance jxt iUiona of people proi . 

ot the gathering. Thta meeting of dele- d , ineS8 in B land bu^aed 

gates — representing the wage-earners not J y 11 

K . . / . . 1 1 by bounteous nature. 

only of America, but those beyond tne J . ■ .. 

° _ Jt.K .„1 nr f.,r th« ^ «>® ^‘«P * [oom which darkened the 



15, 10, 22, 23, 24, 25, 20,27, 2U, 80, 31, 32, 

83, 34, and 30 have received more than 



This is the process that has been con- the necessary two-thirds vote required 
•tantly going on about us. The rugged by law, and are therefore adopted. 



Ueepectf ally submitted, 

T. E. Pktkrsom, 

Union No. 20, Camden, N. J., 
Chah. A. Taylob, 
Union No. 122, Germantown, Pa., 
CanvaiBen. 

Editorial Note.— T he votes on the 



sea — is fraught with weal or woe for the 
closing years of the century. 

I am here to extend you the greeting 
of those united in uplifting the masses 
tothat constitutional plane of the pur- 
suit and enjoyment of happiness ordained 
by the laws of nature. 

Through the accident of position in 
the local federation of trades and labor 
organizations, I have the honored privi- 
lege of returning the fraternal grasp of 
friendship and extending a band con- 
taining no uncertain welcome. 



nation when silver’s worth was merged 
in gold, you felt the shrinkage in values, 
you saw labor chained, ami you suffered 
in the annihilation of the savings of a 
lifetime. Vainly waiting with you for a 
return of prosperity, the workingmen of 
Colorado never faltered, never wavered 
in their faith in the wisdom of the 
people or in the ability of the bread- 
winners to right the wrongs of a nation. 

As potent as may be the methods of 
gold kings and interest czars of the East, 
the ranges of the San Juan,Sangre de 



It represents the precious metal miners " ° ” YI _ 

41 I I ik« Aj aiAm f 4 ,t a Christo and Uncompahgre do not con* 

—the men who endure the discomforts _ , .. , ; . . _ . 



tain a star-kissed 



whence 



. ... . . . . . 1 » 11 mill n omi *» 1 do v ’ 1 i'ui» »'win 

of life in the mountains; who brave the ,.t,.i..»..«*M.-t.i.i. 

, . A ..... , . . . Satan could tempt the human tide which 

dangers of toil in the lower levels ; who “ ,7 4 . v . . . . _ 

_:.u .. 1( k ^.itt ....i will follow tho»e who lead in emanclpa- 



strike with pick and gad, with drill and *«*•«- »**'— - ' 

b.mmer, h.mlllng ,l„.dl, ..plo. 1 ... lo f '» m »« »"■>“*• I 1 '»"« 1 »» "«• 
supply the world with the basis of barter ^ ui a ori 0 cor l >ora 6 • 

—with .ll.er .od gold for colnw^lb .1 " b ‘“ f«» .PP-'r 1 ,or ,ork 



, Vu j 7 or an equitable division of the fruitage, 

you in turn can exchange the products * , 8 ’ 

ie win ..„.i i.hA. tn- we stood ready, willing, yea, anxious to 



of your skill aud labor in the commer- 
cial world. 

It represents those who stand by the 
forge and gaze into furnace fires. 

It represents the grimy gnomes who 
send out the diamonds which move the 
wheels of industry and light the work- 
shop and palace. 



join in the use of constitutional measures 
to cure the ills which were upon us. We 
cheerfully paid the tributes exacted by a 
protection which was confined to a sea 
coast, and rejoiced in your prosperity. 
When your looms were idle and your Area 
drawn wc hailed with joy the arrival of 
free material that would furnish reman- 



It represents the skill and knowledge wu 

which extract the oil snd gas from the « r » t,ve yet believing that 



strata beneath the territory subdued by 
the cowboy and ranchman. 

It represents the guilds of the artiean 
and mechanic ; of those who dispatch 
the trains and carry the signals. 

It represents a freedom and independ- 
ence inherited from those who founded 
the Republic and placed the seal of con- 
demnation upon peonage. 

It is tbe right hand of brotherhood, 



the true conditions were not understood 
—that relief was in still another direc- 
tion. 

Satisfied that you are not here to rep- 
resent alone the survival of the strong, of 
the skilled in handicraft ; to legislate in 
the interest of a label on a loaf when 
thousands are hnngry ; to prohibit child 
labor when there is no work for man, the 
working classes look for the edicts of 



conveying hearty cheer to noble worker, ^leratlonwhlch will go forth throngh 

In the cause of humanity. X 0 “ f r ? m the ceDt * n 1 nl * 8t ** 

For those who have croese.1 the Atlantic P rot ; la,D / P eace » nd P^ty throughout 

to join in the deliberations for etnancipa* 1 ... 

lion, I repost th. I..U.II».. of .vi„ While e„ g .««d h, ,m,, noble work, th. 
habitation In the mennl.lne: ««'ling -Iver of Colored,, . greeting .III 



While engaged in your noble work, the 



It seems to me to be the true one-we get three “ tfl of P oUt,Cttl solutions sub- 
an Intelligent comprehension of their aB B hown in above report are 

purpose; a reasonable solution of what “«rely expressions of opinion and have 
otherwise seem, a chaotic, purposes., no binding force on the member, nor on 
struggle, and it glvos that larger insight **»• P olic T of f h * United Brotherhood as 
which reveal, to u. the working» of an organisation. Lach candidate for 
God's mills ” aa they bring their grist ’^^ nbl P °“ r 0rd o' ™ “«.t posi- 
of justice and mercy and truth to His ^ “ 8Ure ‘ 1 ba,ore l oinia * that - la 



with us 99 multiply a thousand-fold the welcome so 

. 4 tat t « oft expressed in Celtic tongue : 44 Caed 

While I cannot now point in prhle 

and encouragement to the curling spire* M 

of smoke and flame marking a thousanu 

camps on as many mountain sides along The Mighty Wave of Reform. 

the backbone of the continent, I need 

not tell you why they are deserted. You But no combination of fraud and trick- 
have seen and heard the advance guards ory can stem the mighty wave of reform 
who were driven from the national that is upon us. For ages labor has Mood 



children becoming a member we would not in 

any way conflict with his political 

Hobt. W. Smith, opinions. (Seepage 4 of Ritual.) Fur- 

Brooklyn, N. Y-, Dee. t, 1894 . thermore, the Constitution of the United 

Brotherhood does not permit of partisan 
«>« politics. 

Of course it is very desirable and 
Bomb workingmen will spend from 60 proper tliat trade unionists should vote 
ntstollO on a “racket," yet cannot for labor measures snd labor men and 
•p square on tbe books of their organ* act aa an independent factor in politics. 



common when they were denied the 
right to petition. 



with blanched cheeks and supplicating 
bands, lifting its ragged cap to arrogance 



The beacon lights of hope and freedom and power, craving in abject humility 
still born brightly, fed by a hardy, inde* the right to toll. Labor haa been under* 



pendent race of mountaineers, the cream 
of a ragged manhood gathered from the 
sections yon represent. From their 
ranks have sprung the maeter minds 



paid and overtaxed. It haa borne tbe 
burdens of soulless corporations, and has 
been cast into prison when it raised Its 
voice in protest. But from the horison 



which have made the roeebloesom in the of the future come rays of inspiration 
desert and spanned the snow* fed torrent and hope; a new, strange power ^u» 
for tbe iron horse. By these lights they taken hold of the tollers.— Jam* &dtn- 
bid yon hold yonr course. ntU. 




THE CARPENTER. 



FRAMING A COMPLICATED ROOF. On the sent of th« hipe N D, square up 

the rise N T equal to E J, Fig. 1 , and join 

by owim b. mao in nib. D T for length of hip, with top and plate 

bevels as at D and T. It will be 

The many apparently complex roofs noticed that these rafters are parallel on 

bich are nowadays placed on frame the lay-oat because their seats are par- 

buildings are apt to discourage those allel, therefore they must be correct, the 
mechanics who are ambitious to succeed, valley rafter L Q to stand over L P is 
so in order to simplify and bring them determined in like manner also the hip 
within the grasp of all 1 have in this 8 K to stand over O K. 

.article adopted a plan of roof of some- As I have shown in my previous 
hat unueual form. articles in Thb Cabpentxk several ways 

k! , to obtain the lengths 

" of jack rafters on halt 

pitch roots I will not 
repeat this simple 
method here but go 
on and give lay-out of 

<1 j-. bay window timbers. 

R ^ Referring again to 

- - — y the engraving Fig. 2 

y we find that the plate 

* ! / X line of the bay C H D 

\ f y y is higher or raised up 

nKj y 4 teet above the level 

/ sm of the plate line of 

y ji 7 Jtl the principal or main 

»Ö y' yw ^ \ walle as A G B ; to 

/V Xj\f ; /' \ find lengths of rafters 

/ I / we 8° back again to 

f ’ » / X^**''* Fig. 1. Here on the 

• j" j seat of the hip E U 

/ \ \ X we proceed to square 

\ 'w/ < ^ up t * ,e r “ e U V and 

/ \q t y join E V which will be 

,X\ Y \/ the length of the hip 

I / 'v N ¥■**• U V being equal to 

/ the rise 0 J, Fig 2. 

I / y There will be four hips 

I y' this length to stand 

/ X \ over E Ü, F ü, G U, 

( / v and H 0, on the seat 

fk^y ' ' * of the W X. S«|uare 

^ aU Q »P the rise X Y and 

-jT - join W Y for length of 

Ä ij valley. There will be 

two needed, one for 
each side. Jacks can 
be found as before de- 

eJl I X scribed. Regarding 

mi. 1 . — clan and layout or Boor. the jack rafters reach- 

At Fig. 1 the plan is ABODE FGH ing from the valleys over W X to the 
I J L and K, being the plan of a small hips D N and O P, I might state that 
frame house costing about |2000. Fig. the bottom and top cuts will be alike 
2. is an end view or gable elevation up to the points N 40 where the hips 
showing the pitch is of the common join the ridge N O. Against it they will 
rafters which we will assume to be full be a square cut on top edge with the 
pitch, or 12 inches rise and 12 inches run down cut as at J Fig. 1. 



BY OWIM B. MAG IN NIB. 



! 






Id 

- - 



fK 







FOR TAX, 

During th© month ending December tl, 1894. 

Whenever nay errors appear »*Ufy the O. 8 . wltboat delay. 



PBOTECTIYE FUND. 



Bole* It a report of all the Protective Fund 
received by the O, B. during the month of 
December, 1894. 

All moneys reoelved alnoe December 81, will 
be published in next month’s Oartkitu. 
Whenever any error appears notify the O. B. 



/f. 



on the ateel square. A B is the top When calculating the timbers or lay- 
line of the plate across ths bay, ing out roofs of this dsscriptiou, too 
or across the widest part of the much care cannot be bestowed in watch- 
house. A K ia the span across the ing the exact number of rafters required, 
main walla and E J the rise or pitch; the right and left band cuts of the bevels 
therefore A J will be the length of the on the jacks, etc., and the exactitude of 
common rafters on the plan Fig. 1, that frame to the neat lengths required so as 
will be set on the plate A K from N to to prevent mistakes or recutting. 





X 


1 

1 

J 


'I s 

i\ 

_ -i \ 


C \ 


-It " 


A 




E ~ 


T 




0 



via. 2 . — phoj «enow or soor. 
0 on the ridge. A G, Fig. 2, is the span do 
serosa tbs narrowest part of the house wt 
or from A to B, Fig. 1, sod E M la the fire 
rise or pitch, consequently A M will be to 
the length of the short common rafters we 
and ths bevels will be as represented at to; 
J M and A. coi 

Mow to find tha lengths of the hips Fl| 
and valleys and bay window rafters, wl 
refer to Fig. 1, and commencing at the coi 
near valley 0 M square up the line M un 
R, make it equal to E M on Fig. 1 and pis 
join OB. OR will be the length of the rel 
valley with top and bottom bevtle as all 
shown. ini 



\\ Hare with I illoa- m— 

V\ träte by two sketches 

\ N. tha methods to be 

v \ y followed in framing mi — 

' \ « wooden walla for win- {JJZTI 

\ dow openings- Fig. I j** — 

\ la the plan and on It 

— - — - will be seen the dif- = 

** ® ferent details of Con- 
or. struction of ths win- 

dow frame Including tbs weight pocket 
which should ordinarily be 2J inches . 
from the back of the pulley atile 

to tha face of tha stud to permit the [74 
weights to paae freely upend down. The R§ 
top header is usually donbled and the p|j 
construction is ths same as shown on || 

Fig. 1. Fig. 2 is the bottom header u* 

with the eill stool and apron and ths 

construction is clearly shown and easily 
understood by a cloae study of the ^ 

pieces and Fig. t la the top header Lb* 

referred to above. About 1 inch is ^ 
allowed to permit the frame to slide L*0* 
into its place. > la . 



1—1134 451147 86 00 

1 87 40 140 4 80 

8 8 70^1181 19 20 

4 — 44 44 158 6 10 

• 18 40 154 7 80 

4 I 44 186 10 04 

7 8 70 187 2 86 

• 14 85 158 8 1ft 

9 T 80 159 1 05 

18 11 88 180 9 30 

14 8 56 188 — II 56 

18 11 25 ; 154 8 20 

18 80 88 168 14 56 

17 8 90 158— — 5 70 

18 8 16 187 14 It 

19— 2 15 18»-- 0 00 

80 9 16 189 18 2t 

81 17 «1T0 1 86 

B 25 80 171 8 70 

28 40 00 178 5 80 

25 22 20 178 18 30 

28 It 90; 177 6 56 

27 8 00 181 78 20 

28 90 80 184 — 1 85 

29 81 00 188 5 25 

20 8 40,188 4 20 

gl 1 65 190 4 66 

86 4 05 191 4 85 

87 2 25 193 — 4 98 

Ü 8 76194 2 28 

89 23 68,194 ft 10 

«0 4 65 190 7 50 

48 8 101199 9 1ft 

42 19 06 200— — 18 00 

84 8 40 201 2 28 

48 1 08 208 14 85 

46 8 00 206 9 00 

48 2 25 207 13 C6 

50 8 90 204- — 5 70 

81 24 55 209 18 50 

52 7 55 211 17 25 

54 18 30 212— 10 66 

55 8 28 214 l 98 

88 8 10 218 9 80 

57 8 40 214 2 68 

89 8 00 218 8 15 

80 8 00 221 7 45 

01 16 80 224 • 25 

62 29 10 226 6 70 

84 20 40 228 2 56 

47 7 40 228 8 65 

48 0 00 228 8 60 

7» 5 70 220 0 70 

72 18 90 281 1 98 

78 17 26 282 1 fto 

74 4 06 228 1 88 

78 8 16 284 8 65 

72 9 54 286 4 96 

m 4 85 286 2 40 

B 6 00 287 4 00 

48 15 16 284 7 96 

44 2 60 289 8 70 

87 4 |0 240 It 80 

m 16 16 242 7 50 

B-- 4 80 248-- 0 70 

90 U 26 »44 6 25 

ft- - ft 70 848 4 40 

98 1 »0 247 — 28 1(1 

94- - If J0 248 4 80 

96 11 88 249— 4 80 

97 2 25 260 4 88 

94 9 40 281 6 25 

100— I 00 262 4 08 

101 10 20 297 29 58 

108 1 00 268 19 40 

104 6 76 260— 6 90 

107 • 44 281— * - 1 14 

104 21 10 204 1 80 

100 42 60 288 8 10 

111 12 46 267 2 10 

112 21 20 260 62 60 

1U t 00 270—24 78 

U4 7 94 271— - • 88 

114 0 |0 274 16 20 

112 8 46 276 1 98 

119 16 20 277 6 68 

121 9 90 Ml 10 SO 

121 11 66 224 10 40 

124 « 76 214 12 90 

126 67 40 267 7 00 

124— 2 44 166 7 80 

Ifl 1 7ft 324 4 20 

121 7 90 291 4 71 

184 4 20 200 2 If 

188 4 40 201 18 40 

124 4 24 202— 1 00 

127 § 34 804 4 40 

142 — 0 70 808 6 40 

141 29 10 214 4 00 

142 15 00 222 1 26 

141 • 1» 828 I 44 

18« 0 46 824 2 85 

146 8 20 215 8 10 

141 t 00 B6— - 4 50 

Total, 



870 10 

371 1 

874 18 

214 7 

377 1 

878 9 

881 16 



827 — 814 25 

820 6 0U 

329 6 80 

242 2« 80 

833 8 80 

884 6 10 

838 3 76 

339 4 80 

840 64 M 

842 10 80 

844 8 80 

848 6 10 

881 2 10 

863 2 56 

858 2 55 

859 9 60 

860 4 80 

861 0 45 

388 1 50 

869 6 55 

870 10 08 

371 1 95 

874 18 66 

276 7 80 

377 1 88 

878 9 68 

841 16 85 

882 88 26 

885 6 90 

888 8 46 

891 6 00 

898 4 88 

894 2 10 

890 1 85 

894 0 10 

899 3 00 

400 6 85 

401 3 00 

802 1 80 

408 1 05 

444 0 80 

409 2 40 

410 8 90 

418 28 45 

419 0 10 

420 8 40 

421 8 70 

428 4 08 

424 8 86 

427 14 28 

428 4 06 

480 6 00 

481 2 78 

482 8 00 

483 10 80 

484 8 16 

488 4 15 

487 1 80 

440 9 80 

442 8 70 

444— 1 96 

44« 7 96 

44 8 8 00 

460 2 40 

461 16 00 

468 16 28 

484 8 60 

457- - 10 98 
469 — 8 10 

440 6 00 

441 I 70 



400 

401 



409 2 

410 8 

418 28 

419— 8 



488 10 



487 

440 

442 



461 11 

468 II 



459-- 2 10 

440 6 00 

441 t 70 

482 4 20 

484 • 70 

48ft 6 40 

46H 88 90 

449 5 10 

470 8 30 

471 58 40 

478 18 45 

474 4 «0 

474 18 04 

479 » 90 

481 12 76 



616 — 116 76 

619 2 1U 

62a 9 90 

622 8 80 

Ö2Ö 27 16 

584 8 80 

680 1 80 

861 2 28 

888 1 80 

•64 12 86 

568 6 76 

667 3 00 

588 84 95 

888 6 84 

647 11 40 

888 2 40 

674 1 80 

678 8 76 

880—10 20 

541 8 80 

046 1 98 

888 11 10 

891 3 46 

692 8 40 

698 2 26 

598 2 10 

596 2 40 

808 1 06 

808 0 55 

806 4 98 

808 8 16 

417 3 40 

619 8 30 

822 6 25 

628 6 25 

829 2 50 

681 1 36 

886 7 60 

587 6 90 

080 10 06 

529 9 16 

840 6 76 

841 1 6C 

04ft 4 88 

847 lft 1ft 

649 8 lft 

6ftl 2 40 

6ft8 0 80 

880 7 80 

881 4 05 

888 1 80 

888 8 80 

617 10 80 

076 7 04 

674 17 64 

07« 28 00 

601 12 4ft 

800 12 70 

<08 4 95 

687 I 26 



! 



1 — 046 66 

2 12 50 

8 1 90 

4 16 16 

5 6 21 

0-— 65 

7 I 25 

0- 4 9ft 

9 2 80 

12 8 95 

14 3 85 

10 0 75 

10 6 94 

17 1 20 

10 1 05 

19 70 

20 0 06 

21 6 71 

22 8 60 

26 7 40 

2 « 4 »0 

27 2 00 

20 30 20 

2« 17 00 

30 t 20 

21 56 

36 1 85 

87 75 

80 1 25 

89 7 85 

40 1 55 

42 f 70 

43 16 35 

44 2 83 

46 35 

48 1 OO 

50 1 80 

61 8 8« 

52 2 56 

54 6 10 

56— 2 76 

88 2 70 

59 I 08 

80 2 00 

81 6 60 

62 0 70 

44 6 80 

07 2 80 



149 «1 

151 6 

153 1 

154 2 

144 8 

t57 

150 1 

189 

160 8 

188 8 

184 

185— 4 

108 1 

107 4 

180 8 

189 6 

170 

171 8 

173 1 

176— 5 

177 1 

181 25 



188 -1 

188 1 

190 1 

191 1 

198 1 

194 

198 1 

190 2 

199 8 

260 6 

201 

208 4 

208 8 

2 07 4 

209 6 

211 6 

212 8 

1214 

218 0 

210 

410 2 

221 2 

224 2 

m — 1 



2 10 — 2 

280 1 

281 

232 



700 I 

704 I 

707 I 

712 1 

T14 I 

710 1 

710 2 

717 I 

710 

720 1 



720 1 

721 

704 I 

706 



497 24 80 

409 8 4» 

801 0 28 

002 2 70 

107 • 40 

809 80 00 

• 10 2 10 

611 2 10 

110 24 90 

618 16 00 



74« 

707 

744 

747 

774 

748 



64 90 

07 1 50 

00 5 05 

00 1 80 

•0 8 70 

92 1 90 

93 60 

04 8 40 

90 0 88 

97 75 

•9 00 

100 — 1 00 

101 3 80 

103 60 

104 1 08 

lit 7 20 

100 14 20 

HI 4 16 

Uf 7 10 

Ilf 1 00 

114 feft 

lift B 05 

lig 2 16 

119 ft 10 

Ifl d 39 

122 3 06 

124 1 26 

110 — 12 10 



287 2 

238 2 

239 2 

240 8 

242 2 

843 l 

244 1 

244 1 

247 7 

240 1 

24» 1 

250 1 

261 l 

J68 1 

257 9 

268- - ft 

260 2 

281 



207 

280 17 

370 0 

278 2 

274 6 



*77 1 

281 8 

204 8 

207 2 

:g=j 



107 1 70 

144 1 20 

141 0 14 

142 ft 04 

144 1 00 

144 2 lft 

148— 40 

148— 1 40 

147 2 00 



204 1 

408 2 

314 1 



80 826 |1 80 

40 827 4 75 

70 828 2 00 

80 329 2 20 

85 382 8 10 

85 838 1 80 

06 884 1 70 

54 386 1 25 

10 838 2 40 

86 339 1 50 

75 340 21 60 

85 342 8 80 

90 344 1 21) 

7C 848 1 70 

CO 351 70 

40 352 85 

46 358 86 

90 359 3 20 

80 380 1 60 

10 861 2 15 

8» 368 50 

40 889— - 1 66 
46 371 «5 

76 374 4 55 

40 378 2 «0 

58 877 46 

56 378- - 3 20 

65 381 6 46 

76 382 — 27 7» 

70 385 2 30 

50 308 l 16 

06 301 2 00 

20 898 1 96 

78 894 70 

9j 396 46 

00 198 1 70 

88 399— 1 00 

9 j 400 1 96 

60 401 1 00 

26 402 80 

56 408 8ft 

61 404- - 2 10 

10 404 80 

g| 410 1 80 

Oft 416 7 86 

56 419 1 70 

76 420 - 1 20 
90 421 1 25 

86 422 60 

85 428 1 85 

20 425 2 98 

90 427 4 25 

06 428 1 86 

50 430 2 00 

45 481 90 

85 482 1 00 

55 483 8 80 

80 184 1 04 

00 487 80 

86 440 3 20 

90 442 90 

40 44ft 85 

50 448 2 85 

90 449 1 00 

75 440— 8 50 

80 480 88 

70 461 6 00 

80 468— — 4 00 
40 458 1 20 

45 467-- 0 05 

76 459 70 

06 440— * 00 

85 481- - 90 

60 482 1 40 

00 484 8 90 

40 466 1 80 

46 488 11 80 

70 449 1 70 

70 470 1 10 

60 471 17 00 

26 478 4 66 

98 174 * 90 

10 470— 4 86 

88 «79 1 80 

08 101 4 26 

40 «41 2 96 

50 148 5 29 

80 448 1 94 

85 448 2 88 

68 107 1 20 

10 140 1 80 

25 448 8 65 

70 498 0ft 

00 107 0 20 

40 490 1 lft 

05 001 1 10 

20 004 00 

60 807 l 15 

46 800 10 10 

00 010 70 

05 011 70 

50 018 11 1 1 8 80 



518 15 35 

618 6 26 

619 70 

821 8 80 

622 1 10 

52Ö 9 06 

534 1 10 

580 — 60 

661 76 

853 40 

Mt 4 46 

855 2 25 

557 1 *0 

883 11 66 

884 1 88 

687 8 80 

586 00 

674 60 

575-- 1 2 > 

800 8 40 

531 1 10 

835— 65 

685 8 70 

891 1 15 

592 40 

898 T6 

598* — 70 

598 0ft 

802 38 

6 06 2 86 

808 1 06 

617 80 

619 1 10 

622 1 75 

628 8 64 

529 75 

881 — a 

538 2 80 

637 2 80 

888 8 88 

a.0 8 04 

640 2 *5 

641 60 

84ft-- 1 86 

847 6 05 

r,49 1 08 

561 80 

668 2 90 

689 2 80 

881 1 88 

1 63 €8 

686 1 20 

887 3 80 

876 3 85 

878 0 76 

881 4 10 

888— — 4 26 

645 1 66 

487— — 1 74 

800 1 40 

690 1 80 

892 2 70 

886 1 64 

844 8 40 

m 0 06 

701 06 

708 »0 

708— — 1 94 

704 8 16 

; 07 — 1 70 

711 1 90 

714 8 74 

714 6 40 

T14 7 21 

717 1 90 

710 80 

723 80 

724 2 44 

728 44 



781 40 

784 1 10 

711 — - 41 



771 2 00 

l?S — ite 

m — 1 ts 

7*t — m 



13. *M M| 



Total 91 .Ml <0 






f FM'J 



H B II 1 X 



1 r/tr 



1 



4 fl 5 

ii 

* ^ i 






? ; I« 

i * \l 



1.— ^ WINDOW rBAMB. MO. 2 . — BBCTIOB OS SILL, BTC. HQ, 3. — Tot UBADBBS. 




THE CARPENTER. 



THE CARPENTER 



PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY, 1895 




Directory of Carpenters’ Business 
Agents or Walking Delegates 

Bo wto N, Mam - W. J. Shields, 724 Wnnhlngton 
Street, (Room 8.) 

Biooklyh, N. Y.-R. Beatty, P. O. Box 18, 
Station W, or 853 Fulton 8treet.-J. J. 
Manning, 408 Bergen Street 

Burr a IX), N. Y.-Wm. Robertson. 888 Michigan 
Street. 

Chicago, III— A. Oattermull, 40 La Salle Street. 

Olbvbland. O.— Vincent Hlavltn, residence, 124 
Carran Street ; office, room 11, 118 Superior 
Street 

Oollbgb Point, N. Y.- John Helrorlch, College 
Point, Long Island. N. Y. 

Haetfobd, Oonh.-F. O. Wal* 82 Ashley Street 

Hopkinsvillb, Ky,- J ames Western. 

Indianapol», Ind.- J. W. Pruitt 

Milwaukbb, Wu - J. Bettendorf. 

Nbw YosK.-BenJ 11 Hart, 031 Columbus Ave., 
and Frank Schults, 412 E. Ninth Street 

Nobwood, Mam,- James Hadden, P. O. Box 421 

Shabon, Pa.— B. F. Budd. 

Bp. Louis, Mo.— V. H. Lamb, 4218 Larpy Avanue. 

0FBINGNIBLD. O.— F M. Poole 



Labor-Saving Machinery. 

Machinery, considered alone, shortens 
the hours of labor, but when in the ser- 
vice of capital lengthens them ; in itself, 
it lightens the labor, but, employed by 
capital, lengthens the intensity of labor ; 
in itself it is a victor of man over the 
forces of nature, but in the hands of 
those forces ; in itself it increases the 
wealth of producers, but in the hands of 
capital makes them paupers — Karl Marx. 



Are You to Blames Reader ? 

When we know that 150,000 people go 
to bed on charity in the one city of New 
York every night; that 8,000 human 
beings are buried in Potters field in that 
same city ; that 40,000 women work for 
wages so small that they must sell them- 
selves, beg, steal or slave, don’t you think 
it about time to change a system that 
produces such conditions in the richest 
country on the face of the globe? — 
People' $ Cause . 

It is Not the Natural Order. 

John Boyle O’Reilly once wrote: 14 The 
masses are poor, ignorant and disorgan- 
ised, not knowing the rights of mankind 
on the earth, and never knowing that 
the world belongs to its living popnla* 
tions, because a small clase in every 
country has taken possession of property 
and government, and makes laws lor its 
own safety and thesecurity of its plunder, 
educating the masses generation after 
generation, ioto the belief that this con* 
ditlon is the natural order and the law of 
Ood.” , * 

Government Railroads In Australia. 

In Australis, where the railroads are 
State owned, you can ride a distance of 
1,000 miles across the country for $6.50, 
first-class too ; while workingmen tan 
ride six miles for two cents, twelve miles 
for four cents, thirty miles for ten cents, 
etc. Railroad men receive thirty per 
cent, more wages for eight hours of labor 
than they are paid in this country for 
ten hours’ work, and yet the profits of 
the railroads of Australia have enabled 
the Government to abolish the internal 
revenue tax.— Cleveland (Man. 



Some Peculiar Types of Union Men. 

Every cause is burdened with a class 
of adherents who shout themselves hoarse 
when carried on the wave of success, but 
who return with the subsiding waters. 
Trade unions are particularly afflicted in 
this respect with such members. The 
union is regarded as some being or god 
composed of material iu which they have 
no making, and with which they have 
nothing in common but to accept ail 
benefits and to abuse when in trouble. 
There are union men by choice and 
others by circumstances ; anion men who 
enter the ranks as soldiers prepared to 
fight and if beaten to retreat in order to 
fight again if possible, others who boast 
of their unionism when everything is 
prosperous and membership means a con- 
tinual dress parade, but should an out* 
break occur and these members be forced 
to share the privations of active service, 
they set to work abusing the officers and 
causing despair in the ranks instead of 
clinging more desperately together. It 
seems almost incomprehensible that 
workmen with common interests should 
act so contrary to common sense. If only 
a part of their practical knowledge used 
in creating the wealth ot their employers 
was used for a proper management of 
their common interests we would have 
reached that stage when the present 
labor movement would be antiquated. 
Again, there is another element in trade 
unions who are always ready to tollow 
the wake of the flatterer, the demagogue, 
the gay deceiver, who with honeyed 
words and grand promises would lead 
them down the slippery path over the 
precipice of disorder, while the thorny 
crown oi martyrdom is placed on the 
heads of the true counsellors who have 
the courage to present disagreeable facts. 
— Paving Cullers' Journal. 



A Vast Revolution. 

We are in a vaet industrial evolution. 
I must intensify that and say revolution, 
and we are in it as we never were before 
because the conditions are higher. The 
conditions for such estate of things never 
before existed. Under despotic govern- 
ment the king used to say to a thousand 
men, 44 Go out and hew timbers, quarry 
stone, wall in my city, build a tomb or 
build a temple.” They had to go. Now 
we have come to the age of personal lib- 
erty and co ordinate power, and it is so 
great that none of us who have studied it 
can profess to understand it thoroughly. 
We are in the midst of a vast movement, 
and none of us would arrest it if we 
could. What we want to do is to study 
it, to utilize it, and the only solution at 
last Is “ in love serving one another,” to 
recognise the service of man to man, and 
for each one to gladly take his place in 
the vast correlations and co ordinations 
of such a world and lovingly and gladly 
fill bis place.—//. \V. Thomas. 



Read and Ponder. 

The debt of the United States at the 
close of the war was in round numbers 
about $2,000,000,000. The people have 
paid something near this amount since 
in interest and of principal, and yet it 
would take more corn, wheat, oats, cot- 
ton and tobacco to piy the debt due by 
the Government of the United States 
now than it would have required thirty 
years ago to have paid the entire debt. 
This is caused mainly by the reduction 
of prices of these commodities due to 
the contraction of the currency duriog 
this twenty-five or thirty years — Codon 
Plant . 



Striking At The Polls. 



A Correction Duo Our Kansas City 

Union. 



Well, ye theoretical gentlemen who 
have been appealing to the workingmen 
to abandon the industrial strike and 
strike at the polls, what do you think oi 
it? Does the result of the elections suit 
you ? No. Few of you are knaves, the 
balance are fools. There is only one 
kind of organization that will keep the j 
workingmen together, and that is true 
unionism. The fact that the working- 
men are trade unionists does not prevent 
them from striking at the polis, but 
some of our 44 advanced ” friends seem 
to think differently. The well meaning 
theoretical reformer is more of a menace 
to reform than the dishonest rascal. 
The honest theorist is trusted becauee he 
is honest, but as a rule he does not 
understand the workingmen. With few 
exceptions he has unconcealed contempt 
for trade unions— he soars higher. We 
have often observed that the radical 
theorist is not long inside of a trade 
union before he becomes exceedingly 
practical and ofetimes obnoxiously con- 
servative. And when the skin on his 
hands thickens to calbusnees, the 44 pure 
and simple” trade unionist is an anar- 
chist compared to him .— Coast Seaman's 
Journal . 



An Unbridled Plutocracy. 

General Lloyd Brice writes in a recent 
number of the North American Review : 
44 We are living in the shadow of an 
unbridled plutocracy, caused, created and 
cemented in no slight degree by legisla- 
tive, aldermanic and Congressional ac- 
tion; a plutocracy that is 4a t more 
wealthy than any aristocracy that has 
ever crossed the horizon of the world’s 
history, and one that has been produced 
in a shorter consecutive period ; the 
names of whose members are emblazoned 
not on the pages of their nation’s glory, 
but of its peculations , who represent no 
struggle for their country’s liberties, bnt 
tor ita boodle; no contests for Magna 
Charta, but railroad charters, and whose 
octopus grip is extending over every 
branch of industry ; a plutocracy which 
controls the price of the bread we eat, 
the price of the sugar that aweetena our 
cup, the price of the oil that lights our 
way, the price of the very coffins in 
which we are finally buried.” 



Labor Discontented. 

The rich man says that labor is discon- 
tented. What kind of a thinker are you 
that you expect the people to be con- 
tented under each distress as there now 
is, and then try to deceive them concern- 
ing ita true cause. There ia no content- 
ment anywhere and there should not be. 
Klnga want their subjects to be contented; 
masters, their chattel slaves ; employers, 
their men on charity soup. The officers 
want the people to be contented to pay 
taxes to keep them in lnxury, the trusts 
want the people to be contented while 
they fleece them. Contentment means, 
under such circumstances, ignorance and 
slavery. Ail over the world the masees 
see a vision of a glorious future where 
justice will reign, where men who pro- 
dace the wealth of the world will con- 
sume that wealth.— Ix>uismlle New Era . 



His Notion of an Ideal Union. 

Weary Watkins: <4 They's only one 
thing keeps me from becomin’ a working- 
man and joinin’ a union.” 

Dusty Rhodes : 44 What’s that ? ” 
Weary Watkins: 44 1 can’t find no 
union what’s on a strike all the time.” 



In our November issue an item ap- 
peared from a travelling member of ours 
who had stopped over in Kansas City 
and wrote us from there protesting 
against the introduction of politics in 
trade unions, and urging that 44 the 
sooner our Order abandons impracticable 
and absurd ideas the better it will be for 
us.’ 4 In publishing this we did not say 
the item came from Union No. 160, of 
Kansas City, and per request of President 
Michler of that Union, we now wish to 
relieve Union 160 of any responsibility 
for the opinion. 

But one thing we can not understand 
is how Union 160, or any of our unions, 
could vote for the Single Tax proposition 
and at the same time vote for the State 
Socialistic platform. The Single Tax, it 
anything, is essentially the acme of 
individualism, while the Socialistic plat- 
form is the most consummate collectiv- 
ism. One is the opposite ot the other, 
and the two schools of thought are in 
radical antagonism to one another. We 
can understand how a State Socialist 
can favor a nationalization of the land ; 
still, that is not Single Tax. But how a 
Single Taxer — one who yearns for the 
restriction of governmental powers and 
for the minimum amount of State inter- 
ference, can line ud for State Socialism, 
is one of those anomalies that had better 
he left for 44 zukunft ” philosophers to 
explain. 

Capital and Labor. 

44 Yes, sir,” said a pompous New York 
manufacturer, 44 I consider myself a bene- 
factor of the human race. I feed two 
hundred people in my factory.” 

44 You do? 4 ’ replied a bystander, 
“(y^odnese ! And all the time I was 
under the impression that they fed you.” 
— 'hr 09 Siftings. 



RULES REGARDING APPRENTICES. 

At the Detroit Convention at the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenter» end Joiner* of Amor* 
Ice, held Aug. 0-11, 1888, the following mlee lm 
relation to apprentice» were approved, and the 
Local Union» are urged to eeonre their enforce- 
ment: 

interval, The rapid Influx of unskilled and in- 
competent men In the carpenter trade Lae had, 
of late year», a very clepreMiug and Injurious 
effect upon the mcchanhe In the business, and 
hae a tendenc y to degrade the standard of akill 
and to give no encouragement to young men to 
become apprentices and lo master the trade 
thoroughly; therefore, In the beat Interest» of the 
craft, we declare ouraelvee in flavor of the follow- 
ing rules; 

BnonoN 1. The Indenturing of apprentices ia 
the beet means calculated to give that efficiency 
which It Ü desirable a carpenter should pc i — a w, 
and aleo to give the neceeaary guarantee to the 
employer» that aome return will be made to them 
for a proper effort to turn out competent work- 
men, therefore, we direct that all Local Unions 
under our jurisdiction ahall use every poMlhle 
mean», wherever practical, to Introduce the sys- 
tem ol Indenturing apprentices. 



S*c. 2. Any boy or person hereafter engaging 
hlniaelfU) learn the trade of oerpeu try. «hall be 
required to nerves regular apprenUceahi oof four 
consecutive year», and shall not be considered a 
Journeyman unl*M he ha» complied with thl» 
rule, and la twenty-one years of age at the Com- 
pletion of hl» apprenticeship. 

Hbc. t. AL hoys entering the carpenter trade 
with the lutcntlon of learning the buidneM »hail 
be held by agreement, Indenture or written con- 
tract for a term of four years. 

B*o. 4. When a hoy »hall have contracted with 
an employer to serve a certain term of years, he 
•hall on no pretence whatever. leave Mid em- 



ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free consent of »aid first employer, un- 
len» there Is Just cause or that such change I» 
made In oon sequence of the death or relinquish- 
ment of business by the first employer ; any ap- 
prentice so leaving shall not be permitted to 
work under the Jurisdiction of any Local Union 
in our Brotherhood, but ahall N» required to re- 
turn to his employer and serve out his appren- 
ticeship. 

Bau. 8. It Is tn'olned upon eeoh Local Union to 
make regulatic is limiting the number of ap- 
prentices to be employed In each shop or mill te 
one for such number of Journeymen as «**7 
seem to them Just; and all Unions are recom- 
mended to admit to membership appr^nMo** ft* 
the last year of their apprenticeship, lo the HIM 
that, upon the expiration of their terms ofsjf 

C ntloeahlp, they may become acquainted wit* 
workings of the Unions, and be better fitted 
lo appreciate Its privileges and obl igation « upsm 




THE CARPENTER. 



■«RETS RECEIVED. 



Claims Approved In December, 1894. 



The Awakening. 



FOR PINS AND 8UPPUK8 daring the month 
«tiding December 31, U94. 



Whenever toy error« appear notify the Q. 8. 
without delay. 



• • 



No. of 
Union. 


Amount. 

No. of 
Union. 


«3 

! 


'si 

o a 
fcP 


*J 

i 

1 


No. of 
Union. 


Amount 


2- 


•3 60 1 112— $16 lol 317— 


$4 25 1 554- 


fl 75 


3 — 


»0 114- 


9 00 


826- 


I 00 


56*- 


2 75 


8 — 


1 26 lc5 — 


26 


342- 


1 00, 


564— 


50 


12- 


4 26 141— 


50 


360- 


1 00 


581 — 


25 


15- 


50 144- 


60 


361- 


75 


692— 


50 


20- 


50 149- 


1 75 


370- 


6 00 


605- 


1 35 


23- 


5 75 151— 


1 (JO 


375— 


62 50 


622 — 


50 


26- 


1 01 167— 


10 


381— 


2 50 


637— 


1 00 


29 — 


1 00 168— 


1 00 


382- 


6 00 


638 — 


3 75 


40- 


25 176- 


2 75 


391- 


1 OO 


640— 


26 


43- 


6 45 190- 


50 


US- 


1 00 


658- 


1 00 


44- 


M 11W— 


50 


428- 


2 25 


659- 


1 75 


69- 


25 200- 


26 


433- 


7 75 679— 


50 


61- 


2 76| 208 — 


1 03 


446- 


1 75 


6*5 — 


60 


62- 


10 001 2J6— 


1 0« 


457- 


1 26 


698 — 


3 60 


67- 


60 228- 


2 00 


471- 


3 00 


699— 


3 25 


69- 


1 00 23ft — 


50 473- 


5 85 


703- 


1 76 


72- 


2 25 242- 


1 50 


478- 


1 00 


714- 


75 


82- 


1 00 269- 


3 7» 


482- 


60 716- 


1 »0 


•7- 


6 50 279- 


1 00 


484— 


50 


716- 


1 00 


86- 


1 00 27*— 


3 25 


493- 


6 50 


723- 


60 


90- 


8 26 274— 


5« 


607- 


50 


730- 


1 75 


• 4 - 


1 10 2-6- 


10 50 


515- 


1 7» 


731- 


25 


103- 


1 75 ?94— 


1 75 


618- 


1 25 


786 — 


40 


108- 


2 75 295— 


2 60 


625- 


7 20 


746- 


40 


111- 


1 10 314 - 


4 00 


551 — 


.30 


758— 


35 


N. H. Kim© . . 


. . • . 


e e s 


• • • 


, . . . 


l 75 




Total . . 


• • • 


. * * • 


* * * 


. . . 6248 18 



No. Nam*. Uwioif. 

8056 F. M. Pierce U 

3<V»7 Mr« 8. Provost 21 

8068 F. H'*heibel 28 

3050 M. Kltpac M 

bOGO J. Krtufl M 

3061 V. Kutilck M 

8002 E. M. Beanon 00 

3003 R. Murphy 63 

8064 8 O Victor 1« 

3066 Mr« L. A Gras'e Ill 

3066 Ü. Lamp» on . ...... 163 

3067 Mr«. L Coffman 100 

30* 8 L. Treadway 208 

3069 Chaa. Ma»»ntann .... 226 

3070 Mr«. M Bernard 228 

3071 J. Waiaermann 238 

8072 Mr». T. Toft 270 

3073 Mr«. A. Hazlett 276 

8074 M. Stafford 286 



Amt. 
•200 00 
60 00 
200 00 
200 00 
50 00 
260 00 
2C0 00 
200 00 



And the poor of the land «ball rejoice 
When the Nation again «hall be born, 

When the rich who have robbed them of bread. 
Of their honors and profits are «horn. 

And the tare« «hall be gathered and burned, 

And the wheat In our garners be stored ; 

A nd the ballot the Nation «ball turn, 

For w« need not the spear or the sword. 




200 00 xbe tollers, like giants, are waking, 



But to And that their shackles are straw ; 



400 00 And the laws are had for the making; 



And they soon will be making the laws. 



And true as the heavens above us, 

As the earth and its bounteous store. 

The toiler« »ball equally share it, 

And avarice rule Is no more. 

- B. G. Odell, in (Joining Nation. 



30 77 F. Williamson 881 

8078 Mrs. H. M. Gray 381 

3079 H. Parker 882 

3080 J. W. Burzee 421 

8081 N. A. Nyquist 427 

3082 J. Rougeron 434 

3081 J. Vanpelt 461 

3084 Mrs. E. A. Ilu»k . . . . 4 >3 



All Vor j True. 



We do not wonder that honest, con- 



Philip Bi*hle*, from Union 419, Chicago, 
111., for embeszlement. 

W. W bezel, from Union 780, Chicago, 111., for 
misappropriation of funds. 

Ed Haas, from Union 214, Louisville, Ky., 
for embezzlement of Union funds. 

Hobt. W*ih, Ex -Treasurer and W. H. Good- 
sow, Ex Financial Secretary, from Union 28, 
Chicago 111., for misappropriation of Union 
moneys. 

B. F. Pewistoh, from Union 62, Chicago, 111.» 
for not turning over money entrusted to him by 
a candidate. 

J. B Mitchell, from Union 741, Chicago, 111., 
for misrepresentation as to his former connection 
with the Brotherhood. 

Mahk Tatloi, from the Unions of New Or- 
leans and U. B. generally for wilfül slander of 
and had conduct toward members. 

P. A. I slow from Union 126, Martin, Tenn., for 



300 00 scientioufl labor Agitator* become die- defrauding fellow members and trying to break 



8085 Jas. A Hid more 



200 oo heart sick when they find 

200 oo on the other band an ignorant, unthink- 
60 oo ing, unmovable mas*, giving ear to the 
loo oo minion* of plutocracy and crucifying bo 



Mrs. G. DeForcst 768 



called leadere with the selfishness of for general bad conduct 



up the union. 

Habby Edmonds, from Union 270, 8t. Louis, 
Mo., for being a defaulter as ex-Treasurer of 
Union 270. 

W. W Cox, from Union 469, Hot 8prings, Ark. 



beasts ; and on the other band a coterie 



imim 



»4.700 00 



of narrow bigots, rankling with preju- road men ., „ trlke 



Chas. Gass, from Union 2, Cincinnati, O.« for 
acting as a U. 8. Deputy Marshal during the rall- 



dices and petty jealousies, going out Of Phase Dbasal, from Union M, Chicago, 111., 



their way to throw mad at these same for acting a* deputy marshal during railroad 
agitators because they are unable to 



RECEIPTB-DK« EMBER. 1894. 

From the Unions (Tax. etc.) ..... .$3 833 16 
•* ** (Hupp’les) 288 IS 



A Self-fasteulng and Folding Saw- 
Clamp. 



mould human nature to the liking of 
their most holy critics . — Cleveland Citizen. 



ROBERTS’ 

Hand} Wood Catting Tool 



Patented Jnly 10, 1192. 



Mr. A. T. Binkerd, of No. 159 Robin 



Advertisers 



M Rent and Ga» 18 46 

•* Clearances, etc 8 40 

Balance on hand December 1, 1894 ... 2 398 99 



80 00 son street, Allegheny City, Pa , a mem- 



Total . 16,582 17 



BXPRNBE8— DECEMBER, 1894 



berof L. U. 211 has invented and will 
put on the market a new and novel self 
fastening and folding saw-clamp. 

It is lighter, longer, and holds firmer 



Danger of Repeal or Amendment of 
Mechanics’ Lien Law in Mew Jersey. 



It appears another effort is to be made 
to either repeal or amend the present 
very effective Mechanics' Lien law of the 



PRICE, $160. 



For Printing 



than any other metallic saw-clamp on state of New Jersey. A bill for that par- 



For gaining or routing out stair stringers, fitting 
In window pulleys, cutting out pocket pieces, fitting 



*' Office, etc. • 624 12 

•• Tai to A. F. of L.. November .... 60 06 

*• Delegate» to Denver Convention . . 602 60 

“ Benefits Nos 2056 to 3087 4TC0 00 

Balance on bend .lau. 1 , 18 W 5 ...... 447 87 

Total »6.682 17 



*52 4 i 2 niEfket. It folds similar to a pocket* po^ hs* been introduced in the Legisla- 



In window pulleys, cutting out pocket pl< 
In flush bolts on doors, etc., fitting In s 
moriloe lock-plates, dadoing from S In. U 



pulleys, cutting 
Its on doors, et- 



?i pieces, fitting 
In striking and 
In . to any width. 



knife and occupies but little more space tQre 0 f State 



either straight or on a curve. Agents wanted. Car- 
penters prererred Kample sent, postpaid to any ad- 
dress upon receipt of price, ben a for circulars. 



in a tool-box thau your claw hammer. 
When located at a suitable place, say on 
a saw-horse, bench, tool-box, window 
sill, on the edge of a board, plank, joist, 



The whole scheme is in the interest of 
the banks, building and loan associa- 
tions, and financial institutions of the 
State. The argument they advance is 



ROBERT ROBERTS, 

25 Avenue B, Scranton, Pa. 



stick of timber, pile of lumber, on the that “ financial inetitutions which would 



Detailed Expenses— December, 1894. 



rail of a fence, or any other suitable 
place, it is fastened almost instantly, 



gladly loan money for building purposes 
where real estate was unencumbered, are 



Printing 1,000 Postal* M 00 



'• 1,000 membership < ards • • . 2 60 

•* ] 000 »tub receipts . . 3 78 

•• 17,000 copies December Journal 166 25 

Bxpres s s g e 100 

♦* 81 • 100- p*K<* ledgers «•••«•• 24 IS 

•• 25*200 •' . ... 28 00 

10-800- “ . .* 18M 

•• » 003 Notchcads 12 50 

po»tage on l>ccember Journal ...... 9 33 

Special writers for December Journal . . 23 76 

Engraving« for December Journal .... 16 47 

Postage on supplies, etc. 19 67 

1AO0 postals 15 00 

Fifteen telegrams 10 20 

Kxpressage on supplies 16 64 

Office rent for December 26 00 

Salary and clerk hire -••• ••••••• 830 66 

Tax to A- F. of L., November 60 00 

10.000 l.thograpbed letter beads . . . . • 39 40 

Rubber seals, etc. . 3 86 

Check returned Union 311, Montreal, Can. S 20 

Coal ... . * » 

New grab* and repairs to stove 1 »0 

Stationery • • 8 w 

Type writer repair* 

Hugh McKay, Denver Convention ... 198 26 
D P. Rowland M '* . . 160 26 

Joe. J. Lineban M “ ... 180 00 

P. J. MoOuire M “ ... II» 00 



without the aid of any screws, or other preventsd from so doing on account of 
means of fastening whatever. The means j aWf w hich deprives them of the 



C 6 SS 



* 7,1 of self fastening is obtained by arms pro- protection to which capital is justly en- 



jecting at each end at a rectangle to the titled 






24 j* rear part of the clamp horizon tally. Each were under the impression that 

28 00 arm is about an inch long and is supplied ^pital loaned in building operations 
18 »0 w |th a spur about one-half inch long at WSLB ft i re ady amply protected and fully 
! 9 33 & rectaD ^ e tk® arm and pointing geared by the ordinary civil Jaw cover- 



ts 76 downward for the purpoee of penetrating [ n g bond and mortgagee, without asking 



into the wood and holding the clamp t0 come within the purview of the 



HAMMACHER 
SCHLEMMER 
Zl CO« 



firmly in position. It is also provided Mechanics' Lien law, or without need of 



with a * * gum sound demdener.” The in 
vention claims to possess several ad van 



the repeal or amendment of said law. 
The existence of the Lien law on the 



tages over all other saw-clamps, vis., It fl t a t u te books of the Btate compels con- 
folds up nicely for the purpose of occupy- tracts should be given to responsible 



£0 9 BOWERY 

NEW 'YORK 



Something for Carpenters to Bead! 



ing the least possible space. It has the contractors and builders, or in default 



The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 



... . 1 . ... Ol • a. me U D1K)U Diuuivruuuu VI vwi)ivu«w. 

lightest possible weight, With samcient thereof holds the owner responsible for Joiners of America was founded in Convention 

. . . . . m • riL. < a . in 1 Oil I i I « ■>«■» I» k.ri nnl. 



• 20 Strength. It is an instantaneous self- wa g eB unpaid. 

8 25 fastener and firmly holds in place and ia This has a tendency to eliminate irre- 
?? adaptable to a diversity of place to whieh fi p 0nB ible employers from the business, members.** it is organised (o protect the oärpen- 
7 . it may be fastened. and mU , u mn elem ent of eafety and 

*> It will doubtle*. supply a long (sit «^ity to the mechanic and laborer in TnTO & 

“ want. the construction or repair of buildings member, bf mutual protection and benevolent 

00 If any amendment of this law ia at all *25 to 600: Member 1 « Funeral Benefit, t oo to 

00 necessary, it should be one to secure a *»»• b£?n 

The Fair Wages Clause In England, priority of lien in favor of labor per- pended the post year, and 1293 648 the past tan 
** , I. a a I j years, while 4671,000 more was spent for Hick 

formed and to prevent long and unnecea- BeneAto by the Local Unions. Such an organi- 

“ In a vast number of cities and towns sary stays of execution, where judgments 

in England, through the efforts and for payment of wages havo been ren- K/ÄS 

\ work of the trade unions, the city, county dered. and a Half Million Dollars more wages annually 

>• and town councils ha*, adopted rales or Let all our Local, of the U. B. and of 

nrriinanROH someth in ff after this stvle. the building trades and all workingmen »idtias. and »hours a day to 41« to 



stObicaao, Au.u.tI2, 1881. AtAretithad only 
12 Locolunlons and 2042 members. Now In tan 
ears, it has grown to number over 71# Local 



(er Trade from the evils of low prices and botch 
work t Its aim is to sn courage a higher standsi dl 
of skill and better wage«; to re-eetabltsh an 
na to aid and assist the 



utuaf protection and benevolent 
a a Wire Funeral Beneflt of from 



Benefits Nos. S066 to 3987 1700 00 

Total . , , • • i . i • i • • • • • N «84 80 



•MOULD Kbad, Mahk, Lbabh, 



THOM. GILL'S BOOKS. And town councils bare adopted rales or Let all our Local, of the U. B. and of 

ordinances something after this style, the building trades and all workingmen 

-rTTJs baptti oarpfntrt ia VA R.ri.«d and we quote that of Brighton, viz. : — in the State of New Jersey stand on or »-hour *yst«m on Saturday* By thl. meui 

6ILLV V1PID CAEPESTBT, 3d Ed, E*»!»»!, „ .. _ cnt(§m . B and guard against sny repeal of the Me 



——I The Fair Wages Clause In England. 



means. It pays a Wife Funeral Beneflt of from 
625 to |60: Member's Funeral Benefit. $:00 to 
»W0; an d Disability Beneflt (100 to »400. In 



FHss 1 2*00 - 

OILL'B DETAIL 0. THE BQDAEE, 1 «L00 1 libor.r .mpl.y«! br U.. co.tt«!or ta|cb.»k.’ U.» I... Porn to ,*« | SSirSiSi KuSSÄ 

0ILI/8 EBLIQHTEBED 8TAIK BOILDEE, 1 * * . ^ , a i «.it 1 - w - 



Is the result of thorough organlsotioo. 



at This 
And yet 
try little 



Boot free by mall oo reoeijpt of price by apptl - 
iftlon to R. LEONARD, General Agent, P.O. 
teMan R JaiMT Oil*. N. J. Member of L. U. 4SI. 



BUILDER, the course of such contract shall be paid your representatives in House and Senate, it is not a secret oath bound onraniaation. Aii 
Io.l,Pri°eJ1^0 not i MI than tha standard rate of wage, and tell them in nnmiatakeable tones you m 

Dri«, by addiI- in force in this district, such standard to want no repeal of this Lien law, and if * *“**“ ' 



io b. L»OHA«u, u.narai Aj»ni v r.w. mean the rate agreed upon by the any amendment is w w. oiaun, wv ■» uo w i. * branch or u>* Brotherhood i in* sum ax« nut 

Masters’ and Workmen's AssocUtions In widen the operaüon of the law still 



no repeal of this Lien law, and if mechanic to a«nd In your amrHcatloe for mam- 

, barshlplnth. Carpenter.' Union of your city. II 

mendment le to be made, let it be to la a branch of th. Brotherhood; tha due* era but 



Brighton.” 



more In the lln. above indicated. 



flU body. 













r • • 



THE CARPENTER. 



Laborer Awakening* 

The giant Labor »lowly wake» 

And stretches out hl« arm». 

While Greed and Pride with Inward fear 
Are quick to »oinid alarm». 

Like noisome flie», while Labor slept. 
They’ve preyed on every pore, 

Till »ting* and ill» have roused him up, 
And now hi» »leep i» o'er. 

With strong right arm he’ll »weep aside 
Ills blind and puny foes— 

No vampire» now his life can »teal 
While lulling to repose. 

How vain the ho|»e by use of force 
To crush and hold him down ! 

No power on earth can face hi» might 
Whene’er he »eck» the crown. 

For labor’s king where Justice sways — 
When no corruption blight — 

Then haste the day when Freedom’» rays 
Shall shine out pure and bright. 

And may the wish for common good 
Kxteml, and govern all- 

True happiness will ne’er be found 
Where Greed and Pride enthrall. 

— Alexnndtr Spcnrtr . 



Practical Plans and Estimates. 

BY I. P. HICKS. 

HE plan which we 
will now take into 
consideration is 
one of a neat 1J- 
story cottage of 
nine rooms, with 
large halls, bath, 
pantry closets, etc. 

Size of floor plan 
is 33-0x46 6. 

The cellar is esti- 
mated under the 
front and two middle rooms, and to 
finish 7 feet in the clear. 

Foundation and cellar walls to be an 
8-inch brick wall. 

Length of cellar wall, 125 feet. 

Length of foundation wall, 52 feet. 
Distance around outside wall plan, 160 
feet. 

Height of first story, 9 feet 0 inches. 
Height of second story, 9 feet. 

Main cornice, 208 feet. 

Porch cornices, 54 feet. 

Number of window frames, 22. 
Number of door frames, 22. 

Hard pine finish throughout. 

EXCAVATING AND MASONRY > 

160 yards excavating, 30c . . . $ 48 00 
1,500 brick laid in foundation 

$8.50 127 50 

10 lineal feet chimney breast 

with fire-place, $2.00 . . 20 00 

76 lineal feet ordinary chim- 
ney 80c . 60 80 

$256 30 




, 0x8 22 
, 0x8 10 
, 2x4 16 
, 2x4 10 
, 2x4 18 
, 2x4 18 
,2x4 14 
, 2x8 22 
2x8 16 
2x8 20 
, 2x6 10 
2x0 16 



500 ft. U finish casingB, steps 

and outside finish $40 p m $20 00 
100 ft. 1 J hard pine fin. $30 pm 8 00 
300 41 l hard pine fin. $25 pm 7 50 
500 44 10-in base $2.50 per h . 12 50 

1,200 41 5-in casing $1.50 per h . 18 00 

72 plinth blocks 8c 5 70 

116 corner blocks 5c 5 80 

12 windows 24x82, 2 light $2 24 00 
8 windows 24x30, 2 light $1.75 14 00 
2 windows 24x30, marginal 
lights for bath and bed- 
room $2 00 4 00 



60 44 5-in. oak thsholds $4 p h. $ 2 64 

2 corner beads 25c &0 

Mill work on porch and cornice 25 00 
Front stairs 20 



$830 00 



CARI'BNTBR WORK. 



LUMBBB BILL. 

Feet. 

ft. sills 176 

44 sills and girders . . . 768 
44 side st’d'ng and plates 2,750 
41 partition studding . 780 

44 ii i< # 720 

44 rafters 000 

44 44 and cellar beams 900 

44 floor joists 1,450 

44 44 44 525 

44 44 44 075 

44 porch 44 70 

II II II 04 

• i • • • 



0,478 ft. in frame $16.50 per m . $160 84 
5 9 100 44 sheeting walls and root 

$18 per m 91 80 

2,500 ft. 5-inch aiding $25 per m. 62 50 
3,800 44 4-inch flooring $30 44 44 99 00 

17,000 shingles $8.60 per m ... 5950 

700 ft. beaded ceiling $30 per m 2100 
1,100 44 { finish, cornice, jambe, 

etc., $40 per m . . . 44 00 



33 sqni.framing and laying floors 

$1.30 $42 90 

20 sqrs. framing, sheeting and 

Biding $2 50 65 00 

8 sqrs. framing ceiling 50c. . 4 00 



HARDWARE. 

80 lbe. 20d nails , $ 1 96 

20 44 1 2d 44 51 

200 44 10d 44 5 20 

800 44 8d 44 8 10 

75 44 0d 44 2 13 

60 44 3d coarse ........ 1 98 

70 44 lOd finish 2 00 

80 44 8d 44 2 40 

25 44 6d 44 80 

4 44 3d * 44 16 

22 set blind hinges 18c .... 3 96 

550 lbs. sash weights, ljc. • . . 6 87 

6 skeins sash cord, 60c 3 60 

88 sash pulleys, 4c 3 62 

22 sash locks 15c 3 30 

23 pair butts 31 x3J 35c. • . . . 8 05 

2 flash bolts 75c 1 50 

1 front door lock 2 00 

21 mortise locks and trimmings 

$1.00 21 00 

8 doz. wardrobe hooks, 15c . . 1 20 

20 door stops, 21c 50 

96 lineal feet gutter, 10c. ... 9 60 

100 44 ,4 condactors3in. 10c. 10 00 

260 feet tin roof, porches, 8c. . . 20 80 

64 44 valleytinlOc 6 40 

Flashing chimneys and tins for 

windows 4 00 

$131 54 

RECAPITULATION. 

Excavating and masonry . . . $256 30 
Lumber and mill work .... 836 00 

Carpenter work 451 12 

Hardware and tinwork .... 18! 54 

Painting 100 00 

Plastering 1,000 yards 25c. . . 250 00 

Mantel complete 50 00 

Gas fitting 25 04 

Plumbing 70 00 

Furnace complete for hot air 

heating 120 00 

$2,290 00 

A special feature of this design is that 
the rooms are all large, well lighted 
and so arranged that each bedroom ia 
supplied with a large closet. The house 
is designed for 16 feet studding which, of 
course, makes it necessary to plaster on 
the rafters in finishing the second-story 
rooms. This design could be carried out 
full two stories for an additional cost of 
about $150. 

Again, the arrangement of the rooms 
on the first floor is such that the dining 
room could be used as a bed-room if it 
was so desired, using the sitting room aa 
a living room. Thus, if it is desirable 
the same general appearance in the de- 
sign can he retained if only erected as a 
one-story cottage of five rooms. 

- — ■ ■■ ■ — - 

GENERAL LAWS. 

Wiiklt Pat* Weekly payment» are the most 
convenient for member» of this Brotherhood, 
end where practicable should be adopted. 

Comer Laboe.— W e will not nee any mill or 
other work manufactured in a p^nal Institution, 
or brouight from any town or city where cheap 
tabor prevail». 

Labor’» Holiday.— W e fbvor the adoption of 
the Amt Monday in Hrptember as Labors Holl 
day, and we recommend that our L U.'s shall 
endeavor to observe the name. 

Eiout House.— O ur L U/s shall <!o all In theii 
power to make the Eight hour rule unlvemaJ 
and to suMtaiu those union« Uiat have now sstab 
’tailed the Eight hour nystem. 

A MKARLR U » dk beta if Dino—' TheO. E. B. should 
do all In Its power to discourage strikes, and 
adopt »lieh mean» as will tend to bring about as 
amicable understanding between Local Union# 
and employers 

Lfiw Laws.— W e desire uniform lien law« 
throughout the United H tales and Canadas, mak 
log a mechanic’s lien the Amt mortgage on real 
estate to secure the wages of labor Aral, and 
material scoond. Buch liens should be granted 
without long stays of execution or other u d 
accessary delays. 





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FRONT ELEVATION. 



12 pair of blinds 24x32, 2- 
light $1.50 



8 pair blinds 24x30, 2-light 
$1.40 

2 pair blinds 24x30, 1-light 

$1.00 

1 transom 10x32, 1 light . . 

3 cellar sash 12x20 1 It. $1 

1 front door 3x7 lj .... 

2 folding doors 2-6x7-0 1 } $0 
7 doors 2 8x7 1 J $8 50 . . . 

3 doors 2 6x7 1 J $3.26 . . . 



20 sqra. framing, sheeting and 

shingling $3.00 

170 lineal feet main cornice 15c. . 

96 lineal feet gutter 6c 

500 lineal feet of base 4c .... 

21 door frames complete, $2 50 
1 folding door frame complete 

22 window frames complete 

$2.75 

3 cellar frames, $1.25 

Wainscoting kitchen 

Finishing sink 



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6 door« 2 6x6-0 1 1 «2.00 . . . 
4 door« 9x6x6 l|fl. 80 . . . 
180 ft. 3i In. ern mid $1.75 p b. 
60“ 2* •• “ •• $1.50 ph. 

300 “ 9 " bed '• $1.50 p h. 

800 " j quarter round 60c p h. 
360 ‘ parting stop« 50c per h. 
850 “ 1-in. window «tp« 60c ph. 
390 “ 2 in. door «tops $1.26 p h. 
100 “ wainscoting cap $1 50ph. 
100 “ 31-in. watertable $$ p h. 



12 00 Finlghing bathroom 


. 0 00 


7 20 Finishing 5 closet« at $1 20 . . 


. 6 25 


3 15 Front «tain 


. 15 00 


»0 Cellar «tain 


. 2 50 


4 50 Work on front porch .... 


. 25 00 


4 80 Work on back porch 


. 15 00 


1 75 Gable finish, 8 at $4 


. 12 00 


2 10 Ootaide corner casing« .... 


. 8 00 


4 87 Oataide ba»e 124 lineal feet 4c. 


. 4 96 


1 50 




200 


$461 19 



estate to secure the wages of labor Arst, and 
material second. Buch liens should be granted 
without long stays of Execution or other u d 
accessary delays. 

BtriLMso Trades Leagues.— Each L U. shah 
drive to form a league composed of delegate* 
from the various unions of the building trad«» l< 



from the various unions of the building trad« 

Re respective city, and by tills means an emplo* 
merit bureau for these trades can be created 

Grading Wages.* We are opposed to any sy»> 
tern of grading wages in the Local Unions, as ws 
deem the same demoralising to the trr * -ad s 
farther Inosntl veto reckless competitt dig 

the ultimate tendency when work Is »% u> 
allow Arst-claes men to offer their labor at third 
olass prices. We bold that the plan of Azins • 
minimum price for a day’s work to be the safe* 
and best, and let the employers grade the wages 
above that minimum. 



fttDiro Wages.* We are opposed to any ey»* 
i of grading wages in the Local Unions, as ws 
m the same demoralising to the trr * - ad a 




J 





■ — ■ — - 



s 



THE CARPENTER. 



ROUGH 



SKETCH OF 
STRUGGLE. 



ROUGH 



XIII. — AN ARMBI) A I’l’KAI, FOB Jl'STICI. 



(Concluded.) 




the meanwhile, the king» 



then reined in their horses aronnd the ‘followed by rnthleas executions, swiftly basis of the number of its mail-clsd horse- 
prostrate leader to conceal what was pass- marked the progress of this infuriated men, or of its knighthood, each knight 
ing, and a squire of the royal household, hoet. But the avenging army was soon being supported by his personal follow* 
nariied Ralph Standish, thrust his sword brought to a halt by the news that the ingot mounted esquires and men-at-arms, 
through Walter’s heart. Essex men had re assembled in arms and The foot-soldiers of an army, no matter 

The body, still surrounded by the were once more marching on London, how numerous, were regarded as almost 
horsemen, was dragged to the priory of Retracing its steps by a forced march worthless foV real fighhng. The footmen 



' 11 Uiu UiUtUIHUllC. IUC uu.ow...««, " I J — «=> * . , , . . I , I iL- 

fr •ccomp.ni«! b, the least St. B.rtholo,„e... few yard... .y where three«!, the decite.ted coeetry-.ide ntdMd I were .c.reel, * 



j it was bidden. The king then and there 
conferred the honor of knighthood on 



odious members of his it was hidden. The king then and there and recrossing the Thames, the army name of “ soldiers.” It should be under- 
council had with much conferred the honor of knighthood on again poured eastward. Soon a halt was stood that the insurgent force was almost 
dread and misgiving made Walworth, the brothel keeper, and en- called, for on the borders of Essex a del- exclnrfvely compowd of formen 
their way to the camp at dowed him with an estate adjoining the egation from the insurgents of that But a great revolution was .aking place 
Mile End. Being permitted murdered leader’s birthplace. county met the king, and, displaying in military no lees than in industrial 

to advance and address the When an end was made of delivering before his eyes bis recently granted aflairs at this period. The working c ass 
armed peasants, the king the letters of enfranchisement and par- charters, asked to be informed it those of England, the peasantry and trade 

* . m . . « . > i a J! J a — _ a l. « mar ba nniAtiiafa ha/1 fftP or« naffttlOTlfl hPPM BED* 



Good people, I am your king and don to the men of the several counties, 



protector, wherefore are you assembled they set out on their homeward march 



charters did not make the Essex men, so unionists, had for generations been bab- 
far as freedom was concerned, the equals ituated to practise with the long bow. 



in arms? What would you have from 
ins?” William Wraw, a Poor Priest and 
leader of the Essex men, replied : 11 We 



singing songs of joy. But as the men of of the lords 



Local and personal rivalry in archery aa 



Kent returned over London Bridge they The nominal historians would have us an athletic pastime had gradually devel- 



little dreamed that preparations were believe that the king, enraged at this oped the bow until it came to be recog- 



lURUer Ui uio i\.nnr a uicu, icimcu . mo — r -r- ... . . A 

would have you f,eo u, for .»or, ou, hoiu« t h.u uod thur. „.do to ,.t up on « ro,ue. t poured . lorreut or ,h.ur.t. “ ‘ b * °lV„ 



children and goods, so that we be no gory pole, above the gateway, the bloody villiflcation on this delegation ; but the then in existence. The bow of a grown 



longer serfs or reputed as such.” “ So be 
it,” answered the king. “ l«et the men 
of each county straightway return by 



bead of their leader— faithful to the death text of a royal proclamation of that man, twenty- five years of age, was seven 

Walter the Tilelayer. date warrants us in believing the king’s feet long and three inches thick, the 

When the citizens of London awoke answer was couched somewhat as follows range of such a weapon being four hun- 



villages and towns as they came, and on Sunday, the morning succeeding the I —"At the importunity of many insurg- dred yards. It was faith in the potency 
only leave behind two or three men of triumphal departure from their city oi'ients in and from eeveral counties of our of this poor man s weapon ; it was 

- . .... .« !il_ 



each place. To such men I will imme- 
diately deliver written letters which shall 



the insurgent delegates, they arose with 
the firm belief that a great popular vic- 



kingdom, certain letters patent under our confidence in their ability to lay the 
seal were granted to them, giving eman- whole strength of their trained bodies to 



(1 1 Kit* 1 V UrllVCl will iril Hi in n tv uio i • onai i — — * * — . . , . , ... « , « . 

secure all you a-k and will be a pardon tory had been won, and that the aboli- cipation from all serfdom to our sublets, bend the mighty yew bow, to draw to 
for all oflences against us in marching tion of serfdom bad been achieved. But and pardon also for offences committed its very head the heavy oaken war-shafl, 

m frimmoH with tViA if nv ffnnflp fpathflr And 



with armed men as an army with ban- as the startling rumor of the aBsassina- 
ners.” In order, however, to give this tion of the Kentish leader and the king s 



strategy the appearance of sincerity, up- 
ward of thirty clerks were employed in 
writing letters of enfranchisement and 



pardon, which they gave to the deputies soon developed into positive alarm as 



as the startling rumor of the aBsaseina- against us. You shall straightway return trimmed with the gray goose feather and 
tion of the Kentish leader and the king’s to those who sent you and Inform them to pierce man or horse, unless clad in the 
connivance in that dastardly deed be- that these letters were issued by us with* best Milan steel, at any distance short of 
came known, the popular exultation was out due deliberation, and considering three hundred yards, that emboldened 
changed into anxiety. This inquietude that the concessions of these letters the men of the Brotherhood to stand at 
soon developed into positive alarm as tended to the prejudice of our crown, and bay against the combined royal and 

successive messengers bronght the om- to the injury ot ourself, the P^latee, ^uJinbe understood That not all the 
inonR tidings that the abbot of 8t. lords and barons of our realm. inCre inanvffnnta vara annh bImIIpH hnumpn 



came known, the popular exultation was 
| changed into anxiety. This inquietude 



of the insurgents, who; departed imrae- successive messengers brought the om- 
diately after receiving them. When the inons tidings that the abbot of 8t. 
news of the issue of these letters to the Albans when confronted with the k 



bay against the combined royal and 
feudal forces of the realm. 

It will be understood that not all the 
insurgents were such skilled bowmen , 



news of the issue of these letters to the Albans when confronted with the king’s fore, with the advice of our council, \ \ & nd it is probable that the greater part 
Essex men was received in London, many charters of emancipation, bad boldly have cancelled these letters, and t > of them p ® r 



villages find towns "of other counties up- denied their validity, and that many order that those who have in the r ™h we^absolutel^ -ce^^Armed 
pointed deputies to receive such letters lords bad openly denounced the kings possession such charters of emancipation U8ed by most of these men in their labor 
and returned home but the shrewder action as an attempted violation of their and pardon restore them to ns and our 0 f trimming hedges and trees, and set 



and returned home, but the shrewder 
leaders restrained this movement to a 
great degree. 

The king and council, who had received 
information of the capture of the Tower 



baronial rights solemnly guaranteed by 
the Magna Charta. 

The situation was indeed critical. The 



council, under penalty of forfeiture of all upon ash staves some seven feet long, 

* A v t*il M IJ.UI. L-a 



they can forfeit to us. We have sum- 
moned the clergy and barons, with two 



these bill-men were formidable combat- 



ith two ants at close quarters. Did a few cavalry 
lin iwo BUCCeed | n t he face of a withering arrow- 



whole of England, or the actual working knights from each coonty, und two flight in forcing their steeds to charge 



and the execution of the chief ministers classes thereof, from Yorkshire to Devon- citizens from each town, to meet in par- up . the line ot .bowinan , the billmen 
-ith «real .1.™, ... .»«I.t „ pi.-, of .hir., (roo. S„rt>o,<,, in .1,. north...* Ii.n,.nt ,od decide wbotb., on, .ob «U - *£ to A „ %% 

refage. Informed that the king’s mother to Plymouth, in the south-west, had shall be freed from all serfdom, artier | Änce ever couched by cavalier. To seize 
- • ■ . .a . 1 — i imo* AeMnUa. mnra vf> rnn rnand that all and everv ^he horseman’s visor with the hook of 



was safe in her palace in the city, they sacredly maintained the vast organize- more we command that all and every t be horseman’s visor with the hook of 
made a wide detoor around the walls, tionof the Brotherhood for twenty years; tenant, free or otherwise, do without the bill or to lop off a leg of his horse 

t...,d oi«htr.u, ....„a «..,1» -r.r.S'i sLrsr 



from the westward, and soon thereafter 
safely reached the Wardrobe. 

Ob Saturday morning, June 15, the 
king dispatched Sir John Newton to seek 
Walter the Tiler in his city lodging and 
negotiate with him concerning the de- 



ground and unable to rise, perhaps, 



taken up arms in defence of the common and labor to their lords, and we rigor- Rr £ and and an able to rise, perhaps, 
canse* Yet, within a few days after the ously prohibit them to demand any lib- ow i D ^ to the mere weight of his armor, 
rising concert of action between the erty or privilege they did not enjoy be- a blow of the bill wielded with both 

forces* of the several counties seems to fore the late troubles.” Sfditcher” mi^ht ^«TfficTeVtVoÄ 

have been disregarded, and the men of Having listened in silence to the king’s gmbition 0 f ’the proudest knight. 

the several villages and cities of certain shameless declaration of his treacherous t* B h ou ifl he added that a considerable 



forces of the several counties seems to fore the late troubles.” 
have been disregarded, and the men of Having listened in sil 
the several villages and cities of certain shameless declaration o 



mands of the men of Kent. The Kentish counties seem to have acted entirely on 



leaders, with clear sight of the obliga- 
tions they owed to the London and other 



their own judgment in returning to their 



policy, the delegation retired and then 
made all haste to rejoin the main body 



homes when the object of the rising ap- of their compatriots. Undismayed by 



It should he added that a considerable 
proportion of the royal army was also 
composed of archers, and those of no 
mean reputation for skill. Again, the 



civic brotherhoods, and of the difference peared to have been achieved. The 
of condition^ the rural population of difficulty of subsisting soch great masses 



Kent and other counties, were not will- in or near one city for any considerable 
ing to have their people return home time, without a regular commissariat | 
until more explicit concessions and eecu- exercising military powers, most have 
rities bad been obtained. The negotia- been evident from the first; and the early 
tions were therefore prolonged ; but at disbanding of the assembled forces was 
length W alter the Tiler was induced to no doubt regarded as inevitable. Never- 
accompany Sir John to Kmithfield, out- theless, the dispersion of the forces in 
side the city wall to the north-west,^ where and around I>ondon must be regarded as 



peared to have been achieved. The the information brought by the delegm- 
difficnlty of subsisting soch great masses tion concerning the strength and quality 
in or near one city for any considerable of the rapidly approaching army, the in- 



insurgents were at the disadvantage of 
being hut scantily provided with body 
armor of any kind, either steel or leather 



of the rapidly approaching army, the in- defences for the head or bodv ; hut they 

rnaniuari to mtk A a for the advantage of the shelter of their 

•arsent* resolved to make a stand for bMtny ftonBtrac ted breaitworks, and the 



the kin* and hie courtiers, with the a c alamity to the popular cause ; for as 



exercising military powers, most have their liberties in the glades of Ilainault f ur t ber advantage of a position in the 
been evident from the first ; and theearly Forest. Here in a short time their skilled forest which obstructed the deployment 
disbanding of the assembled forces was axemen fortified the chosen position with and alignment of their oPPone«**’ 
no doubt regarded as inevitable. Never- felled trees, so as to counteract the over- B^^hood had now the opportunity of 
theleofl, the dispersion of the forces in whelming superiority of the enemy scuv- filing their lives at a goodly sacrifice 
and around London must be regarded as airy. and of teaching the oppressors of labor 

a calamity to the popular cause ; for as Although the chroniclers, who gener- a lesson which would be impressed on 

their memory. 

We have no means of knowing the 



mayor and aldermen, were superintend- 



armed workers retired to their ally revel in the details of military en- 



imr the issue of letters to the men of borne*, the courage of the lords revived, gsgemente, have vouchsafed us little deta u B Q f this hard-fought battle of 

• ■ • f.i I 4L« k.i vab! m anf i/-vn iVlia YX„ II 1IT« IaI.1 4 1. . 4 4L. 



Hertford and Middlesex. Arrived at their panic passed away, and within more than the barest mention of this Peverell. We are tol.l, however, that the 



Bmithfield, Walter wlMinwl loth, kin« [hr., d.^ th.r..(l.r Ih. «,..l.ndl^.r Import.« Ä 1^« 

and. without anv formalities, demanded barons of the realm had assembled a great foreet of hssex we may readily * . rfnll - rÄf , ti ad on t ha field. 



and, without any formalities, demanded 
explicitly, not only enfranchisement for 
the serfs and those reputed ss such ; but, 



mighty force of forty thousand disciplined 
soldiers around the neuclus of the royal 



believe that this first pitched battle be- 
tween the lordly chivalry and the Essex 



The shrill blast of the brazen trumi 



also, as a measure of relief for townsmen, army in London. 



brotherhoods was long and stubbornly that sounded the reveille on the follow- 



the right of free trade in town and out of Burning with ahame fer their recent contented. The army awembled under 

_ * a ai a t a. l Wammaw maa AnmmanHan nt/ f n a 



iou morning and called the wearied 
soldiers to a renewal of the attack was 



me nruvu. .a^ — , ' " . . .. . . hvt h« soldiers to a renewal oi tne attack was 

town; the abolition of the odious poll- panic fears, eager to wipe out the stain the r °y ft . T , y - not answered by the hoarse brav of the 

tax and the full restoration of the ancient on their military reputation, and frenzied Earl ot Buckingham and Lord 1 ercy of d e f fn( i er t' horns; and when the royal 
righta of freemen — such as the right of with the thought of loee of eodal poei- Northumberland. It 



cutting wood for fuel and building in all tion, the lorde demanded of the royal lese than forty thousand men. 
forests, of grazing and hunting in all for- council that the king’s pardon for all pendently of its numerical strength, it n 
sets parke and commons, and of fishing offencee committed during the rebellion eald to have been the moat P<> w -»“ 
in all water*. ehould be cancelled; and that etern army ever before assembled in England 



NortnumDenana. u codbibicu oi noi troops, rearing some surprise, cautiously 
less than forty thousand men. Butinde- clambered over the blood-stained bam- 

pendently of it« numerical atrength, it is cade they found, as the aole occupant of 

p “ [ , .. . * _* .... the stubbornly defended position, five 

said to have been the moat powerful hnndred dead bodies. 



The insurgent«, whose limited stock of 



Walter hail scarcely ceased .peaking, retribution shoold be immediately ex- So far a. mere numbers .re concerns«, am*, «a »«j, pro^my^.nao^a^n- 
when Walworth, the mayor, drew hie acted from the chief movere in that re- the insorgent force M erone woonded needed «killed medical 

dagger and from behind, stabbed him hellion. The demand of the lorde wae what superior to that of their opponent», attention, had, all unsuspected by tbeir 
.U? V, .ui knookin. him from conceded : and the army moved by parallel but the effective strength of an army in opponent«, effected a masterly retreat to 



thromrh the throat knocking him from conceded; and the army moved by parallel but the effective strength of an army in opponent«, effected a masterly retreat 
Hi™ The ling and Ws courtier, column, into Kent. Wholesale arrerta, the Middle Age. was calculated on the | the ancient welled city of Colchester. 






'4' ''S'- , . 



I 



t 



8 



THE CARPENTER 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Published Monthly, on the Fifteenth of each Month, 
AT 

194 N. Ninth St., Phil*., P«. 

P. J. McQcikk, Editor And Publisher. 

Entered At the Post-Office At Philadelphia, Pa., 
as second-class matter. 

Subscription Prick Fifty cents a year, In 
advance, postpaid. 

Address all letters and money to 

P. J. McGuirr, 

Ho* 881, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PHILADELPHIA, FEBRUARY, 1895. 



Soldiers, not lawyer«, were the first 
conveyancers of land, and blood wae 
used instead of ink.— Herbert Spencer. 



I 




Ovib one hundred years ago the laws 
of Massachusetts declared that any man 
who held land in idleness three years, 
lost his title to it and it became the prop- 
erty of the man who cultivated it. 



Jealousy, envy and personal selfish- 
ness are the dangerous stumbling blocks 
to perfect unity and harmony. Clear away 
the stones, friends. 14 It is an unweeded 
garden that grows to seed. 4 ' — Typo- 
graphical Journal . 




The war extended the nominal era of 
freedom so as to include the black man, 
but it did not make him free, nor will he 
or his white brothers ever be free until 
both he and they can retain in their 
pockets the wealth ./hich they create.— 
Wendell Phillips. 




Independent laboi political action is 
good and the workers cannot get too 
much of it, says the Cigar Makers' Journal , 
but it should not be tacked on to the 
trades union movement. There is room 
in this country for both movements. Let 
us agree to keep the two separate, and 
both will profit by the decision. 









f 

L 



Many of our rich m«o, said Andrew 
Jackeon in hin message, July 10, 18.(2, 
have not been content with equal pro- 
tection and equal benefits, but have 
besought us to make them richer by acts 
of Congress. By attempting to gratify 
their desires we have in the results of oar 
legislation brought section against sec- 
tion, interest against intersst and map 
against man in a fearful commotion 
which threatens to shake the foundation 
of the Union. 



A Few Words of Advice to Local 
Auditors. 




Auditors of Local Unions should exam- 
ine the books and accounts of the F. 8. , 
the Treasurer, and the Trustees regularly 
once each month. It would stop a good 
deal of fraud and trouble if attended to 
properly. Each item should be com- 
pared carefully. The day book or cash 
book should be compared item for item 
with the ledger. Some Auditors never 
look at the ledger, and only glance over 
the cash book. 

The right course is for one Auditor to 
teke the cash book and call off each entry, 
and a second Auditor should look 
through the ledger and eee each item as 
called off is entered in ledger correctly — 
date, amount and ill. The items of ex- 
penses and bills and vouchers should 



THE CARPENTER. 



each be examined with care, and the 
items of income and expense should be 
carefully footed up and added by two of 
the three Auditors. 

The bank book of the Treasurer should 
be called for and produced, and the re- 
ceiptsfor tax, etc., senttheG.S-T. should 
be called for and examined, so as to eee 
the Local is paid up and not in arrears. 

Report of Auditors should then be 
made to the Local regularly each month. 
The Auditor« should be paid for their 
services, whenever their work is done in 
this form and where there are sufficient 
members to take much time- 



Making History Rapidly. 



What an array of stirring labor events 
the past few years! The pulse throbs of 
the labor movement are felt even in 
these stagnant times. 

First came the adverse decisions, one 
after another, of Judges Taft and Ricks 
at Toledo, of Judge Billings at New 
Orleans, of Judge Paxson against the 
men of Homestead, of Judge Jenkins, in 
the Great Northern Railway Strike — all 
against Organized Labor. 

Next come the decisions of the United 
States Supreme Court in favor of the 
eight-hour law for letter carriers, the 
decision of Judge Speer of Georgia in 
the engineers 1 case, of Judge Barrett of 
New York in the garment workers’ in- 
junction, of Judge White in the Builders’ 
Exchange conspiracy of Pittsburgh, of 
Judge Harlan of the United States 
8upreme Court setting as ; de Judge Jen- 
kins’ decision. 

Then there iB Attorney General OIney’s 
opinion as to the organization of Reading 
Railroad employees and the report of the 
United States Strike Commission as to 
the Pullman strike — all in the favor of 
Organized Labor. 

Added to this < ount the great strikes 
of the coal miners, of the Chicago rail- 
road men, of the North-western Rail- 
road men, of the Fall River cotton 
operators, and countless other straight, 
stand up fights against lower wages. 
Surely the labor movement in America 
is making history at a rapid rate. 



How the Moseyed Conspiracy lias 
Worked General Disaster. 

The year 1893 according to all financial 
authorities, was the most disastrous in 
50 years to all industrial interests of the 
country. That is to say it was the worst 
ever experienced in the United States. 
The year started with wide prosperity 
and an enormous volume of trade. But 
in June, 1893, came the crash of banks, 
tbe wreckage of railroads and general 
financial collapse, stagnation in trade, 
great decline in prices with reduced pro- 
duction and widespread lack of employ- 
ment and excruciating misery and dis- 
tress among wage workers. 

Then followed a constant drain of gold 
from the United State« Treasury to meet 
payment of securities abroad and gold 
dividends on investments held by Euro- 
pean capitalists, with a constantly de- 
creasing revenue to the Government and 
the menacing danger of a deficit. This 
was the game and conspiracy of our 
money mongers in Wall street to force 
the Government to issue interest-bearing 
bonds. And profitably and well th«ir 
game has worked, until they have the 
Government by the throat and the 
pockets and industrial resources of the 
people in thet/clutches. 

Meanwhile, in 1893, there were 15,850 
business failures— 50 per cent, more 
numerous than the previous year and 400 
per cent- greater in volume ; 241 banks 



suspended — many of them national 
banks. Seventy-four railroads went into 
tbe hands of receivers, comprising 33,000 
miles of road and involving 1,651 mil- 
lions of capital. Twenty -four per cent, of 
the entire railroad mileage of the country 
ie nov; in charge of receivers. 

In the money market there has been 
the widest extreme of stringency and 
plethora. Until the latter part of August 
there was an evtraordinary stringency. 
The banks lost three hundred millions of 
deposits. Call money commanded as 
high as | per cent, and interest. Time 
money was practically unobtainable for 
a long time, and commercial paper ruled 
at 12 to 15 per cent. The New York 
banks issued about forty millions of loan 
certificates, and thus averted a terrific 
commercial smash. Gold began to be 
hoarded, and then all kinds of money 
and currency was unobtainable except at 
a premium. But with an abatement of 
the panic, and with an extraordinary 
liquidation and reduction in business 
operations, the deposits of the banks 
have enormously increased. 

The year 1894 has shown very slight 
betterment of conditions only here and 
there with some small subsidence of 
financial disasters and bankruptcies. 

The outflow of gold still continues, and 
the money mongers still demand the 
issue of more interest-bearing bonds. 
The American people are being lulled 
into a quiescent indifference to the fan- 
cied financial security of a gold standard 
under the blissful syrenic teachings of 
the daily press- 

But amid all, the true American patri- 
ots who love the public welfare more 
than private gain, are on the watch- 
towers of public opinion and are aroosing 
the people to the real danger. And 
whether true financial reform and the 
inauguration of a scientific American 
currency is now defeated or postponed, 
the American people will never rest con- 
tent until the power of the moneyed 
conspirators in Wall street is over- 
thrown, and the sovereign right of the 
Government to be the sole source of issue 
of all currency is irrevocably established. 

We are hopeful for the year 1895. The 
daybreak of sanguine intelligence has 
ushered in abundant promises of a better 
season after spring has fully opened. 
And.with a change fer the better in gen- 
eral trade and with financial security 
more prevalent, there will be a rousing 
revival of all trade and labor organiza- 
tions. Get ready, for the long night of 
despair will pass, and with its disappear- 
ance will come the mid-day sun of a more 
general prosperity and an awakening of 
the working people. 



Ten New Unions and Seven Reorganized. 

Of late the following new unions have 
been granted charters, viz.: Union No. 
254, W. Palm Beach Fla. ; 258, Belt, 
Mont.; 281, Indian oils lud. (a con- 
solidation of several I nd ianapoliaU nions ) ; 
308, Newark, N. J.; 309, New York City 
(cabinet makers); 319, Terrell, Tex.; 330, 
Kalispel, Mont. ; 381, Kalamazoo, Mich.; 
370, Lenox, Mass. ; aLd 375, New York 
City (house framers). 

The following lapsed unions have been 
reorganized, viz. : Union 174, Grand 
Forks, N. Dak. ; 387, Fiatbush, N. Y. ; 
401, Franklin, Pa.; 529, Rogers Park, 
111., 548, Town of Union, N. J.; 828, Chi- 
cago, III., and 719, Huntingdon, W. Va. 



Hillsbobo, Tex — Contractors in this 
place made an endeavor to return to 
the 10-hour day. But Union 711 stood 
up and prevented it. 




The Quarterly Circular sent out by 
the G. S. with the password early last 
month to tbe lx>cale has been highly 
praised. For it has had splendid effect 
and has aroused the bulk of the Locals 
to a live, aggressive activity. Public 
meetings are being arranged, and a 
general stirring up along the whole line 
has been provoked. 

New Constitutions are now ready. 
Cost, $5 per hundred, or 5 cents ea£h in 
any quantity. Send in your orders to 
the G. S T. 

Our Local Unions last month in more 
than half thecitiesnndei our jurisdiction 
were displaying a healthy growth in mem- 
bership and a general lively revival of 
interest. 

Once every three months the Trustees 
of the Locale should call in the carde of 
the members and compare them with the 
cash book and ledger. It would keep 
accounts straight and prevent fraud and 
embezzlement. 



Meeting of the General Executive 
Hoard. 



The new General Executive Board held 
a nine days' seesion last month at the 
General Office in this city, beginning 
January 7 and adjourning January 
16. Much general business of import- 
ance was attended to, and tbe books and 
accounts of the General Office for the 
preceding six months were thoroughly 
examined, audited and fonnd correct in 
every particular. 

The new bond of General Secretary- 
Treasurer P. J. McGuire, for $30,000 was 
examined and accepted, as it is furnished 
by the same Indemnity, Trustand Surety 
Company which has been his bondee for 
years. Inasmuch as the general vote on 
the new amendments to the Constitution 
has combined tbe two offices of General 
Secretary and General Treasurer, P. J. 
McGuire now becomes tbe General Secre- 
tary-Treasurer. 

The new Constitution as amended in 
various particulars, went into effect Jan- 
uary 14, 1895, per decision of General 
President Owens and the G. E. B. at this 
meeting. All the newly elected members 
of the G. E. B. were preeent. The pro- 
ceedings will be published in detail in 
next month's Carpenter. 

The next meeting of the Board will be 
held April 1, 1895, at the General Office, 
124 N. 9th street, Philadelphia. Owing 
to election of thia Board late in Sep- 
tember at the Indianapolis Convention 
September 25, 1895, the regular quarterly 
meeting early in October had been dia- 
peneed with by vote of the G. K. B. at 
their special meeting, September 28, 
1895. 



COPIES OF PROCEEDINGS 
of Eighth General Convention 
of the U. B., held at Indian- 
apolis, Ind , are now ready. 
Price, five cents. Send orders 
to p. j. McGUIRE, 

P. O. Box, 884, 

• Phila.,Pa. 

Appeals and Agitation Cards. 
Good reading for Non-Union 
Carpenters. 

Furnished Locals free. Let 
your R. S. write the Gen. Sec» 
for them. 




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THE CARPENTER 



0 



United 



and 



General Officers 

or TUB 

Brotherhood of Carpenters 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



General President. —CIirii K. Owens , Westches- 
ter, West ehester C3o., N. Y. 

General Hecret ary Treasurer— P. J. McGuire, 
Box 88«, Philadelphia. Pa. 



General Vicb-Pbksi dents 
First Vice-President— Henry Gale, 330 W. Ver- 
montst., Indianspohs, I ml 
Second Vice President— Ix>uls E. Tossey, 601 
Learned st., East,— Detroit, Mich. 



General Executive Hoard. 

(All correspondence for the O. E. B must be 
mailed to the General Hecietary.) 

W. J. Shields, 10 Cheshire st., Jamaica Plain, 

Mass 

8. J Kent, 2046 8. st., Lincoln, Neb. 

J. Williams, 31 Hprtng st., Utica, N. Y. 

A. Cattormull, 8044 S. Halstead st , Chicago, 111. 
Jos. C. Gernet, 161 Foot Ave., Bellevue, Ky. 



All AllPlla 



A man without country is lie who is born ; 

In a nation where from him Ills birthright Is 
torn, 

By a law that deprives him of laud or, of leave 
To earn what the sweat of his brow should 
receive. 

— i'hnritn W. SttrruMon. 



A Few Maxim*. 



Keep cool. 

Stand by the organization of your 
craft ; it will stand by you in times of 
adversity. 

Pay fair dues, the higher the better; 
fair dues create a defence fund that will 
stand between you and an avaricious 
employer in dull times. 

Establish an out-of-work benefit in 
all labor organizations ; it enables the 
members to live during times of indua 
trial depression without being forced by 
hunger to take one another's jobs, and 
assists to retain the membership. 

Labor organizations with high dues 
and out-of-work benefits maintain both 
the wages and the membership during 
indublri*l stagnation. 

Labor organizations that depend npon 
enthusiasm and blufl find themselves 
bankrupt during times of commercial and 
industrial inactivity. 

A member's duties in a labor organiza- 
tion do not end with the payment of the 
regular dues ; all members should attend 
the meetings of the union, where all 
onion business should be transacted 
Street corners are not the places to 
transact the busiuess of the onion. 

Never condemn a fellow-member until 
he has a trial and a chance to defend 
himself. A character atsaesin is the 
meanest man on earth. 

Do not be too ready to believe all you 
read in the so-called plutocratic press 
about strikes and the men who manage 
them. 

Subscribe for, support, and read the 
labor papers. 

Do not believe that so-and-so is crooked 
•imply because some hair-brained bla 
therskite told you so ; demand the proof, 
if it is not forthcoming brand the sland- 
erer as a character assassin, and avoid 
him as you would a plague. He does 
more injury and is more dangerous to 
le labor movement than small -pox is to 
lumanity. 

Study carefully the records of the two 
>ld parties and men — and their motives 
-who manage them. If you find they 
not mindful of your best interests, 
have enacted legislation and mea 
in the interests of the classes 
urdlesa of the masses, manfully cast 
aside and fearlessly vote for the 
or party whom you believe to be 
ir friend. 

se all means; use both the labor 
lomic organization and the ballot to 
the best interests of labor.— 
Maker*' Journal . 



War Among the Carp«»t«™ of Chicago. 



Chicago, III. — At the Indianapolis 
Convention of the U. B. of Carpenters 
last September a statement of troubles of 
our D. C. in that city with the Amalga- 
mated and K. of L. carpenters was pre- 
sented. 

It shows ; some years ago before District 
Councils were organized in the U B , the 
Knights of Labor carpenters and the 
Brotherhod were about equal in strength 
in Chicago. The Amalgamated Society 
of Carpenters likewise bad branches in 
Chicago. To harmonize the whole, a 
council was formed called the United 
Carpenters’ Council. This council had 
more power than that given to our D. 
C'e, as assessments could be levied and 
strikes ordered without consulting with 
the Locals affiliated ; the trade rales and 
initiation fee was uniform and made 
therein. Finally a D. C. of the United 
Brotherhood was established in 1888, bat 
as a matter of fact it had no jurisdiction, 
and was always subservient to the United 
Carpenters 1 Council. 

As time went on, the U. B., as a matter 
of course, gradually absorbed both of 
these organizations until the year 1H92 
when, on January 1, the total strength 
of the K. of L. was 171, and that of the 
Amalgamated about 157, whilst the 
U. B. had a membership of 4,000. Our 
I). C., by virtue of this change, began to 
assume its proper position, and it gradu 
ally became apparent that the U. B. 
would eventually control the interests of 
the carpenters in the Chicago district, 
That fact was also apparent to the other 
rival organizations. From that time 
every act of theirs showed their bitter 
opposition to us. 

It must he borne in mind that at this 
time thousands of dollars were being paid 
into the United Carpenters 1 Council 
every quarter by the U. B., the rate 
being about twenty-two dollars to one 
dollar paid in by the others. As the 
funds were expended for the benefit of 
all three organizations, including the 
work of organization, and at one time 
also for the payment of strike benefit, it 
will he readily seen that whilst being an 
expensive institution to keep up the 
United Carpenters' Council gave the 
Knights and Amalgamated Carpenters 
all the benefits possible to he obtained 
through a powerful organization like 
ours, although the K. of L. did not pay 
as much dues as our members, and the 
Amalgamated, although paying more, 
the largest percentage of it went toward 
special benefits and consequently not 
contributing in any way toward the 
expense of forcing up the wages, as for 
instance, they paid a superannuation 
benefit, etc., and whilst making the dues 
higher did not advance wages one cent. 
Finally the condition became auch that 
legislation in the United Carpenters 1 
Council became impossible, as both the 
organizations named repeatedly refused 
to be governed by the majority, and after 
six months' useless effort on our part, 
and the rejection of several reasonable 
proposals from us, on their part, we 
finally adjourned the U. C C. iine die by 
virtue of our majority therein. 

We bad in the meantime become 
aili listed with the Building Trades Coun- 
cil, the laws of which provide that only 
one organization of each trade shall be 
recognized, the result of which waa that 
the K. of L. and Amalgamated could ob- 
tain no working cards unless taken out 
through our D. C. To meet thla condi- 
tion, we, in the interest of harmony, pro- 
posed to supply the cards to them at the 
same price charged to us and without our 
name being printed „nereon. 

This proposition was treated with con- 
tempt, the answer being that if they 
could not get their cards from the United 
Carpenters' Council they would do with- 



out any. We then withdrew the offer, 
and our position now ie, that if they 
want a card they can have it by paying 
the same as our own members pay for it, 
providing, that they comply with our 
working rules as laid down by the D. C., 
including a uniform initiation fee as set 
by the D. C. 

About the end of last July an injunc- 
tion was granted by Judge Horner, of the 
Circuit Court of Chicago, preventing the 
Building Trade Council or the D. C. from 
interfering in any way with their mem- 
bers on any job through their business 
agents. 

The result of this was that in the 
month of Augu r t the president of the 
D. C., Bro. A. Cattermull, was cited to 
appear before the coart along with two 
of his assistants, H. Martin and F. Austin, 
to show cause why they should not be 
committed to jail for contempt of court, 
this was followed up by the president of 
the Building Trades Council being cited 
also. 

On these occasions the utmoBt endeavor 
was made by them to have the above 
named committed to jail for contempt of 
court, and it was only by retaining good 
counsel that we were able to give them a 
set-hack from time to time, as we wished 
the legality of the injunction tested first, 
which was difficult, as most of the judges 
were on their vacation and only one wbb 
Bitting to test emergency cases. Finally, 
however, we got a bearing before Judge 
Hanecy, who, after hearing some of the 
argument on both sides, decided to set 
final hearing for September 27ih, and 
entering an order at the same time 
against their citing any more of our offi 
cere or business agents in the meantime 

The joint membership of both of these 
organizations on July 1st, last, was about 
450, whilbt our membership was .5,500 in 
the U. 8., or about a total of over 6,000 
members 

Prior to the adjournment of the United 
Carpenters' Council, they bad violated 
every rule inexistence in this district; 
they had taken ex-members of our unions 
at one dollar per head, and in some cases 
as much as they could get out of the ap- 
plicant, whilst our regular fee was $10.00 
and would have been $25 00, if they bad 
not taken such a course. 

To-day they are working with scabs 
for any rate of wages, and have re- 
peatedly offered to supply all men needed 
in cases w here we have had strikes, for 
thirty cents per hour, while the union 
rate is thirty-five. 

Growing oat of this state of affairs in 
Chicago, two men have lost their lives 
during the strike on the Marquette 
Building. Mr. Doyli, of the Plumbers’ 
Union, waa shot one day, and shortly 
after Bro. Donald Gbukr, of Carpenters' 
Union No. 28, met his death by a pistol 
ahot from a Knights of Labor carpenter, 
named John Kemperman. 

The strike on the Marquette Building 
grew out of a violation of trade rules of 
the Electrical Workers' Union by the 
Fuller Construction Company. After 
investigation the Building Trades Coun- 
cil of Chicago called out the union men of 
all trades emplojed on the building. The 
Amalgamated men refused to come out, 
and after we had ordered our men out in 
sympathy with the other building trades, 
they made a deal with the employers to 
supply Amalgamated men to 
places of our men. These Amalgamated 
men, as fast as they went to work, were 
sworn in as special police and armed with 
revolvers, and were under orders to 
shoot. Finally, on December 4, last, 
Donald Grurr, an old man aged 56, a 
member of Carpenters' Union No. 28, and 
formerly a member of the Amalgamated 
Society, waa ahot three times, through 
the lungs, shoulder and back, which re- 
sulted fatally next day. This waa a cold- 
blooded murder aa Gruer waa never 



known to even quarrel with any one. 
The only cause of his assassination waa 
that as three carpenters came out from 
work in the building he recognized one 
as an old-time acquaintance and called 
oat he wished to speak to them and went 
alone toward them to persuade them to 
desist from scabbing, when one of them, 
John Kemperman, of the K. of L , drew 
a pistol and shot the old man. 

Besides this cowardly murder warrants 
were sworn out and several of oar mem- 
bers arrested for intimidation, assault 
and conspiracy. The costs of defending 
our men as arrested, of defending injunc- 
tion suits, of prosecuting murderers, and 
paying strike benefits has cost thousands 
of dollars. Bat in this fight our Chicago 
Locals and the General Office have 
responded liberally. 



Slavery ot Two Kinds. 



Yes, there is a difference between the 
great American freeman who works for 
wages, and the chattel slavery of long 
ago. 

The master had to feed, clothe and care 
for the slave whether he had work or not. 
They don’t have to do that with the 
wage slave. The master bad to hunt up 
slaves and buy them. The wage slaves 
hnnt up a master and offer themselves 
for a bare existence. 

The black slave was put up to the high- 
est bidder. The wage slave puts himself 
up, and underbids his fellows for the 
privilege of work. 

The black slave never had any fear of 
want. The wage slave lives in continued 
dread of it. 

The slave had a permanent job at a 
certain price. The wage slave never has 
a permanent job, and at an ever decreas- 
ing Pfty- 

The black slave was seldom overworked 
to his injury. The wage slave is habitu- 
ally worked to the utmost, regardless of 
health. The black slave was never forced 
to imperil his life in battle— the master 
did the fighting. The wage slave is hired 
to go out and get shot when the employ- 
ers have a difficulty. 

Yes, there is a difference, hut altogether 
in the favor of chattel slavery. 

Great, free Americans ! Well, just a 
few.— Coming Nation. 



What They Want. 



Colorado can produce a gold dollar for 
twenty-two cents. It will probably pro- 
duce upwards of twenty millions of them 
this year for leaa than twenty cents 
apiece. 

The 44 intrinsic value" idiot will find 
much to set him thinking in the above 
truth ful statement. 

8peakingof "gold dollars with a dol- 
lar's worth of gold in them," we cannot 
resist the temptation to roast the old 
party fanatics who vote to enslave them- 
selves through the "honest dollar" 
policy. 

" I want a dollar that la worth a dol- 
lar, "ahouta the fool farmer, and hehaula 
two bushels of wheat to market that have 
cost him $1.40 to produce— and he gets 
it. 

" I want a dollar that is worth a dol- 
lar," shouts the silly planter, and he carta 
to market fifteen pounds of cotton that 
take the frave cost him $1.80 to make— and gets it. 

"I want an honeat dollar," howls the 
laboring man, and he does $2.00 worth of 
work— -and gets it. 

" I want an honest dollar," shrieks 
the hide-bound merchant, and he adver- 
tises his goods at panic price«— and gets 
it. 

14 1 want the earth and all that ie on 



JQ 



1 






it," My. the money-owner, and he 



i 



quickly make, hi* note, and mortgagee 
payable in gold— and he hae almotc got 
It,— Denver Road. 



THE CARPENTER. 



WSh 



$ptn Forum. 

( 7/i is DejxirtmenL is open for our readers 
and members to discuss all phases of the 
labor problem . 

Correspondents should write on one si' le of 
the paper only . 

Matter for ] mb Heat ion must be in this office 
by the *6ih of Vie month previous to issue.) 

A Socialist's Views. 

Editor of The Carpenter. 

DON’T know if Mr. 
\i ( Hugh McGreg- 
.»'U or is one of the 
jApilL special writers 
r j!k r y of the Carpen- 

liBrvy ter8 * i° urral 

£>l who gets paid 

UM for hifl articles, 
fflMpr but if he iahe 
geta hia pay 
•*V ' from a class of 

people who 
should not pay for delusive articlea, auch 
aa he writes for The Carpenter, in his 
“Rough Sketch of a Rough Struggle,“ 
which takes up some five columns of our 
worthy paper every month now for over 
a year, which ia very lengthy and tire- 
some reading, and a great many members 
don’t even read any more. 

In the last number of September he 
started out, like all capitalist newspapers 
do, who are either muzzled or subsidized 
by capitalist or religious classes, which 
two latter classes go hand in hand in the 
way of diverting the attention of the 
wage-slaves from the main issue. He 
compares the socialists and economists 
with the anarchists, which appears to 
me that he must be a paid agent of the 
capitalist classes to do so, so that I sup- 
pose he is too intelligent a man not to 
know the difference between socialist 
economists and anarchists. And if he 
don’t know the difference I should advise 
him to stop writing hie old history and 
study up the new. 

The socialists and economists w ant the 
function of government extended so that 
the government, or in other words the 
people, shall own and control all indus- 
tries, and that all industries shall be con- 
ducted in the most economic way possible 
on a co operative basis, under which all 
citizens, male and female, shall be equal 
share-owners and have a voice in all mat 
ters of importance , while the anarchists 
want no government or laws at all, but 
simply industrial freedom without any 
restriction whatever. So the men who 
try to put these two different theories to- 
gether, which are as much opposed to 
each other as fire and water, must be 
either fools or knaves and a paid capitalist 
tool to do so. He says “ as the socialists, 
economists and anarchists all combine in 
these days with the political labor lead- 
ers to divert the minds of the workers 
from the idea of the trade union as one 
permanent and independent whole, so 
toward the close of the middle ages did 
the military, legal and commercial classes 
combine with the self-seeking members 
of the manufacturing class to subvert the 
trade unions and betray municipal lib- 
erty. Then, as now, grave dangers 
threatened the integrity of the unions 
from without, and then, as now, the 
most dangerous enemies to the voluntary 
organization of labor were to be found 
within the unions. The sons of the three 
thousand trades unionists who died de- 
fending ‘the red banner of London, em- 
blazoned with the figure of St. Paul/ 1 ’ 
etc. 

It appears to me that Mr. Hugh 
McGregor can’t be anything but an anti- 
socialist economist or a paid knave of 
the capitalist classes, as a writer in a 
labor paper, to prejudice the produoeii 



of all social wealth against their best 
friends; as he mast know better than to 
state that socialists and economists divert 
the minds of the workers from the idea of 
trade unions. The socialist may advocate 
independent political action on the part 
of labor, and even call the trade union 
“pure and simple,” but it is not pure 
and simple. Look at the last thirty years 
of trade unionism and yon will find that 
thirty years ago something like 75 per 
cent, of this country’s wealth was in the 
hands of the common people and 25 per 
cent, in the hands of the capitalist, while 
to-day it is the reverse. A few capitalists 
are now in possession of 75 per cent, of 
all the wealth of the country and 25 per 
cent, in the hands of the sixty-five to 
seventy millions of people, besides a pub- 
lie and private debt of over thirty billions 
of dollars. This being a fact, can Mr. 
Hugh McGregor with candor say that 
trade unionism is a success? I doubt 
not trade unions have done a great deal 
of good in the way of education, reduc- 
ing the hours of labor, and raising wages 
wherever it could, but it has not kept 
pace with modern capitalism, in which is 
now the great danger to the trade unions, 
but not the socialist. And any can- 
did man wonld not charge socialists and 
economists with diverting the minds of 
the workers from the idea of the trade 
union, but, on the contrary, all socialist 
papers and writers do all they possibly 
can to make workers of all kinds join the 
respective unions of their craft. 

The socialists all over the world are in 
favor of trade unions and help them in 
their struggle against the capitalist class, 
the robbers of the fruits of labor, as all 
capital is the product.of labor. The so- 
cialists in St. Louis are helping the strik- 
ing brewers and all other labor unions. 
The socialist« in France, Germany, Eng- 
land and Belgium and all other countries I 
are helping the trade anions as much as 
they possibly can. 

I suppose Mr. Hugh McGregor has 
never read the platform of the Socialist 
Labor Party of the United States of 
America, or he would not make such ad 
missions as he made in The Carpenter. 

I refer him to the social demands No. 5 
—“legal incorporation by the States of 
local trade unions which have no national 
organization.” Is that diverting the 
workers’ minds from trade unions or 
drawing their minds to it? 

As to the socialist combining with the 
military, legal and commercial clasees, 
would be another admission of nonsense, 
as socialists all over the world make 
demonstrations against militarism, and 
call them the lazy draggers of the sabre 
and wholesale murderers and assassins, 
and expose the fraud ot the commercial 
classes of today, and show that all 
commerce and trading is only general 
cheating, buying the product of labor at 
one price and selling it at another with- 
out adding any value to the commodities, 
like, for instance, when a merchant buys 
goods for 100 dollars, be sella these same 
goods, without adding to their value, for 
110 to 120 dollars, according totwhat the 
goods Are. 

I think if Mr. Hugh McGregor had 
studied “Capital,” by Carl M&rx, and 
some other books on political economy, 
and written his articles upon economy, 
they would be a good deal more interest- 
ing and pertaining to the readers of the 
end of the nineteenth century, and hiB 
time and talent would have a great deal 
more value and have done more good 
than it has by looking back to the 
eleventh and thirteenth centuries, to 
ecclesiastical action, to Edward I and 
Edward II, to kings and rulers, to Cie*ar 
and Rome and Italy, and Church and 
clergy and matrimony ; to the dignity of 
a solemn sacrament of the Pope and 8t. 
John the Baptist and St. Mary, and the 
Church alone preserving the Latin lan- 



guage as a barrier to barbarism and con- 
serve a universal medium for the dissem- 
semination of knowledge. 

Look at the people who come from the 
countries where the Church has pre- 
served the Latin language, and see it 
they are less barbarians and have more 
knowledge than others, and you may find 
the contrary. 

Aod for a just rate of interest on 
money, which don’t exist, as interest on 
money is usury, and usury is robbery, 
and robbery is unlawful, by either natu- 
ral laws or human-made laws. 

He also refers to the devil, which I 
should like to know what animal that is 
— if the devil is one of God’s creatures. 

I suppose the devil mast be a good fellow, 
as a good God would certainly make no 
had or unhappy beings. 

But now, when Mr. McGregor finds 
out that the delegates to the eighth gen- 
eral convention of the United Brother- 
hood of Carpenters and Joiners of 
America have recommended the discus- 
sion of political economy to the local 
anions, I suppose he will go for them as 
had as for the socialists, economists and 
anarchists, or may be more, as he may 
have thought that he had some control 
over them with his articles in-TiiE Car- 
penter. But Mr. Hugh McGregor is not 
going to stop the wheel of progrees,with 
all hie nonsense, by saying that we are 
to-day so blinded by the cant of political 
economy on the subject of supply and 
demand that we allow manufacturing 
rings to charge what they please for the 
work of transforming raw material into 
consumable articles ; and we allow the 
commercial class to make corners to ex- 
tort unlimited sains for the necessaries of 
life from a vast unorganized and econ- 
omically disfranchised mass, who are 
never tired of bragging of their freedom, 
etc. 

I think Mr. Hugh McGregor don’t 
know anything about political economy, 
or he would not call it cant ; and, if he 
does, he can’t be but an enemy of the 
human race, or a paid tool in the hands 
of the capitalists. 

What the workers the producers of 
all social wealth, want to day is, not so 
much to know the past, as wbat is past 
cannot be changed now; but they want 
to know what to do at present to better 
the deplorable condition they are now 
in ; to get rid of the competitive system, 
and to get rid ot their oppressors and 
deluders of all kinds. 

Ed. Arnaklstken. 

Uni'm 332, Los Angeles , Cal. 



Mr. McUregorN Reply fo Arnaelsteen. 

Editor of The Carpenter : 

RALLY I am in- 
\\ debted to you for 

PI Aj knowledge ot a 

n_ recent criticism 
of “A Rough 

I Ro u g h Strug- 

\ V liiEfa Kl® M contained 

^1 i \ \ * n A ^ er by 

Edward Arnael- 
Steen and would 
ask the favor to make as brief a reply 
thereto as the nature of the subject will 
permit. 

A pernsal of the letter in question 
shows that it consists ot an accusation, a 
criticism and an assertion ; an accusa 
tion of the present wriier’s motives, 
a criticism of the historical method em- 
ployed by him, and an assertion that the 
Socialist party is favorable to the trade 
union. 

You will permit me, I trust, to pass over 
in silense the accusation referred to, be- 
cause it is unsupported by proof, and 
because such drag-net accusations, how- 
ever much they may be in accord with 



socialist custom, are foreign to the 
fraternal spirit of trade unionism and 
revolting to the traditions of judicial 
fairness still cherished by the American 
people. 

Regarding our brother’s criticism of the 
historical method of social investigation 
allow me a lew words. 1 am not so dull 
as to be unaware how “ tedious ” it is to 
those persons who are prepared with an 
infallible remedy for the several evils 
which afflict society to be compelled to 
listen to a recital of the previous condi- 
tions which have produced those evils. 

I am aware that such an investigation 
must he tedious to those who have 
reached the limit of social knowledge ; 
to those who allege that the trade union 
is only a transient form of organization, 
a necessary evil at the beet, if not a 
positive obstacle to progress, to be im- 
posed on by an imprudent attempt to 
prove that the trade union is a perma- 
nent social institution with a policy of 
its own ; a policy naturally and spon- 
taneously springing out of its past 
history, and not one fabricated by pro- 
fessors, politicians, or zukunft hildrrs of 
any kind. It cannot be otherwise than 
that men of all sects and schools who 
keep to the ancient practice of judging 
social institutions from the point of view 
of their own minds, instead of from 
that of the race, should detest that his- 
torical method which exposes the worth- 
lessness of their cherished antiquated 
method. It cannot be otherwise than 
that political labor .leaders, with their 
limited stock of selected quotations war- 
ranted to offend none but the “bloated 
capitalist,” should dread that method 
which proves that the labor question is 
inseparably intertwined with the deepest 
moral problems and cannot be settled on 
economic grounds alone. And it cannot 
he otherwise than that those socialists 
who regard with disfavor all attempts to 
indicate any road to social peace w hich 
does not proceed by way of a social revo- 
lution should hate and despise that 
method which substitutes explanation 
for class hatred, and paves the way for 
conciliation] instead of anarchy or des- 
potism. 

In regard to the^third point of our 
brother’s letter, I must admit it is possi- 
ble that the Socialist party is favorable 
to the trade union in a certain sense, just 
as the lying down together of the lion 
and the iamb is possible in a similar 
sense, but the trade union is not willing 
to-day, and will be more unwilling in the 
future, to play the part of the lamb; 
whether the political lion has capitalistic 
or socialistic claws. 

What is the record of the Socialist 
party which, from its platform and in 
every one of its sheets, so arrogantly 
demands the submission of the trnde 
union to its dictation ? 

The practical economic influence ot 
the Socialist party may be easily seen by 
those who have eyes to see and the 
capacity to reason from cause to effect 
and vice versa . But a eingle comparison 
may not be out of place. The trade 
union, founded on the free allegiance of 
the more intelligent and unselfish work- 
ers, naturally reflects the best aspirations 
and develops the most vigorous collective 
action of which the trade is capable 
under certain given conditions. These 
conditions are not always as favorable as 
they might be, and they are certainly 
not improved when inside and outside of 
the union we find men, perverted by de- 
lusive social theories, who, in their 
fanaticism, denounce the union as im- 
potent. But these fanatical theorists, 
even those who refuse to perform their 
duty to the union, cannot deny the 
union’s great prestige, for many of the 
latter class, while blataiftly proclaiming 
the impotence of the trade union in 
general, are found carrying the cards of 






THE CARPENTER. 



imitation (billige und Bchlect) unions, with America who had the misfortune to 
thinly disguised under the specious but be present last winter at the immense 
false title of 41 progressive. ” mase meeting called for the benefit of the 

The political influence of the Socialist unemployed of New York, at Madison 
party is alBO obstructive to trade Square Garden, and witnessed the organ- 
union progress and chiefly because of ized mob attack of the Socialist Labor 
the illusory hopes it generates in Party upon the trade union speakers 
credulous minds of an immediate solu- there. The scenes and sounds of that 
tion of the labor question by State aid. night can never fade from the memory 
How slight is the basis of such hopes or fail to rekindle the blush upon the 
becomes apparent when we recognize that the cheek of any who were there, and 
in the thirty years since the first organ- had evenboasted of the American regard 
ization of the Socialist party, under the for free speech, or had the least spark of 
name of the International Working- regard for public decency ; nor will they 
man’s Association, the concessions gained ever more be in doubt of the attitude of 
by labor have been in a direct ratio to the Socialist party to the trade union, 
the strength of the trade union and in And now I will draw my reply to a 
an inverse ratio to the strength of the close, hoping our brother will receive it 



Socialist party in each country. 



in kindness, and as. the result of many 



Presuming that the trade union knows years experience of the labor movement, 
what it wants and is capable of express- gathered in many a city from the blue 
ing those wants in articulate speech, the waters of the Adriatic to where the mas- 
political influence of the Socialist party sive Rockies lift their snowy crests from 
is doubly obstructive because it imposes the broad plains of the West. There is 
a clique of Fabians professing to be the much in the future that appears obscure 
genuine exponents of working class and perplexing to my unassisted vision, 
opinion not only on the bona fide repre- but relying on the common sense of the 
sentative8 of the trade union inconven- great mass of my fellow workers to de- 
tion assembled, but also on the public fend the integrity of the trade union I 
wishing light on the subject of labor’s feel that the »mancipation of the 
actual claims. Under this head it would working class by the working class itself 
be well to note that Mr. George Shipton, is assured. The conviction that the 
house painter, and secretary of the Inter- trade union is the natural rallying 
national Trade Union Congress held in point of the workers, that the trade 



Things to be Remembered. 



Tttrfe months in arrears subjects a member to 
loss of benefits. 

Btkadv attendance at the meetings gives life 
and Interest to the Union. 

Mkm nans going off to another city should be 
provided with a clearance card. 

All local treasurers should be under bonds and 
the bonds filed with the president of the L. U. 

Trustees’ reports should be prepared semi- 
annually and forwarded to the O. 8. Blanks are 
furnished free for that purpose. 

All changes In Secretaries should be promptly 
reported to the O. 8., and name and address of 
the new Secretary should be forwarded. 

OBOSiurE the Carpenters In the unorganized 
towns In your vicinity, or wherever you may go! 
Hold public meetings or social festivals at stated 
occasions ; they will add to the strength of your 
Union. 

Letters for the General Office should he 
written on oftical note paper and bear the seal 
of the Local Union. DonH write letters to the 
Q 8. on monthly report blanks, as such commu- 
nications are not In proper shape 

All Momrrs received by the G. 8. one month 
are published in the next month's journal 
Moneys received can not be published in this 
journal the same month they are received. It 
takes some time to make up the report and put 
It into type. 

The only safe way to send money Is by Poet 
Office Money Order or by Blank Check or Draft 
as required by the Constitution. The G. 8. is 
not reponslble for money sent in any other way. 
Don’t send loose cash or postage stamps In pay 
«ne nt of tax or for any bill due the G. 8 



London in 1889, reported to that con- 



the only institution wherein 



vention that 44 no delegates have ever the workers can effectually organize 
been proposed by Germany or Austria their collective power; that the trade 
who have at any time been workmen or union is and ever will be necessary to 
members of trade unions.” insure the workers against the Bufferings 

The political influence of the Socialist resulting from the accidents and the 
party also tends to divert the minds of failing powers of life, to determine the 
the workers from the fruitful labor of continually recurring questions of tbe 
building up the living organism of the hours, wages and condition of labor ; and 
trade union by calling on them to engage to peaceably solve the difficult social pro- 
in the barren and hopeless task of re- blems which from time to time present 
arranging the dry bones of the expiring themselves to every civilized community 



Eight Hour Cities. 

Below la e lift of the eitle« and town* when 
carpenters make it a rule to work only eight 
hours a day : * 



military-legal State. 



is a conviction that grows with every 



The political influence of the Socialist hour and deepens with the increasing 
party is also strikingly manifested in experience of the laboring masses, 
the division of a multitude, who might Thehistory of each trade union struggle 
and should be among the most active todtfend its existence and to realize an 
defenders of the union, into two bitterly ever wider jmd higher unity is day by 
hostile and mutually counteracting fac- day revealing to onr conciousness and 
tions. Since tbe convention of the continually deepening onr sense of avast 
International Workingman’s Association collective development of working class 
held in 1872 at the Hague, those factions energy, intellect and devotion, ever more 
have made the trade union their battle assuming an organic unity of purpose 
field and recruiting ground and each ever more completely blending in one 
succeeding year has seen the fratricidal the best aspirations of every race and 
strife assume even wider proportions, century and increasing by forming that 
until at the last Trade Union Congress at grand influence which moulds the lives 
Zurich the three first days were spent of a vast multitude of workers to-de^ 
in fighting and the remaining time was and must ultimately shape the life of 
■pent in gloating, or brooding over the nations and societies. 



Alameda, Cal. 
Ashland, Wls. 
Austin, III. 

Berkeley, Cal. 
Bessemer. Col. 
Brighton Park. 111. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Oarondelet. Mo. 
Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Heights, 111. 
Denver, Ool. 

Rast St Louis, 111. 
Engle wood. 111. 
Evanston, 11L 
Fremont, Ool. 

Grand Crossing, 111. 
Highland Park, 111. 
Hyde Park. 111. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Kensington, 111. 

Los Angeles. Cal. 
Maaor Htatlon, Pa. 
Maywood, 111. 
Milwaukee, Wls. 

Vf« w **"r*r*e tod. 

Moreland, 111. 

Lynn, Mass. 



Murphysboro, 111. 
New York, N. Y. 
Oakland, Cal. 

Oak Park, 111. 
Pasadena. Cal. 
Pueblo, Colo. 

Rogers Park, I1L 
8t. Louis, Mo. 
Sacramento, Cal. 
Santa Barbara, Oai. 
Ban Francisco, Cat ~ 
San Joee, Cal. 

Ban Rafael, Cal. 
Sheboygan. Wls. 
South Chicago, 111, 
South Denver, Ool- 
South Evanston, 111« 
Stockton, Oal. 

Town of Lake, I1L 
Verona, Pa. 

Venfoe, 111. 
Washington, D. O. 
Whatcom. Wash. 
West Troy, N. Y. 



St. Joseph. Mo. 



Total 63 dtiea. 



it ink- hour citibs. 



result of the miserable contest. This 
insane struggle between the fanatical 
factions of Marx and Bakonnin affords 
no hope that reconciliation or Any 
decisive victory is possible, because each 
faction day by day accentuates its 
differences ; the one faction ever becom- 



Hugh McGrigor. 

Nnv York City f December , 1894* 



The Real Monarch». 



The men who really rale the world are 



Amcebury, Mess. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 
Arlington, Mass. 



in« more arbitrary and intolerant, tbe ^ number . Th n th eg0 , d 

other faction ever becoming more reck- ^ bave klng8 and queen8 and govern . 
i«e and ungovernable The tendency ^ ^ ^ when a new ]oan 

of the Marx faction » thna enmmed up. ^ they make their condUion8 . 

by on. of . own netto« known a. he of government are left 

, I 67 “'I- . chleft totAkecareot them8 el ve*, and the people 

Democrat,« party, wbo are adju8t themselvee to these conditions ae 
idollxed beyond meaenre by the, r credn- caQ Va , ue8 or value8 

ion. companion, have •<> corrupted he down u Bnlu |h# iDtereet of tbe moncy . 
old movement of the proletariat that it Tb are the arbller8 of ^ 



ha. degenerated into a mere parliamen- and wRf and Q , the faU) of natloD8< _ 
tary policy of reform, which >. ln iteelf Cincinnati Commrrcuü. 
ridiculous. ’ TbeBakountn faction lscer- 

i^nly not open to any such charge of — >* 

Bnidity if we may judge from the text 

I its 44 Revolutionary Catechism 99 which A Bare Fac< 

lys: 41 While we permit no other 



A Bare Faced Insult. 



»tivity than that of destruction, we Scribner 9 » Monthly said of the man who 
icognize that the form in which this is compelled to travel in search for work : 
tivity is exercised maybe manifold; 44 He has no rights but those which 
>ison, the dagger, the rope, all alike society may see fit to bestow. He has 
• hallowed by the spirit of revolu- uo more rights than the so w that wallows 
on.» in the gutter or the lost dogs that hover 

|No one will ask what all this has to do around the city squares.” 



Amoaia Harbor, Tax. 
Anaoortee, Wash. 
Anbury Park, N. J. 
Astoria, Oreg. 
Asheville. N. O. 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Auburn, Me. 

Akron, O. 

Altoona, Fa. 

Apollo, Pa. 

Anderson, Ind. 
Allegheny Oity, Pa. 
Albany, N. Y. 

Austin, Tex. 
Bakersfield, Oal. 

Bay Oily, Mich. 

Bar Harbor. Me. 
Baltimore, Md. 

Belle Vernon, Pa. 

Bath Beach. N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. V. 

Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Butler, Pa. 

Bayonne, K. J. 

Boise City, Idaho. 
Bridgeton, N. J. 
Burlington, Iowa. 
Blaine, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Ohio. 
Bradford Mass 
Brunswick. Me. 
Braddook. Pa. 
Bellalre, Ohio. 
Belleville, III. 
Belleville, Can. 
Bellevue, Pa. 

Boston, Mass. 
Bridgeport, Oonn. 
Brockton, Maas. 
Beaver Falla. Pa. 
Brookline, Maas. 
Butte. Mont. 
Carrollton, Ga. 

Cairo, 111. 

Calgary, Oan. 

Camion, Ohio. 



*>^low la a Hat of the cities and towns where 
carpenters make It a rule to work only nine 
hours a day. 

Albina, Oreg. Meriden, Conn. 

Allsten , Mim. Moline, 111. 



Meriden. Conn. 

Moline, JU. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Munde, *nd. 
Moundsville, W. Va. 
Muskegon, Mich. 
McKeesport, Pa. 

Mt Pleasant, Pa. 

New Britain, Oonn. 
Neüonvllle, O. 

North Easton, Mass. 
New Kensington, Pa. 
Norfolk. Va. 

New Orleans. La. 
Newport, R. I. 

Newport, Ky. 

Newport News. Va« 
Newtown, N. Y. 
Newbury port, Mass. 
Nanaimo, Bril Ool. 
Nyack, N. Y. 

Norwood, Mass. 

N. Ia Crosse, Wls. 
Natohes, Miss. 

New Cumberland, W.V 
New Castle, Pa. 

New Haven, Conn. 

New Haven, Pa. 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 
New Westminster, B. & 
Nyack N. Y. 

Newark. N. J. 

Natick, Mass. 

Newton, Mass. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
New Albany, Ind. 

New Brighton, N. Y. 
New Brunswiok, N. J. 
Northampton, Maas. 
Norwich, Conn. 
Norwalk, Oonn. 
Oceanic, N. J. 

Oswego, N. Y. 

Ogden "Utah. 

Olean, N. Y. 

Ottawa, Oan. 

Ottumwa, Iowa. 

Ottawa, Hi. 

Ontario, Cal. 



Chelsea, Mass. 0 

Charleroi, Pa. 0 

Charleston, W. Va. 0 

Charlestown, W. Va. F 

Chester, Pa. 

Cincinnati. Ohio. 

F 

Corona, N. V. 

Covington, Ky. 
Columbus, Os. 
Columbus, Ind. 

Camden. N. J. 

Concordia, Kan. 
Columbia. 8 C. 
Collinsville. III. 

Cohoes, N. Y. 

Corsicana, Tex. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Cambridge. Mass. 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Chattanooga, Tcnn. 

Co rao polls, Pa. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Colorado City, Col. 
Colorado Springs, Col 
Cora wall, N. Y 
Corryvllle, Ohio. 

Dayton, Ky. 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

Daven portlowa. 

Dover, N. H. 

Decatur, 111. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Denison, Tex. 

Dedham. Mass. 
Dorohester , Mass . 
Duquesne, Pa. 

Dubuque, Iowa. 

Dallas, Tex. 

El Paso, Tex. 

East Liverpool, Ohio. 
East Saginaw, Mich. 
East Orange, N J. 

East Portland, Oreg. 
East Boston, Mass. 
Easton, Pa. 

Elizabeth, N. J. 

El wood, Ind. 

El wood, Pa. 

Erie, Pa. 

Englewood, N. J. 
Evansville, Ind. 

Everett, Blass. 

Exeter, N. H. 

Eureka, Oal. 

Fair Haven, Wash. 

Fall River Mass. 
Findlay, Ohio. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 

Fresno. Cal. 

Frankford. Pa. 
Franklin, Pa. 

Fort Worth, Tex- 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Foetoiia, Ohio. 
Franklin, Mass. 
Galesburg, 111. 
Galveston. Tex. 

Grand Rapid*. Mich. 
Great Falls, Mont. 
Greensburg, Pa. 
Greenfield, Ind. 
Gloucester. Mas*. 
Greenville, Pa. 
Germantown, Pa. 
Greenwich, Oonn. 
Grove Oily, Pa. 

Glen Cove, N, Y. 

Hot Springs, Ark. 
Homestead, Pa. 
Hamilton Can. 
Hartford, Oonn. 
Halifax, N. 8. 

Hampton. Va. 

Hanford, Oal. 

Haverhill. Mass. 
Hackensack. N. J. 
Harri man , Tenn. 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
Henderson, Ky. 
Hudson, Mass. 
Herkimer. N. Y. 
Hooelck Falls. N. Y. 
Hyd Park Mass. 
Hoboken, N. J. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Houston, Tex. 
fsoitAo Helrbta, Tex. 
Hlngham, Mase. 
Irvington, N. Y, 

Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jacksonville, 111. 
Jackson. Mich. 

9 Jacksonville, Fla. 

> Jeannette, Pa. 

Jersey City. N. J. 
Kearney, Neb. 
Knoxville. Tenn. 

Kingston, N. Y. 

Lanai ngburg, N. Y. 
Lawrence, Mass. 

La Crosse, Wls. 

La Junta, Col. 
Logansport, Ind. 
Lowell, Mass. 

Lynn, Mass. 

Leech burg, Pa. 
Leominster, Mass. 
Lafayette, Ind. 
Lancaster, Pa. 
Lewl*ton, Me. 

Lincoln, Neb. 

London, Canada. 
Lockland, O. 



Omaha, Neb. 

Orange, N. J. 

Olympia, Wash. 
Pawtucket, R. L 
Port Chester, N. Y. 
Punxsutawney, Pa. 
Pensacola, Fla. 
Peterborough, Can. 
Portland, Oreg. 

Port Townsend, Wash. 
Passaic, N. J. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Pomeroy, O. 

Portland, Me. 

Port Angeles, Wash. 
Portsmouth, N. H. 
Portsmouth, Va. 
Portsmouth , O. 
Pocatello, Idaho. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Paterson, N. J. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Plainfield, N. J. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pierre, 8. Dakota. 
Parkersburgh, W. Va. 
Paris, Texas. 
Porterville, Cal. 

Peoria, III. 

Providence, R. I. 
Quincy, Mass. 

Racine, Wls. 
Rochester, Pa. 
Richmond, V». 
Richmond, Ky. 
Richmond, Ind. 

Rock Island, III. 
Fondout, N. Y. 
Roxbury, Maas 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rosedalc, Ind. 

Revere, Mass. 
Riverside. Cal. 

Red Bank, N. J. 
Redlands, Cal. 
Rockford. 111. 
Rutherford, N. J. 

B. Framingham, Maas. 
Springfield, Mass, 
fit. Augustine, Fla. 
South Omaha, Neb. 
South Norwalk, Oonn. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Salem, Mass. 
Stonebam, Mass. 
Somerville, Mass. 
Somerville, N. J. 
Saltsburg, Pa. 



Salt Lake City. 
Ran Angelo. Tei 
Sandusky, Ohio 



Long Island City, N. Y 
Long Branoh, N. J. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Manchester, N. H. 
Marlboro. Maas. 
Marion, Ind. 
Morristown, N. J. 
Manayunk, Pa. 
Malden, Mass. 

Millville v j. 

Media, 1 
Meadvl Pa. 

Med fort r -*s. 

Marbleh r % as. 

Mayfield, iv > 
Monongahela. Pa. 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
Martin's Ferry, O. 
Maapeth, N. Y. 

Milford, O. 
Mamaroneck, N. Y. 
Mercer, Pa. 
Middlesborough, Ky. 
Southampton, N. Y. 

Censhohocken, Pa. 
Cortland, N. Y. 
Ottumwa, la. 

Hillsboro, Tex. 
Bangor, Pa, 
Haughvllle, Ind. 
Maditonvllle. O. 
Masefield ▼ slier. Pa. 



Shreveport, I a. 
Stamford, Conn, 

Sea Cliff, N. Y. 
Springfield. 111. 
Springfield, Mo. 
Springfield, Ohio. 

San Leandro. Cal. 
Steubenville, Ohio. 
Santa Anna Cal. 

Santa Rosa, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash. 

St. John's, N. B. 
SaxoDville. Mas*. 
Schenectady. N. Y, 

Scott dale, Pa. 

Spokane, Wash. 
Sharon, Pa 
Sheffield. Ala, 

Staten Island, N. Y. 

R tree tor, 111. 

Stoughton, Mas*. 

R. Abingdon, Mass. 

8t Catherine, Ont 
San Antonio, Tex. 

San Bernardino, Cal. 
Scranton. Pa. 
Sharpsville, Pa. 
Sharpsburg, Pa. 

St Paul, Biinn. 

Santa Crus Cal. 
Saginaw City. Mich. 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
Sheepsbead Bay. N« Y 
Seymour, Tex. 
Seymour, Ind. 

. Summit. V. J. 

Tamps, Fla. 

Taunton, Mss*. 

Tawsa City, Mloh. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Terre Haute, lud. 

Tho Dalles, Oreg. 
Tiffin, Ohio. 

Toronto, Ohio. 

Toledo, Ohio. 

Toronto. Ont., 60 hra 
Trenton. N. J. 
Trinidad, Ool. 

Troy, N. Y. 

Taren turn, Pa. 

Turtle Creek. Pa. 
Union Hill, N. J. 

Utica. N. Y. 
Unlontown, Pa. 
Vancouver, B. O. 
Victoria, B. O. 
Vincennes, Ind. 
Visalia, Cal. 
Waxshatchle. Tex. 
Wellsburg, W. Va. 
West Hoboken. N. J. 
West Duluth. Minn. 
Warren, Ohio. 
r.Wlnohester, Ky. 
Winthrop, Mass. 
Windsor, Can. (Ont.) 

war as 



Weymouth, Mass. 
Wahasn, Ind. 
Waltham, Mass. 

Waco, Tex. 

W. Newton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Washington, Pa. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Whitman Mass. 
Woburn, Mass. 
Winchester, Maas. 
Wheeling, W. Va. 
Wllklnsburg, Pa. 
Winnipeg, Man. 
Woodaide. N. Y. 
Winfield, N. Y. 
Yoakum, Tex. 
Yonkers, N Y. 
Youngstown. Ohio 
Zanesville. Ohio. 
College Point, N. V. 
Williamsbridge. N. Y. 
La Haue, 111. 

Rockland Me 
Battle Creek. Mich 
Flushing, N. Y. 

Dover, N. J. 

Milburn, N. J. 

Mt Washington, O. 
Peru, 111. 

Boekvllle, Osun. 





THE CARPENTER. 



Solidarity. 

Th© world is min©, to live In and enjoy, 

Is mine to love in and to weep, 

I» mite to build upon, bul not destroy, 
la mine to labor in and »deep. 

The world 1« mine, my heritage it la ; 

It Is not mine alone ; 

Who's born of woman. It ia also hta, 

His title ia my owu. 

’Tia more my own than were It given me 
To hold In undiaturbed repoae. 

For me alone, a deaert it would 1»© ; 

Men make it bloaaom like th© roae. 

And whoao will rot for my title tight, 

Mu at likewise hia resign ; 

And whoao tramples on another’s right. 
Abridges also mine. 

To stand together ; neither can cecap© 

Our joint responsibility. 

Th© injuries we do each other shape 
The common, racial destiny. 

Our interests are mutual, communal, 

Wherever we msy be ; 

The blow» which on a cowering fellah fall, 

▲re an adront to me. 

Americans, ’tia time we understood : 

Our flag, the red, the white, the blue, 

Mean Freedom, Equal Rights and Brotherhood 
For all earth's children as for you. 

That fellow-men in Pullman or Cathay— 

It matters nothing where — 

Are driven as slaves beneath a despot’s sway, 
That too, la my affair. 

The world grows smaller; men are closer drawn 
Antipodean» now are neighbors. 

And sympathetic strikes announce the dawn 
Of justice for each man who labors. 

National lines are nothing; all Is this : 

Whoso wills every man 

To be as free as he would be- he Is 
My fellow-countryman. 



, . , „ no iwritet i’eep^re CONSTITUTION FOR BUILDING 

this : It ia an attempt to bring to pass e’eat poor ceux-cl que j eent et | eepere TRADES COUNCIL. 

the idea of human development which que cette epiatre ne eera paB en vain- 

haa animated eagee, propbeta and poete II eat bien connn de toua c mrpen iera abticlb l 

of all agea; the idea that a time muet et menuiaiere intelligent que aouaiea con- 9wcrnon Tb!« or(t»niu,tion «ball b. known 

come when warfare of all kinda ahall ditionaou on exiete la demande de toua M th « Amalgamated Council of th« Building 

ceaae, and when a peaceful organization patrons en toua Thl.councn.ba.lbeoompo^i ofd.,^ 

of aociety ahall find a place wherein lta droit, eat en premiere le p *mt«» duly chosen from all societies in th« build, 

framework ia for the beet growth of each plus de commodity et en amte de pro- trade«, who «ball, before being admitted, 
pereonality and ahall abolish all servitude duire au prix le plus baa possible, e’eat producocr «dontlal»eigned by the president «»d 
in which one but aubaervee another's le caa paa aeulement dans notre metier, ^ooniln* ^retary of their ^l«ty, and .bail 
gain. Nor should it excite aurpriee to maia ausei bien dane lea autree industries Lieofa'wcret «ociety! the «*ior 

divert the movement from its true path enfin, e’est leur bat et ils appelent a leur shall b© a sufficient guarau- 

into destructive byways- False guides assistance la machinerie improve“, la aoua- tc 00 f tlielrgenutnene««. 
are ever found combating true leaders, division de tens travaillanta, l’emploia a«o. 4. The offleereof thU wxHety .hAli consist 
and there is backward motion, aa well aB d'enfants et de femmea et particulars roUry>corTespoild)llg ^ury, financial 
advance. But frequent whirlpools and ment ila se forment en grande corpora- Ury> treaeu.erand eergeant-at-arma. 
innumerable eddies do not prevent the tionavec un capital et dee resources illim- saa ft. The chairman and vice-chairman .hall 
onward How of the mighty stream.— Prof. Itable quelle eat le reeultat, ila vient b. elected at each meeting, and ahall be noml- 
KkMB,. pr«,u. impoeibl.' pour 1-i.dlvid. d. 

— — procurer uu salaire aulhaant pour avoir the union he belongs to. 

* Mi.ri.tv Pn.tr Fvciisn sein de lut mCine, bien moina de aa fa- s*c.«. Tborecordlngaecretary.oorteepondlng 

A fitlgllty 1 oor HXCIISC. mUle aecrcUry, financial eecreUry, treasurer and aer 

, ' , j. ii,,.:,,.» „„ .'.ntr. geaot-abarma ahall be elected quarterly; the re- 

An exchange, speaking in opposition Ajec le progna de 1 uniyera on a aper ^ |nK MOreUry elmI , receive such salary as 

to governmental control of railroads and d un d’etre bien yOtu, plus deem advisable, 

telegraphs, says it amackB too much of accomplie et d’avoir une habitation qui articlb ii. 

<1 anninKom >» iiri. ftn oHitrtr that conforme h cette age, l’individu a agite Section l. Th© ©xeeuttv© functions of this 
socialism/’ When the editor 01 tnat tuululul0 a v ? ® «lundi ©hail bs ve«u»d in the office» and del©. 



articlb l 



A Mighty Poor Excuse. 



ABTICLB 11. 

Bbctioii 1. Tli© eieeutiv© functions of this 
council shall b© ve»t©<i in the office» and del©- 



dvou, “ ou ‘' ”“ v " — — ... ^ -rtA ; a i ö Ä A ;i council »nail I>© ve«l©u III me ouiwre mnn tin©- 

n o Der in oueation writes a dunning letter d improver aa condition aociale et u voit while ln «««Biou. and ln euch commiticr. a* 

paper in question writes a uuuniug euer .. ... , necee8a i re de e'accosier courdl may find neee«ary to conduct its 

tn nnA nf his manv delinanents. DUtBOne Dientot qu 11 CBl ne e hualn««« nndur thi» conntilution. 



to one of his many delinqnents, putsone öienioi qu n esc neceeeair« ue © 

♦braoxa «K fl0 n liftlxx «« flooialiatie »»ulAmnn avec C0UX qui Ont lee mömes aspirations, Hbc. 2. The objects of this council shall be to 
of those cheap little socialistic stamps 1 . . 11U - centralis© the united effort* and ei perieno© of 

UDOn it and drODS it into that 14 social- enfin ll volt que seul ll est sans pouvoir, Ul© various socleti es engaged ill the erection land 
IT " ho“!Ä™ to receive it .t tbe « it . .gU. .. profit. do Pogompl. do. »' ÄtfÄ! 

•• aoctalMe” port office, b. loM..igbtof P.tron.. .-«.ombl. ovoc . ot, CT do wo » 

the “smack of aocialiem.” When be mdtier eat ils forment une organization fhey maydeem advanugcouatotbemaeUee.and 
does np the mail of his scant edition and pour accomplir ce qu'il est impoeaible de Sec 3w All tra^rand lal>or societies represented 

a^nda th« “ dovil ” to dpnofiit it with procurer seul. In this council, when desirous of makliif a dt> 

sends the devil to aepos t It W F A* maud for either an advance of wages or tn 



Uncle Samuel at the post ollice reception t/el a est la raison ae ia iormation at 

Mv fellow-countryman hopper, there is no thought of “pater- nos anions etquand on est anie A per pr | or th© damahd being made, when. If con- 

naliam." When he walks from hia place fection et on dir^entnoaeffortaenBem. -^1^ 

Our grand»! res summoned hither the oppressed q{ business to his home, through Well Semble, tOOJOUr® gUlUCS par ia raiBOD ev binding. ThU section shall not prevent any 
or every nation ; tiny have throngod paved streets, on clean, convenient aide- la justice, noa ellorta ont preeque toujoura aoduty from aeüng on its own reepoulbilUy. 

Onto ui from the eaat and went, walks Drotected bv well drecscd and on bon reeultat. abticlb in. 

oTtÄSLd well-bred policemen, and enjoy all the Sana doute lea charpentiera et menuia- 

To wherosoe’r men l>© ; privileges of a well conducted municipal iers ont les yeux OU\ert et ll est pas sur- afreets the material interests of any trade society. 

While anywhere men to deapou bend. corporation, he doesn’t tear his ahirt in prenant qu'ila ae forment en Fraternitd ViTnS'drit^te.r* r '‘ ,reMD 14x1 " l “ 11 

I am not wholly free. nnaaihln fatfi of falllmr into avec l’objet de reclammer le metier .le aaafi. Any eoelety having three or more 

-Milts Menander Danton, in the Raüuay TinvtM. a rage at tne pOSBIOie late 01 iaillDg into J . , brsnehes shall b© eiillUsd U> one delegate for 

“socialism.” The governmental control connais aucun metier qui est si abuser each branch. 

of railroads and telegraph ia nothing ou plus degrader que le notre. Lee vial- abticlb it. 

more than the governmental control of lards nous montrent la dillerence en cet 



~ , A e . 1 « l- fAemafinn Ac* maud for either an advance or wages or sn 

Cela est la raison de la formation ue ^brttijf^nient in the bou» of isbor, shsii.tbrougb 

)B unione et quand on eat unie ä per- their delegetee, report«.« eame to Ibla council. 
JO UUIUUD h r prior to th© demand being made, when, if con- 



Where the Credit is Due. 



ABTICLB IT. 



— th. 0 tbe government.! control of l«d. ooo. mootroot I. dill'oteoce on C 

post offices and post roads and the muni- age, et celle de trente on quarente ans «ute their case to this council, aud, if approved 
cipal control of streets, alleys and police passö, le mennisier d’aujourd hui est ni ^ ^ e r©spc cU * oryanisailoDB for imm^iat# 



When times are irood and caoiUl is cipai coniroi oi streets, aneys anu puucr . 

making large nrofita one year after regulations, and if the latter ia “ social- respecter oa conaiderer et la aeule mam- 
another, yofaeldom hear of any case «“•” we cftnnot Bee anything to be c^re de ae faire valoir e8t ;’ eB ' un ‘ r ^ 
where a corporation voluntarily Incieaaee alarmed at in giving it wider scope and cela de commander le rwpecta 



where a corporation voluntarily incieaaae aiarmeu ai in giving u w.uer acope »au 
the wages of its help. Whatever increase power.— Labor Signal. 

the worker receives is usually brought 

about by his trade union, acting under LE BUT DE NOTRE FRATERNITE. 

more or less favorable circumstances. 

When times change for the worse and Frerk Editbur : 

the prospect of reduced percentages A votre invitation je m’asis adresser 
begins to loom np, then the laborer is nos frgres canadiens et fran^ais an sujet 
asked to share the burden. If the de- de buts de notre Fraternity Unie. Ce 
mand is successfully resisted, or the sujet n’est pas originel h notre genera- 



respecter oa coneiderer et la Beule mam- action. 

Öre de ae faire valoir eat de a'unir et par Bbctioi( • epeeUI duty of this 

cela de commander le reepects et la rtf- council to uu© th© united •trangth of ail tba 
... . societies represented therein, to compel all non- 

muneration qui nous est aue. union men and ” »calw ” to conform to, and obey 

Lea ataticadu pays nous informe que ^-Uw»«f.u..wci«ty U.*tth.yrfi.ul<iprop,riy 

l’homme ordinaire produit en quatre h*c. x' It ■h«il be the duty of any trwd. or 
, A ' . labor sodety to us© ©wry lawful means to in- 

heure tons qui est necessaire pour son due© all non-union men or scabs to beoom© 



Ffttu Editiur - exi.tence poor 1. journf.. E.tll .or,,r,. 

a vo„. ioviutioo j. „,•«!. ä *>,».„ »•"* 

, sans ouvrage et deviens tres souvent les W |th the nsuie© of the men. if possible, where 
nos freree canadiens et fran^SlB au sujet . , . oharit^ N’«»t ce DBS aue le employ©«!, Slid the name of the employer, th© 

de buta de notre Fraternity Unie Ce «ojeta de la chante. N eat ce paa que le ^ in writ iBg wlik th« ifa* 
.... but qu’on a de reduire lee heurea de tra- tur« of the pr«-.i,u-nt of th« «ocij-ty »ff«oUd. 

rt*s nnoi nnl >k nrttPA .rönßra. H when this oouncll shall take immediate action in 

vail, un benefit a la community aussie the matter, and, if deemed advisable, this council 



reduction mitigated, the credit ia again tion, en tout agea il a exiater des organi- : n / (i ;ran.rtd'areun l-yT^tw^üVirtVvoU ^thld^.t-tb.n 

due to the strength of the workers’ zatione de travaillanta, paa toujoura avec ' ’ . ' ^ . .. . pr^nt, foraiiiiga 

organization. These are facta that ought lea meines buta, mats toujoura former ” ^ . . . . „ . , mv building where Mid non-union men or 

• 4 /XI« ft U mAn,l/> oat nraimont nnhui . .. ■ a rm. t . j k. 



to be studied, mnd the better the working pour prendre avantege del* unit^ si neces- 
man understands them the sooner will saire h raccomplisment de leurs projets, 
he be able to insist upon receiving all Lee charpentiers et menuislers on a 
that is really his.— The Citizen, Holyoke, trouv£ en etudient les hiitoires des pays 

Mau. . european, aussi bien que celle tie TAme- 

rique, a toujours 616 l’avant-garde h cette 



©f tbs 



pour tout le mondo, est vraiment noble may b© ©mpioycd. This order shsil b© 

et doit are con.iderd un eflort A con- ““ 

tinuer le progrds sociale et industriel de 

la nation oü le projet est consomme .^ n , An^.'^.^nrre.nt.Hl In tbu 



nation oü le projet set conaommd. ««mow l. An^^^prvMnud In thU 

J’esp£re, mes fröree, que les grands oounoii shall pay tbs sum of two dollars taohpsc 

its de notre fraternity soient jamais munUu abticlb vu. 

iblier etque tous nos efforts pnissent Äacmow 1. Ondcmsndofauuloiirepressnisd, 
^ , , ..r. . a general strike shall b© ordsrsd to reins tats a 



riqoe, atonjoura dt(T 1 avant-garde ü cette bot> d * notre fr ‘ ternU<$ eoient x^clbv«. 

The Labor Movement. egard, mala jamais avec 1. farveuret l’en- o° b, ‘ er et f , e 10,18 noa effort, puia^nt 

thuaiaame do cette age aulourd’huia. En continuer Ü Improver la condition de. ■« 

The labor movement, in It. broadest toua environ, on le. voia bien organizer ebarpen ier. et menu .tier. dan. notre 
term., is the effort of men to live the ou en formation, ll. eat paa necemaireje M-dictlon, at que tout caux qui volyent 
lives of men. It i. the ayatemalic organ- crolx do repeter lei 1’hl.tolre de notre *** Thg".^«^ 

ized straggle of the masses to obtain Fraternitd ante, en exlstance depuia 1881 blenl0t oonverti a voir qoe i nniu Bering «*rik« 0 f th« mnnb«r« ofi£« M^utr 
primarily more lel.nre and larger econ- on a record* une hi.toire de trlomphe 081 forco - et u '' ue le8 « rÄD, ‘ P rlnc *P« de 



omlc reaonrcea; but that ia not by any poor le metier dan. lea EtaU-Unla, pree- hbo.x M«mb«r> or «union ■ 

me.na all, becaoee the end and purpose que incomparable. II eat vraia qu’on a caD>< ^^ enB franyaia, oü trouveraia voue •ball b^SSohidsd from this oounoii. ^ - 

of 1, .11 i. . rich., »klst.DC. to, ,h. «4 f«pou,»C .n do. cndrolt. .» r.,.,d !™<* ‘* “T* 

toilara, and that with respect to mind, des salairee, mais en tous cas on a reduit 1 un ^^*» * a K ft l lt ^‘- impossible de 

•ouland body. Half conscious though lea heurea de travail, le progres est si bien voua quitter aana dei^der votre indul- nmmo9lu wbenV© memben of two union, 
it may be, the labor movement is a force connu h nqg membres, au moins ä ceux K* nce 4 cette ne P M 1 epltre rspressnt^d In this eouncii ' work ^si i 

pushing toward the attainment of the quisont interessle, qu’il eat inutile sur ^ ^ co ^ er * mais celle d’un menuisier plsoe of lbs other when on strike, 
purpose of humanity; In other words, ma part de faire pin. que de l’ajouter Q 0 * pour le moment mit decAt* son tablier abticlb ix. 

the end of the true growth of mankind, aana prendre le temps de le prouver. poar P* ume > croyant qu’il eat capable bbctiob i. No «ooietr or brenoh of a a ooWf 
namely, the fall and harmonious develop- Tou. noe membra qui aont en avance d * V0UB intereBB<: ' danB Bon BU J et - 8 ' ü J® I'tSlS £rÄ«re° r ^ h »“o 

ment In each individual of all human delacruaade aavent bien que beaucoup trouve “cone evidence d’apprlciation, «mpioyer« on th« mo« job. 
faculties — the faculties of working, per- de no. membre. aussi qae bien de. menai- 5* m ® *® ra grand plalair de m’approcb.r abticlb*. 

ceiving, knowing, loving ; the develop- aier. paa membre. manquent 1’energie ® ncor ® une *"°' H v °°a par la mdme •■ctiob i. Two-third» of *u ib« ttmJm mi* 
ment, in short, of whatever capabilities ou la courage de leur. conviction ä l’egard rout « notr. joarnal. .? ’it.hmn'ulk« twl/wSlu^maSm’ of 

of good there may be in oa. Th. tra. de la graad necejelt* de chang* 1 m con- Lome E. Tossy, ***** Vt 

» lgnifl cance of the labor movement ia ditiona par quel nous eommea environn*, Union 4 * 1 , Detroit, MUIt. 



notre fraternit* aont aussi ceux de tout of • unior^iln, ft ore a 



1 on# an»» 
o or mot# 



ABTICLB Ze 

•bctiow L Two-thirds of all th# tvadss rs 
•anted tn this council »hall form a quorum. 

6 bo. 2. It shall take two wash#* notiosof 
tJon and two-thirds majority to *M*r Of mm 
an/ artlol# of this oonsUtuUo«. 



THE CARPENTER. 



It® 



INDIANA 

878. Almzivdiu-8. W. Richman. 



MISSOURI 

519 Bbkton Ktatiof— G. E. 
Artbiu at©., Ht. Louis. 



579. Niaoaba Falla— E E. Cornell ,446 Elmwood 



asa AFDSBaoF — W. E Mitchell, 904 8 . Main st. Arthui avc,Bt. Ixmls. 101. Of 

961. Oof muia tills — A.C.M offett,915 ttycemorest 180. Kafsas Oitt— W. A. Lochman, 709 Moody av 404 . Po 



Nicholson, 8976 474 . Nyaok— Robt. F. Wool. Box 498. 
_ 101. Of »oft A— A J. Ryan. E E. 



ALABAMA 

88 . Mobil»— V. J. O'Connor, 458 Franklin st 
9*. “ (Ool.) W. Q. Lewis. 751 8 t. Louis st 

ARKAN8A8 

488. Hot SrBnvoe— Walter Moore, 818 Market st 
CSS. Pm Blüft— J. K Walker. 676 h. state st. 

CALIFORNIA 

47. Alameda— J acob Iloeck, 1512 R. R. are. 

888 . Los Afohlbs-H. Gray, Box 834. 

645. Pasadrfa— Oeo. W. need, Box 805. 

885. Ritkesid»— Chas. Hamilton, 4th and Euca- 
lyptus ave. _ _ 

841. Baobambfto— E. B. Mason, 1017 J st. 

88. Baf »»»fabdifo— H. Wegnorl. Box T97 
Bah Fbafciboo— Secretary of Diet. Council 
K. L. Malebary. 117)4 Fair Oaks st. 

ML N- L. Wandell, 28 Ninth st. HU. B 
804. (Gar.) Wm. Jllge. X231H Mission street 
488. Ouy Lathrop, 117 Turk st. 

818. Sah Jos»— R. R. Crews. 

18. Baf Rafafl— R. Hoott, Box 878. 
fll. BAJTTA Babbaea— E. A. Hmith, 1489 Costello. 
188. Bahta Cmua— Oeo M. Thompson, 147 Chest 



Kvawstill»— 

90. Jos. F. Wurth. 903 E. Columbia st 
470. (Qer ) P. F. Nau, 1601 Fulton are. 

748 (PI. Mill, Mach, and B. H.) Q. V. Mann, 1008 
E Mich. «4. 

158. Fobt Watfb— A. 8. Haas. »1 Taylor st 
788. Pbafbfobt— Frank Btrothman, 1st & South 

streets . 

1177. Haüohtillb— I. H. White. 

IirniAFAPOLis — BecreUry of District Council, 
D. L. Stoddard, 70 Lockerbie st. 

00. (Oer.) Fred. KUhlhut, 829 N Finest 
281. H. E Travis, 272 Brooksldc ave. 

446. J M Pruitt 228 Prospect st. 

315. Lafatwtt»— H. O. Cole, 887 South st 
783 , 44 (Oer.) Jacob liberie. 188 Union st 

744. Log a hspobt — J L. Schrock. 780 Eleventh st. 
965. Mabiof— Jas. Townsend. 

592- Mufci»— J. D. Clark. 71» Kirby av. 

19- N»1r Albaft— A. T. Smith, 188 W Jib st 
756. Richmofd— Jefferson Cox, 527 N. 19th street 
689. South Bmfd— Oeo. Lesher, Box 658 
48. Tbbbb Hautb— 8. H ulten. 818 8 14tb st 
658. Vifcibffbs-~A . O. Pennlnprton, 818 N p th st 
68L Wabash— R. P.Macy, Box 812. 

IOWA 



Ouy Lathrop, 117 Turk st. 564 . BUBLJFGTOB— Wm. Ruff. 1115 Elisabeth st 

Baf Jos»— K. K. Crews. 564 . Datmffobt— W O. Meyers, 984 Harrison st 

Baf Rafahl— R. Hoott, Box 878. 66 . Das Moifbs — A. Y. Bwayne, 758 Oak st . 

8 A ft a Babsaba — E. A. Smith, 149» Costello. 575 . DuauqUB— M. R. Hogan. 889 7th st 
Bahta Cbub — O eo M. Thompson, 147 Chest- 7^7 Ottumwa— A. Msllis. 228 N. Davis st., B. B. 
nul ave. 

CANADA KAN8AS 



CANADA 

88. Halifax, N. 8 .— A. Northup, 168 Morris st 
18. Hahiltof— W. J. Frid, 85 Nelson st. 

184. Lofdoh— B. J. Aust, 706 Dundasst. 

184. Montbkal— (Fr.) B. Levellle, 240 Logan st.. 
8 d riat. 

878. H. T. Holland, 85 Kentst. 

886. (Ft.) Jos Bedard, 8 D Chambly Ave. 

88. Bt. Cathabifbs— H enry Held, Louisa st 



488. Iaatbfwobtb-O McOaully.lth A Sen ©casts. 
168. Tofbba— C. R Gardner. Box 846. 

KENTUCKY 

718. Ootifotof— A. Cherrington, 85 K. Thomas 
786. “ (Osr ) Jos. Kampssn, 815 W. 18th st. 

641. Dattof— James Hosklng. 



897. Sr. Jo hf, N. B.-W. F. Oronk,‘ 122 Adelaide 448. Hofkifstillh-W. O. Hall, 
street! Louistillb— B ecreUry of 

tl Tobofto— D. D. McNeill, 888 Hamburg ave. H. 8. Huffman, 618 24th 1 

617. Vafooutbb, B. O.— L. O. Doldge. Box 200. 7 B. W. Downard. 1712 Porllai 

646, WlFFlPBG. Ma»-— John Red ford. 188 Bel kirk. tOX H. B. Huffman. Ö18 Twenty« 
w. VTI mmirmw. (Oer.) J Schneider. 1588 Hn 

COLORADO 788. (car) Butler Leebolt, 1715 W 

580. Oolobado Oitt— O. F. Hamll. SÄm* 1 

515. Oolobado Hfgs.— C. Oetrsler, 88 Franklin st JJl. ^50 0 4 1 W. B . Williams, 
56 . Dbftbb— D. M. Woods, 2253 Logan ave. *°1. Wifo-AMUB— J W. Crone, 

410. Pubblo— J. B. Harm er, 626 W. 14th st. . ni iiqi au a 

4X Tbifidad— E. O. Pierce, 631 N. Commercial. LOUISIANA 



877 . Bpbifgfibld— J. H. Hoeelton, 1515 N. Grant 

BUtlon A. 

480. St. Joshph— A. L. Curtiss, 1097 James st 
Sr. Ix>uis — BecreUry of District Council, 

V. B. Lamb, 5848 Odell ave. 

4. Oeo. J. Swank. 2124 Alice ave. 

5. (Oer.) J. Burkhard. 2222 B. 18th st 

11. (Ger.) Bdw. Kieseling, 2818 N. Market st. 

116. James Shine. 4254 Hlalne ave. 

848. (Oer.) D. Fluegel. 1417 Benton st 
857. 8. O. Ferguson. 617 W. Jefferson ave. 

870. Otto Schul s, 3645 Cotfens ave. 

488. (Oer.) O. Jablonsky, 2630 Clara ave. 

518. (Oer.) Henrv Thiele. Loughborough and 
Gravoltave. 

878. (BUlr Bldrs.) Wm. U. Tied ernenn, 8914 

Lemp ave. 

604. (Millwrights^— J. S Miller. 

699. O. H . Gulps, 1528 Olive st. 

’64. (Oer. Mill) P. A. I»nx. 8*17 Oravols ave 

MONTANA 

88. Afaootoa— C. w. Starr, Box 506. 

I». Basih— A. I. Woodbury. 

256. Belt— J. D Geoghan. 

118 . ButtbCitt— H. P. lAnier, Box 6M. 

186 Qbbat Fall»— A. J. Km merlon. 

880. Hblbfa— Ohas. Gain. 110 5th ave. 

NEBRASKA 

878. Lihoolm— W. H. Klngery, 1612 N 88th st. 
Omaha — B ecreUry District Council, O. Rein* 
hart, 918 N. Twenty-seventh st 
661. (Oer.) R. Ruppert 8016 Martha st 
685. (Dan ) J. Tolstrup 1873 0. 16th st. 

427. Thus. McKay, 3628 Franklin st 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

MS. Oohoomd— Hans Latsen. P O. Box 658. 

118. Mafchhthb-B. Taffies, 55 Douglass st 
UX Pobtocouth— R. C. Frye, 13 School st 



CONNECTICUT 

116 , Bbldobfobt — Charles Watkins. 60 Alloe st 75. J. J- R 
46. Habtfobd— Wm. A. Neilson 82 Wooster st. 249. F. D. I 
49 . Mbbidff— Geo. J. BUnley, 258 East Main st 704. H Hal 
97. Nhw Bbitaif— John Hlltpokl, P O. Box 982. 799 . John fl 
789. NHW Hathf— O. E. Chi pm an, 405 Washing- 45. Bhhht 
ton st. 

187. Nobwich — A. D. Lewi*. 94 Asylum st 

74*. No»*iU-Wm. A KelloRg, Bo* »1. . 

II«. Eocitill»— Hm K o Hoppe f".‘ pfT“ 

Ml. W*T*»»U*T— Joseph Rendlford, Bo* «10. **»• 

DELAWARE MB Wat* 

40. WxucniOTOH— W. P. Crawford, 1810 W. 8 d. 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA ^ BA1/n 

198. WashiFQTOF— L. F. Burner. 1001 Bst. N. W. 5i! " ( 

FLORIDA 

lit Jacbboftiulb— (Ool . ) M. K Dunlap, oor. 

Hawk and Union sU. 

88K Jaoxsoftilb.-O .T Hood, 825 W. Church st. *2 

7 t Phsbaoola— O eo. Marble. Box 71. ^ 

lf 7 . M (Ool.) A. H Pettlway 818 R. Chaeest. w Vj 

mi Tahfa-J. Hud nail, Box 44. Ft. Brook. W. J.f 

854. W*rr Palm Bmacm-W. V. Rushing. **• 

GEORGIA Bor 

IM. Auavota— (O ol.) T. P. UwU, 13<>9 Philip at. JJJ OAM J ! 1 
tax Duilif— A. A Cowart. na \ 

144 Maooh— J. W. Waterhouse, 1411 Third st {^g ] 

ILLINOIS S; 

im Bbllfvilus — C bas. Dittman. 211 E. 6 th st M 
70, Bbightoh P’H— J. H. IjUrimoulle, 2479 Wm. 414. fj 1 *® 1 
885. ÜAFTOF- Homer Whalen, 845 W.Cass Place JjJJ* 521 
Chicago— H ecreUry of District Oouucil, fJ2* S ÜMC 

H. Mot ormack , 49 I» Balle si. *• Htd» 

L Adolph HUmru 180 W. I»ke st. DJ- Lawbi 

1L (French) T Beaudry. 18 Elburn ave. fJO LBFQ3 

m. J. H. Stevens, 60%8 Dearlmrn st. 9JJ* J X)WKJ 

81. W. R. Bowes, 7831 Coles ave.. Bta. " 8 ." Jl™ 1 ' 

«1 (Rohem.) Vaclav Korna, 978 W 16th st. 

78. (Oer.) Aug. Reiche, 4058 Atlai llcst. JM. Mabl 

Ibi. iBoand.) B. Engborg. 80 Heine at gtTlo 

849. (Oer ) Theo. Dssch, 5827 Union ave. 

889. Wm Hsnnette, 1744 N. Clark st 

418. (Oer.) Jss. Bell. 1810 Van Horn at J' Ck 

419. (Oer.) Job» Buckrau, 916 W. 18th st. fJJ- 

446 . i Roll.) K.F Vansteenr»erg. 147-1 l8thst.sU.T. *4 Nhwt 
121. (BUlrt) Oust Hansen. Fi8 Austin ave. Ig- 

188. (Polish) I Maslak, 127 W Black hawk st. **• JJOBTI 

888 (Rohem ) Boh. ChlUussl. 1102 Kldxle ave. JfJ. Nobw 
r«. 3~. T Bennatt. IIM Wlioo. .« «O»« 

#90. (Oer.) (Mill Henoh Hands) F. H. Qultmeyer. 97. Boxii 

II* Hinman st. 

TM. H. Friedrich, 80 Heine place. NO. Halbe 

741 F. Larson. 761 Jane st. 2^121 

784. W. Pullmah.-M. T. Ash, Box 17, W. Pull- J) go«* 

898. Collifsttll»— Oeo. Hhoettle. 

181 Bast Bt. Ix>uia— K Wsndllng.612 Illinois st 481 Broun 
644. RlmhUEFT— (Oer.) H. rtlallrii. P. O. Box 89. »74. £AUF 1 

48. EC SOLE wood V F. Nugent, 648 f 'lies! nut si 916. Walt 
817. KtaFSToF— J. F. McFerran. 1475 Emerson st. 426. W tt 



LouistiIaLB — B ecreUry of District Connell 
H. 8. Huffman, 618 24th st 
7. B. W. Downard. 1712 Portland ave. 
iOB. H. B. Huffman. G18 Twenty-fourth st 
214. (Oer.) J Schneider, 1588 Hrentst. 

799. (Oar) Butler I^eebolt, 1716 Hancock st 
688. Nhwfoht— M. McCann, Oe». Delivery. 

801 . Paducah— W. B. Williams, 707 8. 10th st. 

701. Wifcithstf»— J W. Crone. Box 46 

LOUISIANA 

Nhw Ohlhah» — BecreUry of District Ooun 
dl . F. O. Wetter, 618 Josephine st 
79. J. J Becker, 3*9% 2d st 
249. F. D. Rons. 8*09 OonsUnoe st 
704. H. Heffner, 688 Pulton st. 

789. John Kaiser, 812 VUlere st 
46. Bhsfvfpobt — P eter Gereon. Box M. 

MAINE 

407. Lhwihioh— A.M.F lagg,94Bpringst. Anban 
341. Po»TLA»D— N. C. McDonald, 161 York st. 
889. Room LA SD — A W. Brntth, 6 Willow st. 

985 Watbetillh— B- 8. Hu ton Ins. 18 Percfval c* 

MARYLAND 

88. Baltxmohh— W.H Keenan. 1187 B. FayetUst. 
44. M (Oer.) H. B. He breeder, 606 N. Wolf st 

MA88ACHU8ETT8 

0Ule District Council— BecreUry, D Ma 



404. Poetuhhbt»»— W. H. Jone», Rye, N. Y. 

208. Pouqhkmhfsi» — O. E. Baker. Box 88. 

72. Roohmsiw-H. M. Fletcher, 81 Bartlett st 
179. “ (Oer.) Frank Schwind, 4 May Plaee. 

159. Rom»— D. Parry, IHN. Madison street. 

479. Bbsboa Fall»— H 8 . Uastner. 806 Fall st. 

148. Bchhstmttadt— H enry Bain, 836 Craig st 
Rtatff Islafd— S ecretary of Dlst OouncT, 
O. T Shay, 19 6 th ave. New Brighton. 

606. Post Richmofd— J. Keenan, 288 Jersey st 
New Brighton. 

567. Btaplstof— P. J. Klee, Box 497. 

16. HTHACUS»— (Oer.) K. K retech. 734 ButUmutt. 
114. Tassttows— D. Page, North Tanytown. 

7X Tsot— R obt Laurie. Box 65. 

185. Utica— G. W. Griffiths, 840 Dudley a^e. 

580. Watsbtowf — P. J. Doocey, 8 Union Block, 
Araanel st. 

238. Watmllt— E 8. Gregory, Bex 176. 

Wkst Chssthb Oouftt— B ecreUry of Dis- 
trict Council, James Gagan, 22 Lawton 
st., New Rochelle, N. Y. 

KB. Wwt Tbot— C harles Angus. Ill Id st 
888. Williams Bbidgb— J ohn Bdgley. Box B. 
f72 Yofmh»»— C hms. Gordon, 142 Ashburton ave. 
786 . “ H. W. MalHnson, 215 Kim street. 

NORTH DAKOTA. 

174. Gbafd Fobxs— R. B. Tyler, 1201 N. 8d st 

OHIO 

14 , AJLBOF — J. Glass, 111 H. Thornton st 

17. Bmllai»»— O eo. w. Curtis, Box 90. 

170. BmiDOHPOBT— John A. Fawcett 
901. Btcthu» — J. A- Fink. 

148. Cafto*— K eller Huff, 87 Center st. 

988. Ohillicothb— C has. Bch warts, 82 No. Hick- 
ory street. 

OiscniSATi— BecreUry of District Council, 
D P. Rowland, 102 Bymmes st , Walnut 
Hills 

X D. Fischer. 185 B. McMlcken ave. 

SO. (Oer.) Ao|Qit Weiss, 858 Freeman ave. 

884. (Ship Carp.) J. A. Hamilton, 5S B. Front 
897. (Mill-) Oeo. Marshall, 457 Main st 



loney, 6 Holly ave., Cambridge. Mass. 
Bostof— B ecreUry of District Council. 

P. A. Morley. 18 Village st 
88 . W. J. Shields 10 Cheshire st., Jamaica Plain. 
66 . (Jewish.) L. Richter. 146 Salem st. 

548. (Shop Hands) W. H. Jaitftlne .6 Burnside ave. , 
Somerville. 

IS. CAMsaiDG»— D. Maloney, 6 Holly ave. 

Si. “ A. B. McLeod, 58 Mt Auburn st 
H6. Baht Bostof— J B Potts 225 Tendon at 
408. Fall Rjtmm- Jss. Walton, 5 Branch st 
800. Fitcmbubg — V. West her bee, 9*5 Green si 
SO. Oloucmfthh— H.W. D avis, 1»M -pie wood av 
8X Hatmbhill— P. D. Ov s. 100 I^ocke st. 

424. Hifgham— O olin Campbell, Box 118. 

408. Holtok»— M. D. Hull Ivan. 109 Sargent st 
SO. Mudsos — O eo. B. Bryant. Box 125. 

198. Htd» Pa»k— B. Daly. 41 Garfield st. 

111. Lawxuob — J amas Mcl»reu, 160 Water st. 
870. Lawox — Jno P. Kirby. Box 148 . 

596. Lowell— F rank Kappler. 291 Lincoln st 
I0X Ltff— M. L. Delano. 108 Lewis st 
8 tl. Mams lhh »ad— K. H. Roach. Box 61. 

151 Mahlbobo— J. O. Donohue, 21 School st 
l*L Natick— B. P. Annis. 16 Oakland st. * 



408. Niw Bedfoed— C Q Francis. 14 Spruoe st. J71 m* wXl£ U BuUer st 

N*WTo.-!l~re,.r, of DU.rlot CounCI. O. W ; “ B " U " ^ 



«ic\a/ icoQCy 884 (Hhlp viarp.; J. a. nwaiuoD, wmi a. gi 

NEW JtKofc Y m Marshall, 457 Main st 

750 Aebühy Pake — Heery P. Gant Box 897. SI. (Stairs) H. Hogg 427 Milton sl 
4 M Batofwh— HU phen Hussy, 748 Avenue E. an. A. Berger, 227 Fergus st., Station A. 
121 * Bmidgvtoe — J. H. Reeves, 145 FayetU st 661 A. J. ffalnes, 882 DelU ave. BUUon O. 
gO* Camdmf-T. B Peterson, 887 Mechanic st 667. M. A Harlow. 264 Eastern ave. 
gn Dote»— L. O. Pott 676 L. A. Groll, 218 Jefferson et©., Bta. E 

167* Elisabeth— H. Zimmerman, 847 Fay av. 681. F. A. Wagner. 728 Freeman are. 

Bo. Elisabeth. 662. Wm. Ethel, 1844 W. 6 th st 

697 Elizabeth— (Oer.) J bn Kuhn, 827 Martin si »n F. Walber. 97 Liddell s* , Falrmount. 
647 Kegliwood—K. L. Weetervelt Olhthlafd— BecreUry of District C 

»1* Hosoebf— F. Steigleiter. IS Garden st Vlnoent Hlavln. 158 Superior st, I 

865. Haokhfsach— T. Heath, 250 Bute st. U. A M. BUlr, 26Baylss st 

Hudsof Oouftt— D. O., Secretary, David n (Bobern.) Fr. Dlvoky, 116 Petrie st 
Morrison, 614 Palisade ave., Jersey City 0 i (Oer.) Wm. Kempke. 52 Norwood st 
48X Jimxt Oitt— O. Williamson, 280*^ 3d st. in (Oer.) Thso. Welhrlch, 16 Parker an 
U 4 (J C. Heights) D. K. Hadsail, 494 Central av. 44 ». (Qer.) Fred. Albrecht H Brooklyn si 
151* Love B batch— C has E brown, Box 841, 461. H. J. Riggs* »4 Bayles st 

Long Branch City. HL Odllhge Hill— H. Cummings. 

382. Mils ums— J. H. White, Short Hilts. Columbus B ecre U ry of District C 

306 Mill till» — Jas. McNeal. O. Farley, 558 Boon si. 

688 MoBBigrowF-O. V. DeaU, Look Box in 61. A. O. Welch, 762 W Broad st 
116 . Nmwabk— H O. Long. 2.0 Norfolk st 426. John Gahan. 866 Leonard are. 

788 . (Oer.) O. Arendt. 696 8. 14th st Dattof— BecreUry of District ( 

aox Ocmafio— Zacn. T. Alas. Box 70. B. O. Mathers. 28 Catherlnest 

1,6 Patebsof- (Holl ) Al. Meenen. 85 N Main. LOt W. O. flmltk. 628 K. HufTman ave. 
m 4 * P. K Van Houton. 718 E. 27 in 146. (Oer.) Jos. Wlrth, 811 Clover st 

490* Passaio— Frank Wentink. Box 122. « 6 . (Car Bldrs.) Oeo. Hrenner, 860 Henm 

89»! Phillifsbubo— W m. Hod gw, oor. Mulberry 677. Dhlawahh— C.A.Rubrecht, 17 Univw 
and Bprlug Garden sU., Easton, Pa. 775. Dhlhi— James fllatUrv, Home City. 

165. Plaiffihld— Wm. H. Lunger, 94 WesUrvelt 436. Rast Litmhpool— J H. Robin nett 19 
666 Bomhbtillh— W. W. Pittenger. way. 

466! Summit- E d ward Mart n, box 618. M FtfdlaT— W. Alspach 828 Adams st 

548 Tow» or Ufiov— Jos. Wohlfarth, Weehaw. 697. BLamiltof — W O. Musch, 1141 Heato 
kenPO. 686 . Iboftof.- A. D. Neumeyer, 126 R. R 

81 Tbhftof— L. T. Reed, 152 Rose st M7. Lima— J. Vansweringen, 7118. Main 

788. Locklafd — Chas. E. Hertel. Box 181 
NEW YORK M 8 . Madisofvtllh— E L^Beld en^ Box 2 

« # n. M 6 . Mahihtta— J. w. Forester. 800 4th el 

Alea^.-S^Utv of District Council, ^ Mabiof— H. C. Anderson, 867 8 . Pro 

D P. Myrtle av. Mahtiw s Fmbht — 1 Thoe. V. Salisbury 

174. James Finn , 887 0 range st. 735 . Middlbtowf— Jacob O Kern. Heno 

668 . (P er.) A lex. Rickert. fl 6 Elk &L 74 g v T Washiftof-W* H. Nicholson. 

x AMgTMHDAJf— Herbert Clark, Perkins st m Nblsoftill»- F rank Barron. 

458. Aubuhv W. W. Gillespie, 119 E. Oenssee. m NomwooD — A. E. Best. Ivanhoeav., 

181. BifgHAMTSF— C. H. Torjey. Box .998. Norwood Cincinnati. Ohio. 

P 1 ^ 01 Ooundl m Pombeot — J M Fowler, Mason City 

T. B. Lineburgh 890 Gates ave 497 . Portsmouth -J. F. Wan less. Box 88 

66 . OofmtUlafd—H.E. Young, Box 148, Grave- Ifl7 Rafdubet — J. H. Brown, 888 Han oo< 

send. L.l. » 4 . Sphifofibld—W. B Knieley,21» Lin. 

108. M. A. Maher 61 Irving PI. )66. Btfusbftii.lji — D. H. Vlrden, 810 8 

147. M. B. NlchoU, 8 Poplar street 143 . Tim»— A. Welgle, 161 Hycsmcr© st 

175. Robert Logan, l»i Grove st Tolmdo— - 8 ec. District Council, E. 

847. Chas. Monroe, 51 8 t Mark’s ave. Pillen. 288 Webster st 

288. M. Hpsnce. 86 Van Buren st ». J. W Mitchell. 49 Var ce st. 

891. (Oer.) F Kramer. 96 Jiao burg are. m (Oer .) Chas. Lots, 111! Sherman si. 

881. 8 E. KUIolt 69 Rockaway ave. l7L ToUFGgrowg-C. N. Crosier, 184 Bal 

J87. Ü. H. Richardson, 94 K oroad way. 71 ^ Zafbsvilj»— Fred. Kappes* Oentr 

451. Wm. Carroll, 792 Bergen st ifth Ward. 



M. FbhfWOOD— C. Biihman, Jelferson, cor 10X1 
960. Gal»* bubo — P. F Hwanson, 78 1 K. North st 
141. OmDOBOflSfVG— <J.T Aimers, 7720 1 )ol»o nave 
879. Habvwt-D. O. Morse 
M. Bmblafd Pabh — J. H. Zimmer. 

168. Htd» Pabh— 8. B. Baker. 7015 Oglesby ave. 
648. Jacksoftillh— 8. P Darter ,742 R (rhamhers 
484. Mhvsifgtof (Fr.)— B. I»polloe, 214 116th st. 

Chicago. 

M0. La»» FoBJsrf — R. W. Dean, Bob 66 

984. La Ball»— F. H BIlloU, 1118 Crave Oour st. 

66 A LlFOOLF-B. F. Poe. 627 Sixth si. 

758. Mofmouth— Frank Watson 
80. Mokblahd— J. T. Hums, 2839 Kinds st. 

506. Oak Pakk— Aug. Mlebolskv. 27 Marengo st 
OTTAWA— John D. Geary , 216 DeLeon st 
Pkkiv— Chas. Eyrse, 421 7th st 
Phobia— R W. Bhuch, 306 % Hancock st. 
Pnu— David George. 

QciFcrr — Wm. Benner, 1021 Kentucky st. 
Rook Islavd— Jos. Neufeld, 427 7th si. 
Roam Pakk— 

South Chicago— J. O. Grantham, 8028 



L. Connors, Wsst st. 

275. Nkwtob— Wm. Boucher. Box 71. 

184 Nhwtof Ohftk»— Fred Bolsner, Box 7» 
IM. No»th Adams— Jos. Dsry. 54 V4 Prospect st. 
MX No btf Bastof— August Ledtii, Box 185: 

485. Nobwood — Jss. Hadden. Box 484. 

417. Quifct— A. O. Brows. Box 186. Wollaston: 
67. Rokvubt— H. M. Taylor, Pan ton st., Doi^ 
ehester. 

140. Salhm-F. A. Evicts 2 Smith ave 
701 Haxoftillh— Jss. J. Tuttle. Box 800 
24. Bombbvillh— Ira Doughty. 6 Carlton st. 

96. RraiVGFIHLD— (French) I. Haase tt*. Box 768 
654 A. F. Russell . 66 Essex st 

681 »touohto»— F. O Fowler. Bos 1065. 

974. Tauftof- D. O King. lOOen Cobb. 

216. Waltham— John Rail ly, 254 River si. 

416. Wmft Nhwtof— M. F Ryan, Box "64. 

480. Wftmouth— ■. J. Pratt, Weymouth Heights 
66 . Woa uH S TH» O. D. Flake. 7*> Mal» st 



MICHIGAN 

*46 Battu Okhhk-A Me Ken xie. 811 North »v 
421. Dwrmorr — T. 8 . Jordan, 497 BaauOalt ave. 

659 C H. Oibblngs, 577 Heauhlen st 

760. Gbafd Rapids— Aug . Nsleon, 16 Marlon st 
86 . Jauksof— H. Behan, 20 H Dcyo st 
184. Labs Lifdbf— A. I»ne*ot, P O. Box 405. 

502. Ludifgtoh— A. R. Dibblo, P.O Box 596. 

460 Mafisth»— W m. Blodget, 808 Maple st 
100. Muvkbooh— Henry Kate. 860 Son) hern av». 
Sagif aw— B ee. of D. O .O. B. Oralgan, 111 
N. Jefferson ave., E. H. 

IM. J. J. Murphy, 682 Farwell st. 

245. (Mill) L. Maler, 181 Haroard st.. W. 8 . 

654. H. Kober, 121 8 . Third st B. 8 . 

AM. (Oer.) Wm. Teckentian, 182 0. 11th st, E. 8 . 



Buffalo— Secretary of District Ooundl, 

Oeo. Ullmer. 674 Oeneeee st. 

9. W. H Wreggttt, M Trinity st 
MB. (Ger.)R. Luensc, 12 / Rove at. 

974. K. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguson ave. 

440. Jos Ruddy, Jr.. 1948 Jefferson st 
•9 Do hobs— A. Van Amen. 22 George st 
640. OoLLBOH Pourr.— G. A. Pickel, 6 tb ava. and 
11 th st . ^ o — 

Ml Oohfwall-ov-Hudook— B. Decker, Box Mt. 
606. Oobtlafd- R. w. Crandall. 8 Map’s ave. 

» 6 . Elhiha-B. M. Snyder, 761 E Market 
tx Fisheillob-Hudsof— Jax Hayex Mai 
Us wen. N. Y- 

714. Flüshifg— P.S. Field, 154 New Locust st 
600. Olhf Coth. L. I., Geo. Montfort. 

M9. Glees Fall»— Ira Van Duaen, 85 Sanford si 
146. Ietifgtof— A lex. H. Smith. Box 187. 

608. ITHAOA— E. L. Whiting, 18 Lake ava. 

Ml. KiFQoroE— J. Dcyo Chi pp, Box 100. 

Ml. Lrrru Fall»— T. R. Mangan. 629 Gerden st 
4M Mt. Vhhvoh— J. Beardsley. 181 N. 7th ava. 
Ml. Miwiumi— D. O. Healy, 46 Johnson st 
42. Nhw Rochhllh— P.MoGaough,» Division st 
697. Nhwtowm, L I.— J. B Way, Corona P.O. , LL 
New Yoax— BecreUry of Dlstrlsi Oouiidl, 



667. M. A Harlow. 264 Eastern ave. 

676 L. A. Groll, 218 Jeffereon ave., 8ta. E. 

681. F. A. Wagner. 729 Freeman ave. 

68X Wm. Ethel, 1344 W. 6th st 

66X F. Walber. 97 Liddell st , Falrmount 

Olmtklafd— Secretary of District Ooundl. 
Vlnoent Hlavln. 156 Superior st, Room 11 
1L A M. Blair, 86 Bayles st 
M. (Bobem.) Fr. Dlvoky, 186 Petrie st 
Mt (Oer.) Wm. Kempke. 52 Norwood st 
6M. (Oer.) Theo. Welhrlch, 16 Parker ava. 

449. (Oar.) Fred. Albrecht 21 Brooklyn st 
451. H. J. Kigxe, 34 Saylee st 
ML Oollhgb Hill— H. Cummings. 

Colu m bu s Becre U ry of District Ooundl, 
O. Farley, 558 Boon si. 

61. A- O. Welch, 762 W Broad st 
MX John Gahan. 966 Leonard ava. 

Dattof— BecreUry of District Ooundl, 
X O. Mathers. 28 Catherlnest 
104. W. O. Smith. 528 R. Huffman ava. 

94X (Oar.) Jos. Wlrth, 811 Clover »t 
MX (Car Bldrs.) Oeo. Hrenner, 660 Herman st 
677. Dklawakh— C.A.R ubrecht, 17 University av. 
775. Dhlhi — James Slattery, Home City. 

MX East Lithhpool— J H. Robin nett 187 Broad - 

18X Fnro LAT—W. Alspach. 828 Adams st 
697. BLamilto»— W O Musch, 1141 Heaton st 
6M. Iboftof.- A. D. Neumeyer, 125 R. R. e’reet. 
167 . Lima— J. Vansweringen, 7118. Main st 
/0B. Locklafd— Chas. E. Hertel, Box IM 
MO. Madisofvtllh— E L. Beiden, Box 281. 

MX Mahihtta— J. W. Forester. 800 4th st 
778. Ma»iof— H. O. Anderson. 867 ».Prospect st 
It Maktif s Fkket -TIio#. V. Salisbury. 

7M. Middlbtowf— J acob O Kern. Hano, O. 

746 Vf Washiftof— W* H. Nicholson. 

78X Nhlhoftill»— F rank Barron. 

706. Nohwood— A. R.Beet. Ivanhoeav., 

Norwood Cincinnati. Ohio. 

660. Pombeot— J M. Fowler, Macon City, W. Ta 
487. Portsmouth — J . F. Wan less. Box 886. 

107. Bafdttbkt— J. H. Brown, 828 Hancock st 
M4. Spkifgfibld— W. R. K nisley, 21 B Linden ava, 
IM. Stfusbftill»— D. H. Vlrden, 810 8. 6th st. 
148. Tim»— A. Welgle, 161 Sycamore st. 

Tolhdo— Sec. District Council, R. G. Me* 
Pillen, 228 Webster st 
M. J. W Mitchell. 49 Var ce st. 

IM. (Oer.) Chas. Lots, 1116 Sherman st. 

17L Youfgstowf— C. N. Crosier, 124 Baldwin st. 
T1A Zafhbtilj»— Fred. Kappas, Central ava., 
18th Ward. 

OREGON 

40. Aftobia— J acob Fray. 291 Bond st 
». Pohtlafd— D avid Hendereoa. Hoe 648. 

PENNSYLVANIA 



Nhw Yokh— S ecretary of Dta 
J. H Wright, 280 W. 41th st 

K. A. Kodd. 1846 Chisholm st 



Edwards ava.. SU. 0., Chicago. 

S. Ksglhwood— I. Tbompaon, 3661 Morgan 
street, Ohloago. 

BrmnrarXHLD — John Zarin», 1889 N. 2d st 
Mthhatoh— F. Wilson, MW, BUunton st 
Waukjmah— W. J. Strickland, 104 6 th ava. 



MINNESOTA 

ML DULUTH-J. L. Header. 415 6 th ave. W. 
97. •». PAUL-Aug. J. MeUger, 4M Rondo d. 



MISSISSIPPI 

-Frank Curtis. MO Ji 



6 X Jas J. Kane, 897 E. 86 th st 
64. J. U. Lounsbury, Hudson Bldg., 801 W. 97tb 
200. (Jewish) John Ooldfarb, 212 Madison st 
340. A. Walt. Jr., 889 Columbus sva. 

876. (Oer Framers) O. Koechele, 2057 2d ave. 

863. H. Seymour, i860 Id aw. 

497 . (Scan.) Joe Haslun, 16 W. 100th st. 

464. (Oar.) JI Malberger, 682 E. 156tb st 
4 M. Ed Bartlette. 943 9tb ava. 

478. Wm. Trotter. 918 9ib ava. 

478. F. J. Doherty. 8818 Arthur ava . SU. T. 

497. (Oar.) O. Barthold. 42 Blrlngton st 
608. Patrick Kavanaah, 846 W. 49th st. 

61X (Oar.) Richard Kuebnel, 61 Ava A. 

767. (Fr. Canadian L. Ball mare, 2M E. 71 th st 
718. J. P. Spain», »468 6 th ave m ^ 

786. (Oer. MtUlwrighU and Millers) Hsary M a ak 



ill. C. L. Mohncy, 70 Wilson ava. 

E7. (Oar.) Robert Oram berg 31 I tan st. 

197. AlTOOHA— II. L. Smith, 2006 4(h avenue. 

Ml. Bafqob John Albert. Box 160. 

ÜX Beat is Falx»— A. Burry, Box 811, New 
Brighton. 

MX Bbadpobd — O. F. Cummings, 1 Main et 
Rooms 11 and IX 

MX Oahhokdalh— F radSluman. XI Thorn at 
07. OH 9 BTBH- Eher 0. lUgby, 840 B. Fifth si 
Ml. Eahtos— F rank P. Horn. »14 Butler st 
«M. Fhajtkpohd— J. R. Naoa, 6418 Keystone st 
Taeony. 

401. FAASEl.ie— M. D Ollna 

«M. Ghhmaftowf— J. E. Martin. M W. Duval 1 
462 OnHSHSSUsa— J. II. Rowe. 884 Concord st. 
07. Hahhisbuhg— O. W. Diehl, IMS Harr al. 

MX Homhmtkad— J. A. Wolff, Box 81. 

2M. Jha sis tt» J O. Baker. Penn Station. 

MX Lahoastb» — O. H»nsetl, 804 New Holland av 

177. MoKhmpobt-S. G. Gilbert, 1010 Brtok allay. 
(51. Mafsfihld— B. H. MoConkay, Oarnagta,Pa. 

178. Mnmopm — J D. Hoyd. 

«X Nhw Khksifgtof— J. O. Bead, Box IX 
MX Nhw Oahtlh— W. W. Medaary, 8 M Harbor 
Phtladblthia— 

X Matthiss Morrs, 418 N. 6 th st 
07. (Kensington) Ohas. L. Spangler 4164 Sergeant 
MX (Oar.) Jos Oven. 1029 N. 4th st. 




«16. (Mill) J. Dueringer, Jr.. 8081 Sergeant st 
Pitvebuhoh— S ecretary of District Ooundl 



786. (Gar. MUlwrighU and Millars) Haary Maak, MX 
■i. m 17tb at., So. Broeklr*. m 



W. P. PMIod. I« John at. 

1 42. H. O. Scbomaker, 186 Webstar st, Alls*. 

64. (Oar.) Adolph Hats 181 18th st, H. S. 

M. (R. End) F A. Kloesy, 6861 Shakespeare at 
M 6 . F. B. Robinson, Juliet St, 14th Ward. 

60S. (Oer.) Ludwig Pauker. 1810 Breedt » 1,8 t 
>48 Fttfts«itawfmv—W ns. Means. Box 197. 

MX Bhahi— T. I^^^Ull^rMDrifb st 







1 

/ 



THE CARPENTER. 



Bcjranto* — S ecretary District Council, 
Knbert Mould. 8)3 Marlon at. 

MS. Moo. M toon hark. 908 Of ford at. 
t*4. H 8c’RA*TON-(Gor.) O. Roem.<h,725 Palm at. 
it. Hhamoki* -H. A. L. Hralnk.610 K. Oamero« 
468. rtHAttow — K B. Brockway, 17 Pirat at. 

/76. Ta bknti’m — T. O. Miller, Bo* 287 
717 Tayloe- George Wick a, Bo* 46. 

4M. CTkiontow* — M r . H. Koonta. 18 Morgantown. 

• 02. Wilebb-Barrh— A. H Ay era. 61 Ponn at. 

166. W illlammport — L. P. Irwin, 441 Hepburn at. 
191. York — Kd. Mtckley, 19 N. Penn at. 

RHODE ISLAND 

176. N aw poet- -P. B. Dawley. 693 Thames at 
843. Pawtucket— J aa. K. Duffy. 284 Wooden at. 
94. Pmovidhucm— Joa. Aiken, Bear 68 Hutton at. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

43. OBABLwrov— <Ool.) R. A. Washington, 13 
Mount at 

49. Columbia — (Ool.) o. A. Thompson, 106 Bast 
Tailor at 

TENNESSEE 

J98 Knoxville— N. Underwood, 14 Anderaon at. 
1.36. M abtie — K. K. JefTroaa. 

194. Memphis— O. P Callahan. Htatlon B. 

766 N a>*h vu.ua — J. F. Dunnebacke, 14u6 N. Col- 
lege at. 

TEXAS 

KJh. Austin— H. Koeneler. 1913 Breckenrldge at 
78i. Oobsicawa— W. J Fueler, lilt) W. 11th ave. 
198. Dallas— K. J. Moftitt, Bo* 399. 

J7I. Denison— C. H. Miller, i-o* 306. 

377. Ft. Woetb-A Krause, Cor. New York and 
Willie mlrn 

411. Oainehvill*— A A. I*atrri. H47 K Truelove. 
<36. OALVOfTON — C. K Ballard, Box 896. 

611. “ (Oer.) Richard Seidel, N. W. Oor. 

M % and 37th ala. 

711. IIiueboeü- Mfl lure H. Parker. 

114. Houston— A. Dennison, Bo* 109. 

167. Ha* Antonio— G W. W. Smith, Rubloio 

htore, Hock Quarry Hoad. 

160. “ (Ger.) T. Jauernlg, 1111, K. Commeroe 

717. “ A. G. Wlctael, 136 Centre si. 

106. Taylor— W B Pybaa. P. O. Bo* 696. 

623 Waoo -B. G. Ivongguth, 11 Walnut at 

UTAH 

168. Balt Lakh City— G eo. B Htum. 818 W. 4th, 

Ho. Bt. 

VERMONT 

839. Burlington — Jaa. Child«. 33 North at. 

69- Rutland— J. A. Thlbault, 8 Terrill at. 

VIRGINIA 

781. Portsmouth— L. W. G. Boorev, 809 4th at 
lit. Richmond — W ns H. Gaul. 606 Albemarle at 
381. (Ool.) J. B. Maeon, 704 Clark al. 

WASHINGTON 

Ml. Bkattlh— J. O. Heymer, Bo* 1469. 

WE9T VIRGINIA 

611. Cmarlhstom— J. L. Jones. Box 699. 

286. Olaresnubg — J 3. Ridenour. Box 8A 
•19. Blei**- D B Martin. Bo* 309. 

431. Fairmont— L. O. Jones. 

719 Hurtinuton— T. U.GlIklaon, 18294thave. 
671. MABTiNeRuao— Geo. L. BchopperL 
416. W *Lia an ro— H anoi. Patterson, Bo* 348. 

A Wtfiiurn-A. L Bauer, 1619JaooheL 

Bee. District Council Wheeling and 
vicinity. 

WISCONSIN 

688. Ober* Bay— W. Wegner. 638 N Madieonat 
286. La OaoseB-John Lelda. 1806 Adams at. 

ISO. M ADiaoe — W in. Moll. 208 Murray at. 

If ILWAUKHM— Heeretarv of rHatrtct Ooundl 
Herman Obrecht, 642 H Pierce at 
80. (Ger.) Wm. Hubllts, 740 18tn at 
336. (Ger.) Jo»n Bettendorf, 766 7th *y*. 

390. (Ger.) J. Werner, 1336 Utli al. 

818 (Gar.) John Havmaann, 696 33d at 
432 iCrna' Beckman, !l*3. lXlhat. 

673. Otto Kent. 186 4th at 

473. No. LaOoossb— O. i^veraua, 3106 Kane at 
684. Oshkosh— J oeepn Tuttle. 404 Mt Vernon at 



I’*** it Law to Iti'Kiilatt» Statt* ami Muni- 
cipal ( on tractors In Employing 
Labor. 



N page II of the October 
/ '' « i \ CtKcgNTiK we pub- 

j ♦. J V liihetl a copy of a 

1 IW bill which will be 

presented to the 
State l^eglalatare of 
New Jersey thin 
r ifr winter. The bill 

hoe been prepare«! 
by Bro. J. It. Mannifield, of Union 167, 
Elisabeth, N. J. 

in defence of this bill Bro. Manniiield 
write«: “It is tbe duty of the State to 
protect its workingmen by preventing a 
reduction of tbe present wage scale. 

44 You will aleo agree with me that if 
the State expresses it« approval of cheap 
labor and starvation wages it is only to 
be expected that contractors, whether for 
public or private undertakings, will deem 
themselves perfectly justified in following 
the example set by the Government. 

44 We complain that in many of the 
public buildings and other works, carried 
oat by the State or municipal and other 



corporations, that contracts are accepted 
at such a price that they cannot be exe- 
cute« 1 at a profit except by the employ- 
ment of cheap labor. This we desire to 
end. 

44 Day after day and year after year we 
see men coming here from every country 
in Europe. They are glad to work for 
lower wages than our union standard 
rate, because, even then, they are better 
paid than at home. They remain here a 
few months; they buy nothing except 
food. They do not come here with the 
intention of acquiring citizenship and are 
utterly valueless to the republic. Thou- 
sands of men invade the United States 
under similar circumstances. 

44 We ask that something be done to pre- 
vent the importation of cheap labor and 
to protect our own citizens, who pay the 
greater portion of our taxation and 
whose interests are bound up indis- 
solubly with this country, of which they 
are an integral and not unimportant 
part. This country is rapidly increasing 
in population and in general prosperity. 
This increase necessitates the erection of 
larger and more commodious public 
buildings of all descriptions, as well os 
many other undertakings, which will 
give an immense amount of employ- 
ment. Truly it is not unwarrantable on 
oar part to ask that the State shall insist 
that in their works at least, the laborer 
shall receive such payment as will allow 
him to live as a man and bring up a 
family respectably and well. 

44 In England, the Government, in its 
dock-yards and all Government work, 
employs anion labor and has not found 
such a course of procedure detrimental 
or unwise. The English House of Com- 
mons is at present busily engaged in fix- 
ing the hours of labor. Are we of this 
great republic to be left behind by a 
country which is not nearly so advanced 
in everything tending to promote the 
welfare of tbe people os we are? 

44 Our Govern ment does not deem it un- 
constitutional to fix the rate of wages 
paid its employees in all departments- 
Where would the unconstitutionality 
come in of fixing the rate of wages to be 
paid to the mechanics and laborers on 
all (iovernment works ? We Isil to see. 
We consider a provision inserted in all 
State and municipal contractors’ agree- 
ments would be eminently constitutional 
and dictated by all the elements of ju«tice 
and fair play. 

44 This is not aquestion of party politics. 
It is a question of protection by the legis- 
lature of the working men and their in- 
terests. When protecting tbe manu- 
facturers of the country, surely the rights 
of those engaged in them and in all 
branches of trade and labor are not to be 
disposed of by inapt comparison or stud- 
ied neglect. Workingmen have arrived 
at a point when they will feel it their duty 
on all future occasions to support the 
men who will support them. 

4 ‘ Mr. Editor, there will be a bill intro- 
duced in tbe Senate and General Assem- 
bly, called An act to regulate the boors 
of labor of mechanics and laborers in the 
employment of the State or any muni- 
cipal corporation therein, and providing 
that citizens of the United States of 
America shall be given preference in all 
public works. 9 

44 Hoping the above will soon become a 
law of the State, and that oar repreeenta- 
tives will pass a measure of a similar 
nature, I remain yours respectfully. 99 

Joseph K. Mahbihiild, 

3 Broad street, Elisabeth, N. J. 

Dom’t become diegrantled because 
someone in yoar union is objectionable 
to you. Perhaps there is a member 
who is not pleased with you, bat that 
is no reason he should leave the organi- 
sation. 



BUY UNION MADE GOODS 

III* *n old, well-established principle of th« 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters for members 
to buy Union Label Goons In preference to 
other articles. And why not? If we ask fair 
wages for our labor, why should we buy goods 
made at unfair wages by others. 

The Union Label In every Industry is a guar- 
antee of fair wages, decent working conditions 
and union labor employed. 

We here give a facsimile of the Union I Abels 
so our members may know Union Label goods 
and make it a point to ask for them. 

AHKBICA* FEDERATION LABEL. 

This label 1« used on al) 
goods made hy Union men 
connected with Unions 
aftillated with the Ameri 
can Federation of Labor 
where such unions hay# 
no distinctive trade labe 
of their own. This labe 
Is printed on white paper 



fTVIO* BREAD 

This is the label of 6h< 
Journeymen Bekers end 
Confectioners, under theli 
International Union II 1* 
printed on white paper tn 
d black Ink and 1* pasted on 
_ * each loaf of bread. Itineanr 
(BEOIBTEUD* death to long hours and lo* 
wages In bakers’ slave pens underground. 



UNION BOOTS AKD SHO UL 

This Is the joint Label of the 
hoot and Bhoe Workers’ Inter* 
national Union end of tbe 
Lesters’ Protective Union end 
all other union men In tbe 
Boot end Bhoe trade. It is 

MWt sr ifmcmm P r * nt * d * n blue *“k and pasted 
■ Hr on every boot end shoo made 
by Unio* men. It guarantees the boots end 
•hose ere not convict or prison made. 






o*io* rxiVTKia' label. 

.ggETOg*. This Label Is 

. issued unde* 

<L)N10 N MEmE 1 -A BEL/ authority of th« 

Internationa 

Typographies 

Union end of the German Typographie. The 
Label Is used on all newspaper and book work. 
It always bears the name and location at whet* 
the printing work is done. 

*Lr* label no ars. 




This label is printed in black ink on light blue 
paper, end is pasted on the cigar-box. Don't 
ml* it up with the U. B. Revenue label oa the 
bo* as the latter Is neari y of a similar oolor. Bee 
that the Cigar Makers' Blue Label appears on the 
box from which you are served. It insures you 
against Chinese made cigars and tenement made 
good*. • 

CUSTOM TAILORS' LABEL. 








ntof kadi im 

Thl. Ub.1 U«bou| 
Inch And % h.|| 
square and 1* printed 
\rA on bufToolored paper. 
Ky I ^ Placed on every 
60jFO'lrnl unlon made hat be- 
• J fore ft leave* th* 
workman*« hands. 
If H dcAler takes * 
label from one hat 
* nd P 1 * 0 ®® H in 
LB*- another, or has any 



Ä deAler takes a 
label from one hat 
and places It In 

STTR^ U another, or has any 

detached labels In his store, do not buy from him 
as his labels may be counterfeit, and his bate may 
be the product of scab or non-union labor. 



Thl* Label is the only positive guarantee that 
Ready-made Clothing, including overall* and 
Jacket*, Is not mad* under the dreaded, disease 
I n f ested tenement house and sweating system. 

You will find the linen label attached by me- 
ehlnv stitching to the Inside breast pockst of th* 
soat, on Uta 1 aside of the buckle sump of the vest 
node* the w ild* sd lining «# thspaa fa 






RETAIL CLERKS' LABEL. 

Thle is a fbo-eimlle of 
■>c\ the badge worn by all 
i \ members o! the Retail 

\ Clerks' National Protect. 

] Its Association of th* 
igy United States. Bee that 
^ all salesmen and clerks 

wear this badge and yoe 
^ may be aura they are 

onion men. 

C*IOM MADB «TOTER 







The above I Abel is issued by the Iron M o l de ts 1 
Union of North America and oan be found on all 
onion made stovee, ranges and Iron castings. II 
Is printed In black Ink on white paper and pasted 
on all union made stores, ranges and costings. 

TACK MAKERS' UHIU 




The label of the Oerman printers orUft bo feood 
on page 16, In our German department 
Thera ora labels aleo lor Ihias trades i Tbs 

Coopers, Journeymen Barbery Börse Collar 
Maker«, Elaetle Web Weaversi International 
Furniture Workers and Hard wood Finishes* 

LAeTKRS' LA SHI, 



▲11 Trades Unionists are requested to ssk foi 
the label of the Journeymen Tailors 4 Union, and 
Insist on having it when they order any oloihtog 
from a merchant tailor. It la to be found In th* 
Inslds brasst pocket of tbs coat, on the und*« 
•Ida of tbs buckle strap of tbs vast, and on the 
waistband lining of th* peute. It U printed Is 
Meek Ink on waits linen, with the words 44 Joar 
neymeo Tailors' Union of America" In red Ink 
in the seatxs. II means a Ml i pries hr gssd 



anor had« tlotul 






KWOUjfto 

The faetcre' Protective Union of America lias 
copyrighted the above trade-mark, which wbeu 
found on the sole or lining of a boot or shoe, Is s 
guarantee that the earns Is hand lasted by union 
men. On account of the introduction of so-called 
lasting machines and "eosb" workman, the 
lee tern deemed it neoeeeary to take this effective 
means to protect themselves and purchasers of 
footwear from unscrupulous manufkculrers. 
The hand lasted shoes and boots are sold es 
cheap as the Inferior lasted article. 



'* Abdituatiom " it » conception to in- 
Justice in the inter eat of temporary 
peace. “ Compulsory arbitration ” ie 
the arbitrament of force, might againat 
right, a paradox — in brief, misgovern* 
ment ander proteat of the misgoverned. 
— London Arbitrator. 





— 



THE CARPENTER. 




© u<$bru<t tv 0 laft«L 

X)t«t«S SabtC *lr% ft* 
alien Rdtungl* unk tn* 
k bereu Trutfar beiten bet« 
toenket, luele^e in bent« 
fd?«n Union *£ nufer «U« 
bergefteUt »erben. 



J UNION PRINTER 



hiigj.j. pi 




(For Our Lkrinan Members.) 

fto*atl<Wiinbf(|aa. 

Son Joiepöu«. 

JlSeie rotttbe e« ben 
® || meljr alefjun» 
bet t tauf enb 
Carpenter«, tvelc^e 
to in ben Set. 

Staaten flitfit, roo^l 
gefallen, roenn eine« 
läge* ein fcalbe« Xufcenb Söffe, reelle, im 
8efi| non ein paar bunbert WiBionen Xol* 
lati, fl<$ ba# flange »augef^üft im £anbe 
angeeignet hoben, plbglid) beftiinmen rollt* 
ben, bafc feine Säge unb fein Jammer mehr 
gerührt raerben foil, bi« ber Jtongreb ein 
©efe| erlaffen höbe, n ach ro*l<$tm auf Sau* 
bol» ober irgenb roeld)' anbere« Material 
ein bobet ©infu&tgoB gelegt roetbe ? SBürbe 
ba« nicht eine gute Mnjabl »on Carpenter# 
rebeHifcb machen unb roürben nicht febr oiele 
non ihnen roettern unb fluchen ob bet Xpran» 
nei be« halben Xufcenb oon Soffen, roelcbeee 
in ber $anb hoben, über ^unberttaufenb 
Srbeitetfamilien »um jungem gu oerur» 
theilen. Sch glaube fogar, e« roürbe oon 
einigen $i$löpfen oorgefchlagen roetben, 
man folle jene Söffe, fobalb man ihrer hob» 
baft »erbe, am nächften, beften Saum auf* 
fnüpfen- Solche ©ebanfen unb Sorfchläge 
mären nicht mehr roie natürlich, benn gegen 
ben junger giebt e« fein Wittel, ali Srrb 
unb roem e« an Stob fehlt unb an Wittein, 
baffelbe »u erlangen, ber facfelt nicht lange, 
roenn er roeifc, roer ih" baran oerhinbert, auf 
ehrliche SJeife fein fieben »u friflen — haben 
hoch fogar bic Solbaten be« jUbifchen König« 
Xaoib bie Schaubrobe im Xempel oerjebrt, 
a« fle hungrig roaren unb nicht« Snbere# gu 
erlangen roar, obroohl ba« Setühren jener 
„heiligen“ Srobe oon ben jübifchen Sfaffen 
mit bem Zobe beftraft »u »erben pflegte ! 

3m Saugeroerf ift bie Jtoncentration be« 
Kapital« aBerbing« noch nicht fo roeit fort* 
gekritten, al* in anberen Jnbuftriegroetflen 
unb e# roirb roohl auch noch einige 3eit lang 
bauern, bi# in biefem ©eroerf Juftänbe 
herrfchen, roie ». S. in ber^ucfer*3nbuftrie, 
aber bah ein allgemein:! 8au*Xruft unmög* 
lieh roäre, roirb roohl Miemanb behaupten 
rooBen, ebenfo roenig roie ber alte QoBänber 
fcaoemepet unb feine ftrau baran bauten, 
al# fic oor ungefähr 50 Jahren in einer flei» 
nen, bunllen ©affe Sero So*** »« *inem 
fupfemenSBafchfeffel cubanifchenäucfer ein» 
fochten, bah ih* ( Sachfommen unb ein paar 
SiBtamtburger XeutfChe im Jahre 1804 bie 
Seherrfcher ber gefammten 3ucfer*3nbuftrie 
Sorb*Smerifa’# unb im 8efi|e oon mehre» 
ten hunbert WiBionen XoUar« fein roürben. 
Sic 9la©fommen biefer etften amnifani* 
fchen Juderfleber haben nun gethan, roa« 
ich oben bejüglcch be# Saugeroerf« al# ber» 
einflige Wöglichfeit angebcutet habe — fte 
haben 50,000 Srbeiter ohne irgenb »eiche 
Samung plbglich entlaffen, um but© Bör* 
fcn*Wanbocr unb politifche Schachfüge ihre 
WiBionen in ein paar Slawen um einen ge* 
ärlgen Raufen muhelo« »u oermehren. Unb 
fo roirb e« ln aBcn anberen Jnbuftriegroei* 
gen gehen : ba« Kapital roirb fleh foncentri* 
ten, bi« c# in ben fcänben oon einigen, ja, 
oicBcicht eine« eingigen Wenfchen ift, ber 
bann alle in biefer Jnbuftrie Stbeitenben 
al« h&lßof* Sflaoen beherrfcht unb au#* 
beutet. 

* • * 

3© glauche aber nicht, bah ber ftoncen* 
tration«progeh in aBen ©eroerfen eine folche 
KßoUenbung erreichen roirb, roie g. S. in ber 
|Bucfer*3nbuflrie unb ber $etroltum*©c* 
»Innung, roelche ebenfaB# unbefchränfte# 
ISigenthum einer gang fleinen Kngatyl oon 
[ deuten in «merila unb Mufelanb geworben 

I if|. Jch glaube vielmehr» b*t Me «rbeiter 



aBer fiänber, beoor eine folche aBgemeine 5 
jtoncentration möglich gerootben ift, fich oet» I 
einigen »erben, um aBe §ülf#queBen ber < 
fRatur unb bie MuSbeutung berfelben in ihre I 
eigenen §änbe gu nehmen, unb bah babei bie ! 
organifirten Carpenter ih* X&eil beitragen 
roetben, baran ift nicht im ©eringften gu 
groeifeln. 

* • * . ! 

Ser erfle Schritt gu einer angemeinen , 
jtoncentration unferer Kräfte roirb hoffent« 
lieh bemnächft im Jafjre 1808 gethan roetben, j 
roie foeben oon bet Smerican <$eberation of 
Labor befchloffen, b. h- *« ift gu hoffen, bah 
in jenem 3ah** «i<ht nur ein aflgemeir er Sn» 
lauf gur Cinführung be« Stchtftunoentage« 
gethan »erben roirb, fonbern bah bie ameri< 
fanifchen Arbeiter auch auf bem politifchen 
Selbe in gesoffener Seihe auftreten unb 
für einen guten, bona tide Union* Wann, 
nominirt auf einer foüeftioiftifchen Slat* 
form, al# S*äflbentfchaft#*Canbibaten ftim* 
men roetben, auf biefe SJeife bethätigenb, 
bah fl* au# bet Sergangenheit gelernt unb 
eingefehen haben, bah ber Kampf gegen ba« 
fapitaliftifChe Xieb#gefinbel auf öfonomi» 
fchem unb Politikern Soben gleichgeitig 
au« ge fochten »erben muh- 

* * * 

Wittlerroeile geht mit bem SiBigerroerben 
einer Snga$l oon SJaaren infolge ber neuen 
Zatifgefe(g(bung eine aBgemeine Sebuftion 
ber SrbeitÄlbhne auf ben meijten ftelbem 
ber Jvbuflrie $anb in §anb. Sflentfjalben 
ftnb in ber Kleiberbrancfce bie Söhne gutücf* 
gegangen unb ebenfo roerben in ben beiben 
$auptbran<$en ber 9io&moterial*3nbuflrte, 
ber Kohlengeroinnung unb Cifen*Crgeugung 
Sohnrebuttionen oorgenommen. Ifle übti* 
gen Jnbuftrien pflegen biefen brei Branchen 
gu folgen. 6« giebt bagegen leine Wittel — 
roenigften« lein Wittel im Sahnten ber h<u> 
tigen Drganifation ber menfehlichen ©efeB* 
fchaft, roelche mit Wafchinen unb Chemtlalien 
probucirt. Sie lebten beiben ©lemente ma* 
<hen aBe SJaaren billiger unb brücten felbft* 
oerfiänblich auch alle Söhne herab, aufcer, 
roenn bieS*obuftion«mittel in ben Befifc ber 
Solldmaffen, tefp. ber organifirten Srbeiter 
übergehen. Strife# unb Sopcotts helfen 
gegen Lo&nrebulticnen nur in oereingelUn 
gäflen, roie hier unb ba im Saugeroerf gegen 
Keine Söffe, bie oereingelt baftehen unb ge» 
groungen ftnb, ihre Kontrafte al# Lieferanten 
einguhalten. C# ift unter biefen Umftänben 
oon bet Kmerican jjebetation of Labor fehr 
oernünftig geroefen, ben Srbeitem gu em< 
pfehlen, nur in ben aüerbringenbften fällen, 
ober, roenn eine Sieberlage burchau« un* 
möglich ift, gum Strife gu jebreiten. Ob bie 
Kohlengtäber bie# behergigen roerben? Sie 
benlen nämlich roieber einmal baran, einen 
groben Strife in Scene gu fehen — ober 
fteeft ber Kohlentruft auch bte#mal roieber 
bahinter? Xie lefctere Snnahme ift roohl 
roahrfcheinlicher, al# irgenb etna# Snbere« ! 

* 

Xie Kapitalien unb ihre SJerfgeuge ftnb 
übrigen«, trofg aBer ihrer fonftigen Schlau* 
heit, blinb roie bie Waulrottrfe. Sonft roür* 
ben fle nicht fo blöbflnnig fein, fortaährenb 
mit ©eroalt. ©cfängnih unb ©algen bie Ser* 
tretet ber Srbeitetflaffe gu oerfolgen unb Ke 
auf biefe SJeife um fo fchneBer gur Seoolu* 
tion gu treiben, ©«vergeht faft fein Zag, 
an roeUhem man ni$t hörte, bah hi<* ober 
ba organifirte Srbeiter in« ©efängnih ge* 
roorfen roerben, weil fle Scab# geprügelt, 
ober Worb unb Zobtfchlag angerichtet haben 
foüen unb in SJooblanb, Californien, ift fo* 
gar ein ©ifenbahnarbeiter gum Zobe oerur* 
theilt roorben, roeil er bie ©ntgleifung eine# 
3uge< oerfchulbet haben foB, auf bem Solba* 
ten fuhren, roelche auägerücft roaren, um 
Strifer tobtgufchiehen. 3« ffjennfvloanien, 

• Warplanb, JBinoi«, Jnbiana, Ohio unb 
e anberen Staaten, finb in ben legten paar 
r SJochen eine gange Wenge Kohlengräber, 

• ©ifenarbeiter unb Sieber auf oiele Jahre 
I in# Suchthau# gefchidt roorben, roeil fle ©e* 
r roaltthaten oerübt haben foflen. Xie Kapi* 
t taliftenflaffe muh f»$ aber nicht einbilben, 
t bah 11* Me Srbeiter einf Pächtern tann. 



Xtud ergeugt ©egenbrud unb ba« 3 u Mnb«n 
be« Sicherheit#oenti(# fann bie ©cplofton 
eine« Sampffeffel# nicht oerhinbetn, roenn 
ber feiger fortfährt, auf bem Jeuerheerb 
fceigmaterial anguhäufen. 



The Tics of Brotherhood. 



«TBA(* ALLM. 



- . ' . r s A brother*« a brother whatever hla lot, 

©etjmotertal anjuljöuten. Thou K h dwelliiiK in mihtision, palac«*, or cot, 

# # A brotherhood’s ties enduring shall last, 

* And flee not away like joys that are passed. 

* ®.6. b «n S.U« ».A 

©tfenbahnfltife«, unb bte übrigen Beamten ^ , prl „ B from the fount of inflniu.iov.i 
ber Smerican Stailroap Union, haben fie ja T b cy K udden alike the youns and the old, 

jefct au(^ auf btei bid donate ind A wonderful boon more precious than gold. 

Ru^i^oud gef^ieft unb bamit ftaben fie ft(5 . 

mc$r, aid und gef<$abet, benn bie (Sifcnbapn« Thut nsoh from the earth beyond the bright 
arbeitet roerben fitft ie(t erft rec^t orqanifi* BkieH 

ren unb bei ber erften, beften (Gelegenheit where glory shall crown the brotherhood gmod, 
Sache an ihren Serfolgem unb ©egnem United again in that beautiful land. 

nehmen; gerabe fo, roie bie organifirten . . , 

Srbeiter Xeutfchlanb# e# machen roerben, 
benen jener alberne Sümmel, ber beutfehe 

Kaifer, jegt burch ein neue« Waullorbgefeg PRINCIPLES, 

bie Sgitation burch SJort unb Schrift noch mno*.nAi>BoooM. 

einmal unmöglich machen möchte ! tÄffi 



OUR PRINCIPLES. 



Jn 9lero 2)otf hat ftch biefer Zage einet 
ber berüchtigten Scab*8rauetboffe tobtge* 
fchoffen. 

Xer Kerl ouhte mit bem feinen armen 
Srbeiiem abgepreftien ©elbe nicht# Snbere# 
angufangen, al# Zag unb Stacht gu faufen, 
unb fo hat er ftch benn ba« Xelirium Zre« 
men# an ben §al# geloffen unb bei einem ber 
babei erfolgten ZobfuchttanfäBe fchnitt er 
ftch ben $al« ab. Xer Wann hat 3*au unb 
Kinber hinterlaffen, aber fte erben auch fei« 
©elb unb roerben ben „Setlufl“ roohl batb 
oerfchmergen unb fortfahren, ihre Srbeiter 
autgubeuten, Xelirium Zremen« ober nicht 
— ba# lapitaliftifiheSpi|bubengef(häft geht 
feinen ©ang, ob ber So& ein ©entleman, ob 
er ein Sauf» ober Maufbolb ift, ober ob ba# 
©efchäft oon SJittroen ober SJaifen betrieben 
roirb. Xer Srbeiter roirb aeiter gefchunben 
unb ihm roeiter ba« Blut abgegapft. 

SJte leicht lönnte man biefen Brauerpro* 
hen ba# §anbroerf legen, roenn nur aüe Sr* 
beiter ftch bahin einigen rooBten, nur Bier 
au« Unionbrauereicn gu trinfen ! Unb bafe 
bie« balb gefcheh«, barauf ein Kräftige# 
„Sroft 9leujahr“ ! 

When the trade unionieta learn to pat 
their trade mark on their ballots the pnb- 
. lie will discriminate more in favor of 
their labor in the purchase of goods. — 
Exchange. 



tmoi-a abb ooom. 

Rssolvtd, That wa as a body thoroughly Ap- 
prove of tne objects of the American Federation 
of Lahor and pledge ourselves to give it our 
earnest and hearty support. 

Reiolvcd \ That members of this organization 
should make it a rule, wheu purchasing goods, 
to call for those which bear the trade- marks of 
organized labor, and w hen any Individual, firm 
or corporation shall strike a blow at labor organi- 
zation, they are earnestly requested to givs 
that individual, firm or corporation their careful 
consideration. No good union man can kiss the 
tod that whips him. 

KKIOHTS OP LABOR. 

Resolved , That we most emphatically dia 
courage carpenters and joiners from organising 
as carpenters under the Knights of La >*>r, as we 
believe each trade should be organize**, under its 
own trade bead in a trade union. This does not 
deliar our members from Joining mixed assem- 
blies. 

LABOR LEOLBLATlOir. 

Resolved , That it Is of the greatest Importance 
that members should vote Intelligently; benoe, 
the members of this Hrotlicrliood shall strive to 
secure legislation In favor of those who produce 
the wealth of the country, and all discussions and 
resolutions in that direction shall be in order at 
any regular meeting, but party politics must be 
excluded. 

IMMIGRATION. 

Resolved, That while we w’elcome to our shores 
all who come with the honest Intention of be- 
coming lawful citizens, we at the same time con- 
demn the present *>>teni which allows tbs 
Importation of destitute laltorers, and we urge 
organized labor everywhere to endeavor to se- 
cure the enactment of more stringent immigra- 
tion laws. 

FAITUFTL WORK. 

Resolved, That we bold It as a sacred principle 
that Trade Union men, above all others, should 
set a good example as good and faltliAil work- 
men, performing their duties to their employers 
with honor to themselvesand their organization. 
aeoBTEB hours or labor. 

We hold a reduction of hours for a day’s work 
Increases the intelligence and happiness of ths 
laborer, and also increases the demand for labor 
and the price of a day’s work. 

mscELLAKEOua. 

We recognize that the Interests of all clause# of 
labor are Identical, regardless of occupation, 
nationality, religion cr color, for a wrong don# 
to one Is a wrong done to all. 



We object to prison contract labor, because It 
puts the criminal in competition with houorabls 
When the laborer works for himself labor for the purpose of cutting down wasres. 



then labor is capital. When he sells his 
labor to some one else, then labor ia a 
commodity. When labor is a commodity 
the laborer is a slave . — The Workman. 



labor vor tne purpose or cutting down wages, 
and also because It helps to overstock the labor 
market. 

Resolved, That we most earnestly condemn 
die practice in vogue In many eitle#, but «more 
sspeclally In the West, that of advertising 
fictitious building booms, as it has a tendency to 
demoralise the trade in such localities. 



An Excellent Form of Iudeuture for Carpenter Apprentices. 

Tf|t© Indenture, Witneseeth that by and with the 

content of hath pat himself, and by these presents doth 

voluntarily and of hia own free will and accord, put himself apprentice to 

to learn the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 

Joiner ; and after the manner of an apprentice, to aerve the said 

for and daring, and to the full end and term of years next ensuing. 

Daring all of said term ths apprentice doth covenant and promise that he will 

serve faithfully, that he will not play at cards or dice or 

any other unlawful games whereby the said a may be injured. 

That he will not absent himself from work during the recognised hours of labor, 
without leave, nor frequent saloons, hotels or play bouaes, but In all things will 
behave himself as a faithful apprentice ought to during said term* 

And that the said on hia part, doth covenant and promise 

that he will use the utmost of hla endeavors to teach or cause to be taught or 
instructed the said apprentice in the art, trade and mystery of Carpenter and 
Joiner. Maid apprentice shall not be required to work more than the recognised 
hours of labor. The said further agrees to pay said apprentice 

And for the true performance of ail and singular the covenants and agreement« 
aforesaid, the said parties bind themselves each onto the other firmly by theee 
presents. 

In Witnbsh Whbruof, the said parties have interchangeably set their hands and 

seals hereunto. Dated this day of in the year of oar Lord one 

thousand eight hundred and 



Executed and delivered before 





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Wll SMI = 1111= INI INNS NN 1 IM 1 Ml 
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fTHSHNS UNS lins HMSNN 3 iN^fl 
= llll = llll = INI = Ml 

TvJ^^^n = im im ? M 

■■■ Mill = I M 



sllh'^E 

iiiiliiir9 
£ NH IHN 



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llll = INI E llll = IM = llll =1111 = 

SHIIINNSIIII =1111=1111111 
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SIIIISNHIIIHSIHISHIISII. 
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fllNSIHllHNSMIlflilHI 

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iNNSIIHSIHlSINISMISINI 

yilllWffllHSNHlINIS 

iHH^^^^l^SIHI 



it, ^ ' N d $ * -»/ — - _ 

Henry ^Disslon & öons 



! llll = INI = llll IHN = IM = Ml = llll = Mts MI^W 
I=HII=MI=IIH=IIII=IIN1MI=H|I=HH = IIII^C 
:|IH=llll=NH=MllMlSIHI=IIH=NN=HHSIM=i 



J. A. FAY & EGAN CO 



i St., CINCINNATI, OHIO, U. S. A 

ORIGINATORS, INTRODUCERS AND MAKERS OF 



FOR ALL PURPOSES. 

The Largest Line in the World of the Latest and Best Approved Designs- 

GRAND PRIX ’’ AT PARIS, ’89. HIGHEST AWARDS WORLD’S FAIR, CHICAGO, ’93 

Outfits or Single Machines Supplied. Send for Catalogues. 



End View of No. 2 Variety Wood Worker 

Send for Special Wood Worker Catalogue, 
which will ehow all the various kinds of work It 
will make. It is the moet useful machine for a 
Carpenter or Builder now in existence. 



Egaa Foot P*w,r Mortii«, 
The Latest and Beet. 



You should see 
The TAINTOR 

POSITIVE 

SAW SET 

No. 93. 



You csn tee It at the 

HARDWARE STORE, 

or we will send it to 
any dealer you request, 
or we will send it to 
any address on receipt 
of |l. Circulars free. 

TAINTOR Mfg. CO. 

86 Chamberi St, N.Y. 



ENTIRELY 
OF STEEL 



TO TENON, TO BEAD, TO 



MOULD, TO BEVEL, TO TURN 



' in short, to work Wood in any manner. 1 
We build, with the best obtainable facilities, an 
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SENECA FALLS M’F’O CO., 
22 Water Street, 
Seneca Falls, N. K, Li. S. A. 

All of our tools are thoroughly modem, etn- 
l bodying in their construction numerous im- . 
Lprovcments which are the outcome of long A 
wL experience and constant experiment. J rjr 
I We think our Catalogue A would jfä j 
I Try repay your investigation 1 

t njf^ SpK - Shall we mail it? EtH \ 



^ It will pay you to buy a saw wt* 
^ •DIHiTON^onlt. it will hold tk> 
•et l< »nicer . and do mors work with. 

L out ttliuic than other saws, thereto 
saving In Utw>r and cost of filet 
They are made of the bast qoalto 
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FULLY W AKKANTUt 

For sals by all d ea lers . 

Mailed Ft*«. 



gado of best stael with great 
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HBIVRT D1IBTOI 4k BOII» 



FINEST 

CARPENTERS’ 

TOOLS 



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Hicks* Builders* Guide 

comprising an easy and practical system of esti- 
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takes. 100 pages, 114 Illustrations, cloth bound. 
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The Building Budget and 
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contains the practical experience of over 60 build- 
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A memorandum, time book, price current, and 
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270 Main Street 



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No. 84 Court 8t. f Cincinnati. 



THE LARGEST BADGE BUSINESS IN THE W0*l0l 

FLAGS AND LODGS SUPPLIES. 

WRITE FOR CATALOGUE 

EHEAD & HOAG CO. SSTS*. 



SOLID EMERY 

VHETBTDNEB. 
THE TANITE COMPANY, 

HTROUD8BUKG, Monroe Co., Pa. 

NEW YORK, 161 Washington Street 
CINCINNATI, 1 West Pearl fttreet 



■ ^ 1 

183 A. 



CUT THIS OUT 



Bend for the Best and Cheapest Practical Book 
printed. Written for Carpenters by a Carpenter 



trade mark. 

U yon want the very beet tool« ^ 

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NO EDCE TOOL CAN BE COOD 

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oue In which the Sartee Towle are narqsalsd They are also of the best shapes and well finished, bat 
to their superior cutting quality is mainly due the reputation which they have hefd for so many years, and 
still hold, of being the beat In the United Htatea. Do you want such tools t If you do you can nave them. 
They are for sals by dealers in high grade tools throughout the United Htatea. Jf your dealer does not 
keep them and refuses to order them, send for our Illustrated catalogue, In which ftill directions for 
ordering are given. 

MACK 4k CO.* foot of Platt Street* ROCHESTER* Bf. Y. 

MannSaotnrers of the most arten*! vs line of Fine Rdge Tools In the United HU tee. 



Or Balloon and Roof Framlrg, by Owen B. 
Maginnts, author of “ Practical Centering/' 
** How to Join Mouldings/' etc., eto 

It is a practical treatise on the latest and best 
methods of laying out, framing and raising tim- 
ber bouses on the balloon principle, together with 
a complete snd easily understood system of Roof 
Framing, the whole making a handy and easily 
applied nook for carpenters, builders, foremen 
and Journeymen. 

CONTENTS. 

Past I. —Balloon Framing. 

Chapter 1. General description of Balloon 
Frames, Framed Hills and their construction. 

Chapter II. First Floor Beams or Joists. Htory 
Sections, Second Floor Beams, Htuddlng, Fram- 
ing of Door and Window Openings, Wall Pistes 
aiid Roof Timbers. 

Chapter III. Laying out and working Balloon 
Frames, Girders. Hills PosU and Htuddlng. 

Chapter IV. I a* ing out First and Second 
Floor JotsU or Beams, Ceiling Joist*» and Wall 
Plate# 

Chapter V. Laying out and Framing the Roof. 

Chapter VI. Raising. 

Past II.— Difficult Roof Framing, 

Chapter I. Simple Roofs 

Chapter II. B Ip and Valley Roofk. 

Chapter III. Roofk of Irregular Plan. 

Chapter IV. Pyramidal Roofs. 

Chapter V. Hexagoral Roofs. 

Chapter VI. Oonloal or Circular Roofs, etc., etc. 

The work is Illustrated and explained by over 
8$ large engravings of houses, roofs, etc., and 
measures Sell inches. 

PRICK, - - $1.00 

Send name, address and cash for book to 

OWEN B. MAGINNIS, 

•MV.UMkM. - awTHkON*. 



Bill's Ca««ntit Mads Fast $5 00 

The Boildki’s Gdidb and Kstimatob’s 

Piic* Book. Hodgson too 

Tib $tbkl Bqüaii, and How to Uib It . 100 
Piactical Carpkntiy. Hodgson . . 1 00 
Rtaii-Buildino Mad* F.asv. Hodgson . 1 00 

Hand Railino Madi Easy 00 

Illustbatko Abcmitbctcbal and Me- 
chanical Diawino-Book. A Self- In- 
structor, with joo Illustrations 1 00 

Tub Caipintki'b and Doildii'i Com- 
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Address P. J. McOUIRE. 

Bos Ms. Philadelphia, Ps 



Wm. McNiece $ Son, 

616 CHERRY ST., 



Twenty-five years sx- 
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3*4» age Book Free, 

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and labels reg 
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secured or not, 
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FRAM?N S G 

Glre, *9 PITCHES 

CUTS for h.jp, valley . 
principal, lack and V 

cripple rafters, and A - ,p Ann - AA 

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CHARLES E. DAY, 

IXM AStiBUU, CAI» 





A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, 

VOL. XV,— No. 3. I 

Established 1881. J 



Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 
PHILADELPHIA, MARCH, 1895~ { 



Overcrowded With Carpenters. 



In these distressing dull times nearly 
avery city and town under our jurisdic- 
tion has a surplus of carpenters. And it 
will not be much better, even when 
dines improve, unless the eight-hour day 
is universally established to open up 
employment more generally to all hands. 

Still some places have an abnormally 
large Bhare of idle carpenters, through 
the false, fakey newspaper advertising of 
speculators and real estate boomers. The 
subjoined are a few of such places : 

Fort Worth, Tex. ;Cincinnati, Philadel- 
phia, New York, Brooklyn, Boston, 
Atlanta, Ga.; Grand Rapids, Mich.; 
Montreal, Chicago, Fairmount, W. Va.; 
San Francisco, and all through Cali* 
' »rnia and the Pacific CoaBt; Springfield, 
III.; Winnepeg, Manitoba, 'and the whole 
State of Colorado. 



The Trouble Among the Painters. 



It is indeed unfortunate there has been 
such a family quarrel in the Brotherhood 
of Painters. The faction represented by 
G*n. S8C. Elliott has its headquarters at 
Baltimore and comprises fully 75 per 
cent, of the organization. The other fac- 
tion lias J. W. McKinney, of Chicago, 
Cv* Gen. Sec., and he has headquarters at 
Lafayette, Ind. The whole quarrel arose as 
to the validity of electing certain officers 
at the Bufialo convention last August. 
T finally became necessary to hold a 
»nd convention in Cleveland, O., last 
D* cember. There were more than twice 
fcb 3 number of delegates and unions 
represented at Cleveland than were 
at Buffalo, and the majority sentiment 
of the Brotherhood was in favor of J. T. 
E iott as General Secretary. It is now 
p. poBed to dispense with conventions 
ft . the future and to introduce the initia- 
te vo and referendum in the general affairs 
o ,he Brotherhood of Painters. 



v or ican Föderation of Labor Appoals 
fo Organized Labor. 



January 7, 1895. 

t a recent meeting of the Executive 
C« ncii of this body, it wbb voted to 
appeal for aid on behalf of Eugene V. 

1 >ebs and hifl co-laborers, now under sen- 
tence of imprisonment, in an ellort to 
secure a new trial. The importance of 
this matter cannot be overestimated. If 
the court’s decision is allowed to stand, 
the same infamous construction of the 
h w can be used against all labor organi- 
zations, and their representatives sent to 
prison every time a strike is attempted. 
Nor is this all. Every one who partici- 
pat< d will be guilty of any violence or 
crime of any other person, so that paid 
a and tools can involve an entire 
, rv animation in an indictment and im- 
3 >nment. Prompt action is required. 
” c miributi^etothe undersigned, 
rordti jf F vc Cou.mil, A > . 

Auo. r, Secretary, 

' jn Sou, B . —pons, Tnd. 

a v lote change f address. 




Jas. A. Bresnan, Union 33, Boston, is 
Assistant Recording Secretary, and Dave 
Sheehan of the same union is Auditor 
of the Boston Central Labor Union. 



Jab. J. Linkhan of Union No. 1, has 
been appointed Chief Janitor of the 
Chicago City Hall, on the strength of the 
excellent work he did while he had 
charge of the Administration Building at 
the World’s Fair. 



A. M. Flagg, Union 407, Lewiston, 
Me. , has been very favorably mentioned 
for a place on the Labor Commission in 
case the Phillips House bill should pass 
Congress. He was endorsed by all the 
trade and labor unions in the State of 
Maine and by the State Branch of the A.F. 
of L. and by a number of leading citizens. 
Brother Flagg is an untiring worker for 
our cause and a good trustworthy man in 
any position. 

* * 

* 

The Legislative Committee of the 
American Federation of Labor did excel- 
lent, masterly work in pushing the bill 
for relief of the coast seamen from in- 
voluntary servitude. In a period of six 
weeks the committee had the bill passed 
through both Houses of Congress, though 
the bill waB beaten last year in the 
House. The committee, A. Furuseth of 
the Seamen of San Francisco and Adolph 
Strasser of the Cigar Makers are a power- 
ful team of workers. 

* * 

* 

Donald McIntosh died in Washing- 
ton, I). C., Feb. 13, 1895, after a short 
illness. Last August he deposited his 
card in Union 190 of Washington. He 
was an old time member of Union 11 of 
Cleveland, O., and was one of the original 
founders of the U. B. He was a delegate 
from Cleveland to the Convention in 
Chicago, Aug. 12, 1881, when the U. B. 
was established, and again was a dele- 
gate from Union 11 to the Detroit Con- 
vention in 1888. He was a thorough 
union man. All honor to his memory ! 

* * 

* 

Capt. Richard Trevbllick an old- 
time trade unionist and labor reformer, 
died in Detroit last month from paralysis. 
Born in 1830, his name was closely in- 
tertwined for a period of forty- five years 
with all the struggles of the labor move- 
ment in America. He was a ship carpen- 
ter by trade and was President a number 
of years of the Ship Carpenters and 

OalkeTr/ T * ‘ ni • ■< a 

I the head o f J i Nat’.- Lao r Union! 
.shortly • r t6i the lit r a 

. 'need •.liinKer uuu tui impressive! 
j ppet *\? 




SjgND in your votes on the eight-hour 
propositions. Tote closes March 25th. 

V 

New Constitutions, as lately amended, 
are now ready. Price, five cents per 
copy. Send orders to G. S.-T. 

* * 

* 

Don’t forget to forward your assess- 
ments without delay. Send by March 
18th at the latest. This is the first assess- 
ment since November 1, 1892. 



Henry Gale. 



The subject of this sketch was born in 
1840 in the county of Somereat, England. 
In 1857, he went to tue carpenter trade 
and was apprenticed for four years In 
1801, he entered' the Revenue service an* 1 
remained four yearfe in that field of labor. 
But not finding it congenial he returned 
to the carpenter trade at which he was 
employed for a number of years by the 
Bristol and Exeter Railway in England. 

He came to America and arrived the 
very day of the great fire in Chicago 
His intention was to settle in the Queen 
city of the lakes, but he finally located 
in IndianapoliB. During the financial 
panic in 1874, he went to farming near 
Indianapolis and returned again to that 
city in 1882, where he has ever since 
then steadily resided. 

Henry Gale was elected First General 
Vice President of the U. B. at the In- 
dianapolis Convention last September. 
He is a rugged, sterling character, frank 
and open, plain in speech and a hard, 
incessant worker for the cause. When 
twenty years of age he was a member of 
the West of England Amalgamated Car- 
penters, and later on was very active in 
organizing the Railway employes in 
the West of England, and was one oi 
the commissioned Organizers for that 
work. 

In 1883, he joined the Knights of Labor 
and in 1889, he was one of the charter 
members of Carpenters’ Union No. 440 of 
Indianapolis. The following year he 
took his clearance to Union 299 of that 
city, and by a consolidation of a number 
of the Carpenters’ unions into one, form- 
ing Union 281, Henry Gale is now a 
member of Union 281 of Indianapolis. 

He has served in a number of official 
capacities in the local unions and Dis- 
trict Council and rendered creditable 
service for three years as a representative 
in the Central Labor Union. He was a 
delegate at the St. Louis Convention of 
the U. B. in 1892 and at the Indiana- 
polis Convention last year. He rendered 
excellent service in advancing the Eicrht- 
H . - a« id hss.oeen one er »ur 

Btrict Grgauiz •: a for numb» of years. 

a was f< reman of the bridge and car- 
pi ater werk of he municipal govern-! 
moat for r ne te rn under Mayor SulHvar j 



There is a great demand on this office 
by the Locals for printed leaflets such 
as “Appeals” and “Agitation Cards.” 

The circulation of these documents just 

now is doing great good. Cophc i 
ished free. 

Tue G S.-T. tenders sincere than* * 
the many members and unions v.ho In ve 
expressed well wishes and kmd encour- 
agement on hearing of his ’llness. l) ’• h 
friendly testimonials are a solute an«» a 
inspiration to work on faithful' 7 and 
hopefully, anil more vigorously m 
ever. 



7 



D. P. Rowland, Sc< i Ca v < .L 5 
of Cincinnati and vicinity, ha- sei i 
to a large number of ideals <.ud List 
a circular asking inf (nation of a v y 
practical character. ' iose who have ^ot 
replied should mal a auBwer without 
delay, as it will be "ery elpful to the 
members of our Order in Cim nnati a J 
vicinity. 

* * 

* 

J. T. Elliott, 1314 N. Fait .i avenue. 
Baltimore, Md., Gene- a) See.* »7 ,T i * 
urer of the Brother: ood . f Painteii’ 
and Decorators, deems the afpoincrs’ 
Unions to send him the name and ad- 
dress of one or mo.; painters in your 
locality. Do so by all means. For the 
Brotherhood of Painters, in like manner, 
has helped us to organize a r.ambu* of. 
localities. 

On Page 2, last m • fcb ,r e published 
the result of general )tc o« r,he Amerd- 
ments to the ConBti n The report 
of vote on Amendin' > 19 wron 

By typographical er •. reads 3,600 
votes in the affirmatr e it shun ' 

read 3,20(1 votes. Th ; amend *ent, uo* 
ever, was declared lose, as the actual vo f A 
cast waB not the nece^srr ’ o-thirds to 
adopt the amendment 



Milwaukee, Wis.— o h * *e .vgf.m 

a Building Trades Cc 
eight-hour bill in the 
latter measure is veil 
la our bodies in Aisco 
public works, ^ 






2 



THE CARPENTER. 



Industrial Slaves. 



Though the war for the Union l»ov«r, 

And the negro no longer In chains 
1* tolling an Houthern plantations 
To roll up for other« hi« gains ; 

Vet up from the depth« of Ute coal mine 
And from the vast plain« of the West, 
And from the green hills of New Knglund 
Comes the sound of the toilers* unrest. 
Throughout the broad belt of our country, 
Where the flag of our for# fathers waves, 
Arises the wall of wage* workers, 

A host of Industrial slaves. 

But hark t on fhc breath of the morning 
Is borne a loud cry from afar— • 

Oh, is It the long-drcudcd outburst? 

Are the musses engaged in war? 

Ob, no, for the lightning Is busy 

Proclaiming the news through the land 
That the people at last with their ballots * 
United have made a firm stand. 

A nd lo ! on the face of the tollers 
Is a look that contentment engraves, 

For the men and the women no longer 
Are weary, Industrial slaves. 

-if. if. Goodwin , in Twentieth Century. 




Practical Hint« to Carpenters. 

BY OWEN B. MAGINNIS. 

, N order that a carpenter may 
become bo valuable to a 
boas that he will dislike 
to lay him off, unless neces- 
sary through completion 
of the work, I would 
recommend all carpenters 
to try and observe the fol- 
jFj lowing simple rules while 

^ at work : 

First. Try and get on the job or in the 
shop a few minutes at least, before start- 
ing time, for the purpose of getting your 
ools ull ready, overalls and apron on, 
etc. This will prevent that Hurry and 
uncertainty which always arises in a 
mechanic who arives late or after start- 
ing time, and save the boss bk^ looks 
and the consequent citation which ie 
hke^ to make Sim worry and drive his 
workmen aü day. I have seen bo many 
excellent mechanics get disheartened 
and throw up a job through constant 
nagging, for a simple fault like this, re 
puated twice or thrice, but then it often 
occurs that 



order to proceed expeditiously, and avoid 
climbing down and up. 

fourth . — Be neat in your working 
clothes 1 Have sound overalls, no matter 
about patches ! Have sound apron pock- 
ets to avoid dropping nails, and keep 
your pencil in your hat or ear I Big 
pockets are very useful for carrying 
small tools, and are easily renewed when 
worn out. Two pockets one over each 
leg with a rule pocket in the center are 
the best arrangement for outside work, 
or even for inside work. Blue or brown 
overalls are beat for outside work. White 
for trimming or inside finishing, &b they 
do not show white plaster stains. All 
overalls Bhould fit loosely, to allow per- 
fect freedom of movement when using 
the tools, stooping, stretching over the 
head, etc-, also to allow for shrinkage 
when wet. 

Fifth. Avoid unnecessary conversa- 
tion during working hours, that is, on 
subjects apart from the work l I love to 
hear a carpenter whistling while at work 
on a building or in the shop, especially 
when he is spinning out some lively, 
cheerful tune. I have noticed, too, that 
Buch a man will keep the whole gang in 
good humor listening to him, and pro- 
mote rapid, time-flying work. By all 
means chew tobacco if you want to, and 
keep the jaws moving with the brain, 
hands and limbs, for it keeps the lips 
Bilent. Smoking, too, may be indulged 
in out of doors, provided the builder has 
no objection. Some have, however, as 
they think a good deal of time is wasted 
in filling and lighting the pipe, yet I’ve 
seen mechanics who considered their 
smoke their just right, and would sooner 
stop work than stop smoking. If a man 
can refrain from the xyeed, however, I 
think he would be scarcely wise to 
jeopardize hiß job for the temporary 
gratification 

in conclusion I would say, be thorough 
and reliable in your work. Make good, 
close, neatly-fitting joints ; measure and 
cut the stuff without waste, throwing 
out all that is unfit for its purpose, and 
nail all details so they will stay perma- 
nently. Do not be discouraged if on 
some days things will go all wrong with 
you, as they do this in every profession 
or handicraft, but be cheerful and perse- 



Craft problems* 

(7 his Department is for criticism and 
correspondence from our readers cm mechani- 
cal subjects and problems in Carpentry , and 
ideas as to craft organization. 

Write on one side of the paper only. All 
articles should be signed. 

Matter for this Department must be in this 
office by the 25th of the month.) 



a contracting builder will 

have a job on his hands at a low figure, u« uueenui ana perse- 

and he must, of necessity, be particular vering and 7°* will find that a stout 

Qtlfl iJXiXl Ilia mnn !iL t \ V ... I leart and /I atnvr» J ... 



and Bee his men work fsithfnlly and their 
full time. A consideration of this kind 
and a little diplomacy on the part of a 

mechanic will often render the relations grow ol(ler 
of both master ami man very agrewhle 
Again, an employer will, if a carpenter 

be rapid and accurate, condone a delin- 

quency because he well kuowe that a 
harsh or reproachful word will quickly 
provoke resentment in a willing work- 
man. 

Secant. Be deliberate and accurate in 
the execution of ail work, he it ever no 
simple ; for example, be exact and ^ 
economical in sheathing, roofing, etc., 
using in all pieces, etc., so ns to save 
material, but let your care bo momen- 
tary and your handiwork rapid ! Unfor- 
tunately the present times demand, in 
most c<iB6H, more and more rapid mechan- 
ical movement on the part of artisans 
especially carpenters, but »«* tr sacrifice 
Uif. quality of your workmanship to hastf for 
it is only by a high standard of excel- 
lence in workmanship a mechanic can 
maintain his high standard of wages 
and no intelligent builder, if l ie under’ 
stands his business, will, if he lias figured 
his quantities correctly, require a crafts- 
man to alight work or finish it i mp ,, r . 
rectly. If ho do this then his reputation 
rud success as a builder is bound in a 
■hort'time to be destroyed. 

Third. Keep all tools in good order 
and free Uoin rust, also, before com- 
mencing work, especially on a scaflold 
place all materials, nail., etc#| thereon ^ 



heart and determined purpose will 
render difficulties easy and yonr daily 
labor pleasanter and brighter as you 




maqinnis* solution of problem no. 4. 
These Are the Real Rulers. 



An Odd Problem. 



To cut from any straight or irregular 
line, or from the sides of a triangle or 
polygon, or from the circumference, a 
length equal to the length of the cir 
cumference of another circle. 

Suppose we have the circle A, and the 
straight line B 0 ; then let us from this 
circumference cut off a section equal to 
a section on the straight line, or from 
the straight line cut off a section equal to 
this circumference, or any section of it. 

In order to do this, construct another 
circle D, with the same radiuB as in circle 
A, and another straight line E F, and 
place on thiB new circle circumference 
and straight line small circles, or circles, 
of so ßmall radius, that they, although 
they have their centres on the circum- 
ference, still touch one another in the 
points where they cut this circumfer- 
ence. 



Mr. Maginnis Questioned. 

New York, January 8, 1895. 

To the Editor of The Carpenter. 
Sir: — 

In the December number of The Car 
penter Mr. O. B. Maginnis gives threi 
mechanical suggestions. No. 1, is t<> 
find the stretch out of a semi-circle o 
circumference, No. 2, to determine th. 
length of an arc, No. 3, to strike a givei 
segment of a circle, the height and has 
being given. These are useful problems 
In Fig. No. 3, Brother Maginnis calls C., 




\ » 

No. 3. 

D, the height of pike and F, D , the length 
or viaduct, which are not the proper 
names in geometry. C, D, is called the 
versa sine otherwise sagitta and D, F, the 
radius or half diameter of the circle. 
Pike means lanced fish, viaduct } a term 







The men who really rule the world are 
limited in number. They own the gold 
«ml have kings and queens and govern- 
mental their call. When a new loan is 
wanted they make their conditions. The 
minor details of government are left to 
take care ot themselves, and the people 
adjust themselves to those conditions as 
they can. Values go up 0 r valu“ go 

ug 7 T e r hei r eBt 8 ° ftbe - 4 - 

.“i*- lh *y ar « the arbiters of peace 
»nd war, and of the fate of «... P 
Exchange. f nations— 



The reason of this is that the points 
are all equal to one another, because of 
their having no dimensions, and a point 
must also be imagined in the shape of a 
circle, because the distance from their 
centres to their circumferences is equal in 
all directions, or in other words nothing. 

Lines are formed of points placed close 
together. 

As now points in all lines are equal to 
one another and the distance between 
points in various lines is the same, or 
more correctly speaking, nothing. So 
must a circumference which is composed 
of say 39 points, be equal to a straight 
line. A line composed of 39 points 
would be difficult for the human eye to 
distinguish, so let us for the sake of con- 
venience suppose, that the points were 
^* e , r * which of course would not inter- 
hn ® H "? v ^?°5 tion between different 

all ell f. P ° int8 T~-“PPosed tobe 
a equal to one another. Suppose that 

all points are of the size of the small 

circles on the lines in our drafting, and 

not to interfere with the teaching of 

geometry, suppose that the large points, 

1, *, 3, are the smallest geometrical fl»’ 

ures. Then point 1, on the circumference 

D, ta equal to l point on the straight line 

. F ’ and the w bole circumference 39 
points equal to the line G F w. 9 

they have the same number , 8e 

thü he “ “I 11 “ 6 , 18 f0med of ’arge points, 

on t)H> r< 7 aC6< !° tbat tbeir centres are 
thn o n ?’ 8n< touch one another in 
ame place where they cut the line, 

• , u th . e line Bhould be partly out- 
, ® 0 ^6 pointB of which it is composed 
which is impossible. 

Broken lines and the combined sideBof 
plain figures are to be treated as straight 
mes. In case of irregular lines the 
large points must be fitted in size to the 
curves on the line. 

Rutland, Fl. Maqi ™ C. Tbnqek, 



applied to a roadway supported by a 
succession of arches. 

D 









CO 


E 4 0 ' 6 


C ' 



E 

No. 4. 

t Will Brother Maginnis solve problen 
No. 4, in figures, not by a scale, th< 
chord line A, B, and versa sine beim 
given, what is the diameter D, E? Thii 
is a very useful problem in descril inj 
large arches. 

, T I remain yours, 

New York . Philo. 

Editor’s Note.— Will “ Philo” pleasi 
send us his real name and P. O. addres 
next time he writes ? We desire to havi 
it on file. 

Answer o f Mr. Maginnis. 
of ProblemNo“!) f V Page for ^titio. 

LeUftfc^ettSr"^ of a circle 

anÄ « } ss 5 Fir? 

diameter will eonal • tlmefl th< 
the circle within the T CUmferen ce o 
length. the tAv part of th« 

typographhlai “nor* Ä refers to « 

üh 1 ' M a l inni8 ’ D ecembeVartide CU ‘ r ‘pfki’ 





How to Frame an Elliptic Roof With an 
Elliptic Plan. 



THE CARPENTER. 



BY OWEN B. MAQINNI8. 



|T Fig. 1, the plan of 
the elliptic root, let 
A B C D EFG H I 
JKLMNOandP 
be ita shape on the 
outside line of the 
elliptic plate, cut out 
in sweeps as shown 
in the engraving. In striking this plan 
any of the methods which I described in 
the article, “ How to Frame an Elliptic 
Dome Roof,” or by the sample and 
accurate method which I here illustrate 
at Fig. 2. It consists of one horizontal 



/ 






Fig. 2. 






N, 



m 



B 



X D 






a f E 



$ 






FOR TAX, ETC., ~ 

During the month ending January 81, lT 26g Chicago 
Whenerer »ny «rroni »pp«*r notify the Q. 8 T. ■wlthont 6 funds, and 

nd for ncgli 



H 



t_u* PT* c 

Fig. 1. 



R 



ten equal divisions as denoted by A B C 
DEFGHIJK and let fall lines square 
to M K as A M, Bl, C2, etc., and pro- 
duce these across the plan below, to 
represent 10 boards bent across the 
rafters. To find the exact shape of these 
covering boards join the division points 
on the curve A K, and produce each till 
it cuts the line M K produced. The 
pointB where these lines intersect will be 
the centres from which the curved 
boards, which are necessary to bend 
across the rafters, may be struck in the 






Blackstone on Land. 



Pleased as we are with the possession 
(of land), we seem to be afraid to look 
back to the means by which it was 
acquired as if fearful of some defect in 
the title. We think it enough that our 
title is derived by the grant of the former 
proprietor, by descent from our ances- 
tors, or by the last will and testament of 
the dying owner, not caring to reflect 
that accurately and strictly speaking 
there is no foundation in natural law why 
a set of words on parchment should con- 
vey the dominion of land ; why the son 
should have a right to exclude his fellow 
creatures from a determinate spot of 
ground because his father had done so 
* ^ him ; or why the occupier of a 
particular when lying on his death- 
bed and no longer t0 mft i nta ; n 

possession, should be entitieu u, 
rest of the world which of them shou 
enjoy it after him .—B laci-done 1 s Commen- 
taries. 



AT 



E 



H 



EllI ppCAU "R^77ER5 , R/O, iSeti 
Fig. 



B 



straight edge A B, tacked on the floor 
the line of the major axis or long 
diameter of the ellipse, and a second 
straight edge C E, set on the minor axis 
or short diameter below it. These are 
represented in the engraving. A tram- 
mel rod or tracer is made with the dis- 
tance from the pencil to the farthest nail 
against the short straight equal to A C or 
half the long diameter, and the distance 
from the pencil to the nearest nail sliding 
against the long straight edge , equal to 
C D or half the Bhort diameter. The 
elliptic curves may by this method be 
accurately struck to the size deßired. 

In this dome root I have inserted a 
boss in the centre to receive the top cuts 
of the elliptic rafters, all of which 
radiate from the centre to the outside 
edge of the plate terminating at A B C D, 
etc. The rafters which will Btand over 
the plan, Fig. 1, on M E will be A D and 
D B on Fig. 8, which is the projection 
or view of elliptic rafters nailed in posi- 
tion. 

Each set of two rafters as AI, BJ, 
UK, DL, Fig. 1, etc., must be struck out 
separately with the -major axis or long 
diameter of each, being the plan length 
as AI, BJ, etc., with the minor as CD, 
Fig. 3, great care and accuracy is neces- 
sary in striking out each set so as to 
have them, the curves, absolutely correct 
and appear as at Fig. 3 when raised. 

In order to determine the shape of the 
co\ “'ring boards or roof covering proceed 
to fig. 4 and draw the long diameter 
LMK, also the short diameter MA, and 
strike the elliptic elevation of the roof 
LAK. r Divide the quarter idlipse Into 



, 3. 



way represented in the engraving, Fig. 4. 
For the purpose of fully proving the cor- 
rectness of the above methods I would 
urge upon mechanics to make a scale 
model in card-board of this roof, thus 
proving the exactness of the methods 
Bet fortn in the foregoing. 



The pendulum of the old duBt covered 
political clock has swung again. Politi- 
cians will change places ; but the condi- 
tion of the workman will remain the 
same, that is, growing worse. Unless he 
tries to help himBelf by means of union, 
socially and politically, even gods cannot 
help him. — International Railroader. 



-A 



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SEE 1* VUE 5 FOU F &PKNSEB. 

- ‘ ^ ** ‘ * - 1 ^ 

The adoption of tb* nSollqctivist or 
Socialist political plat&frn by the British 
Trade Uinon Cone 1 ^ ha-B resulted in 
the withdrawn. of ; ?he powerful Boiler 
Maker* National Union, 24,000 strong. 

PnASTMBBrtH’ Rational Union had its 
j eoflventiou in Cincinnati this month. 
! 'i’he Bricklayers’ International had theirs 

I in New O* Ans, January 14th, Both 
(A were w jU .»ttead V. 






--*i vllkv . 






1 K I88tn GT. 

t 4 ®7* H. Baurnam., 3b Jat ar. 

XX». Patrick £u.vAnJur*) S4& W lOfH ... 






I 14A. Prra xm ta w - Wrr^lfvT 

i S3*. ‘ T ruin»*. IIY* 









2 



THE CARPENTER. 



X 



TE CARPENTER 



PHILADELPHIA, MARCH, 1895. 




rectory of Carpenters* business 
Agents or Walking Delegates 
— — 

o#ro\, Mam.— W. J. Shield*, 724 Washington 
, oi. n!».(Uoom3.) 

8*00 *0**, N. Y.-R. Rciitly, P. O. Box 18, 
It HUllon W, or 353 Fulton Street.- J. J. 
I. M u< Hing, 408 Borgen Street. 
liVi'i AUx N. Y.-Wm. Koherteon, 888 Michigan 

v. Kittel 

Cmtu-ao, III — A. Cattonnull, 49 La Salle Street. 
C tut fCf.A ni>, O.— Vincent Illavlln, realdenco, 124 
». £. Street ; ofllce, room 11, 158 Superior 

' rrtr «1. 

J Um.?.**** Point, N. Y.- John Heiinrich, College 
> t Fatal. I/ong Inland. N. Y. 

1 Conn.— F. O. Walz. 32 Auhley Street 

HjOHu^NVill*, KY.-Jame« Wentern. 

7 <J> nrtoLis, Ind.— J. W. Pruitt. 

n. ca, Wia.—J. Bettendorf. 

-'«•W ' JMK.-Benj. B. Hart, 931 Columbus Aye., 
*u<i frank Schultz, 442 K. Ninth Street 
4 ^ f. Mam,- J amea Hadden, P. O. Box 421 
maiu>.^ 6 > a.— B. F. Budd. 

Si , T.' ..gj Mo. — Y. H. Lamb, 4218 Larpy Avenue. 
Hr*rwu£ ftu), O.— F. M. Poole 



any • 

<t»*d 



A Model City. 

Ii*rty Lloyd, a member of Carpenters’ 
No. 33, Boston, Mass., writing 
ftffn Gotland to the Boston I^abor 
l during his tour of Europe last 

lall, s» 1: 

Öl» iw has developed her municipal 
works t»i a greater extent than probably 
ity in the world. Gas, electric 
water and tram cars are all owned 
- -K by the city, and in add ! ‘ ° n 
h *ve bought large trat*' a fcbe 
slum districts, demolish^’ *' ne houses 
> «f ha e built very co ailor ^^ e work- 
i, njnes uave 1,253 tenements 

a* . buildings at present. They have 
'"‘VBU . large municipal todging-houses 
. t“ | will accommodate about 1,800 
>jc (Af At the present time they are 
<v» tgtn, ting a family home for widows 
'>r wM «yera with a family of children, 
v»*> the children will be cared for 
do f her or mother are at work. 

^ ' dac/jow is a strong co operative centre. 
O ey have the largest bakery in the 
v^unt/y and large warehouses. I went 
U* ..nfa’haw, a suburb of Glasgow, to see 

. e » ^afacturing establishment of the 
cooperatives. Twenty-five hundred 
peojito qfe employed at cabinet, brush, 
, * . idy aid preserve making. It is a 
wc.l’.W dl affair. 



of# 



><3I “ Our ** Country. 

'M^ ^findfl'biU owns 2,000 ,(X)0 acres 
a the United States. Mr. Disa- 
.y-A 1 -*7 '■'tnnsylvania, boaata of hie 

‘S/A"*l bw,d ttCre *‘ The 8obcnl «y 
» ‘ '‘,18 2,000 acres within the cities 

^ and Allpgheny. The Cali- 

tc' u..i ^honaire, Murphy, owns an area 
of Una7ni/^ ( , r t jj #n t j je w h 0 i e State of 
Masi;uhwsetl s . Senator Warren, of 

■V yorn - ujt, ow Q8 ft tr a Ct 0 f .too.ooo acres. 
The rai-jvay «onsnanies own an area 
.over, times- 1 ) o 8 ize of Pennsylvania 
reign •noblen, en , w ) 10 owe no a |j e _ 

•ue ‘p this Cv,, mt ry, are permanent 
««..Up landlords and spend all their 

7 *‘ ,r0ttd * own acres of 

: tbis country, or more than the 
M'K. a- taof Ireland. Lcrd 8cmi y of 
It. iand, owns 00,000 aoreb of fan ,’;,,« 
land in minoiB, which he rente out j* 

1 ! »At* i .•!« fit fm.arif Im,.^ 



uio 

lit) 



W ’ '««on UUt m 

J ele to tenant farmers, an.f 
a ar ’ 

. - ,ad 



mi m — „„ D) aiIV 

ppckdtB «is annua! *200,000 in rents to 

MiduV ~ ’ 



Wlmt is Necessary ? 



The labor movement muBt be divided 
into three Boparate and distinct parts 
before a greater degree of harmony can 
prevail in it. It must have its trades 
unions for the especial purpose of deal- 
ing with questions of a technical trade 
character peculiar to each trade ; it must 
have its educational societies that will 
be especially designed for investigation 
and Btudy of social, economical, political 
and ethical subjects, where men and 
women of all shades of belief on these 
questions may come and exchange views, 
and in this way fit themselves for right 
conduct in the various walks of life, and 
it rnuBt have other societies for political 
action. With a division of this kind the 
causes of inharmony and suspicion are 
reduced to a minimum, and the best re- 
sults possible will follow.— Detroit Sun. 



Pearl of Days. 



Lord Macaulay said ; ‘‘Of course I do 
not mean that a man will not produce 
more in a week by working seven days 
than by working six days. But I very 
much doubt whether, at the end of a 
year, he will generally have produced 
more by working seven days a week 
than by working six days a week ; and I 
firmly believe that at the end of twenty 
years he will have produced less by work- 
ing seven days a week than by working 
six days a week. Therefore it is that we 
are not poorer, but richer, because we 
have through many ages rested from our 
labors one day in seven. The day is not 
lost. Man, the machine of machines— 
the machine compared with which 
contrivances of the -*nd Ark- 

wrights are wo**’ ’^a— is repairing and 
windlr»-. so that he returns to his 
; 7 rfi on the Monday with clearer intel- 
lect, with livelier spirits, with renewed 
bodily vigor ,’ * 



Solid Hard Sense. 

There ia business enough for all. Slash- 
ing prices, cutting profits, reducing 
wages, does not in any eense increase 

' J n8tead ’ itgivea »0 those who 
want building done the wrong idea in 
causing them to think they have been 
leated and are being overcharged. 

. h , . y . a ^ e ‘, ed by 8Uch ca Pricious conduct 
to thjnk that the builders’ profits are too 
much. Men of sound sense are willing 
to pay what a thing is worth when they 
want it. The responsible man wants to 
deal with responsible men, and when 
you teach men by your conduct to feel 
yemr r.ikKT. 11 over charged, they doubt 

be made by Inyone ' B “° m ° Dey to 
•Ion. th, ■» >*» 

U» ... inore than a r.i, ,h,S 
Tiie great disparity in the prices of bide 
on work tendB to create an impression of 
injustice somewhere. A man it 
honest himself, but he wants to 

honest men. When he sees a u,n er < 

so great in bids on work, he looks in 
own heart and sees there what he 
is fraud on your part. Get together 

?sor nl -n SU8ta ' n prices - The y 
1895 will see more money invested 

budding than any year in the history 

the country. The great sums of i 

boarded will seek investment. 

crave of capital for interest is well kne 

Ihe men of money will avoid, for a 

years, speculative investments and 

the safer class of loans on i m 

property. Money will not stay in hi 

much longer. The ones who have i 

wlfr d J f ° r m0re - Su8tain Pi 

Work for fair profits and be content 
your own share of the business 
done. There will be enough for all 

“ lr . pnce8 ' unl CM it is scared away 

■ Bmldmg 'lrade, Jounu.l; St. Louh 



a may not be 
o deal with 
* difference 
his 
s thinks 
ither. 
year 
in 
of 

money 
t- The 
3 well known, 
few 
seek 
improved 

hiding 
> it are 
prices. 

with 
i to be 
all at 



<®ur Blnil-Bng. 

( Locals and members are requested to send 
fire to ten line items of trade interest for this 
department. Write plainly in ink on one side 
of the papn only.) 



Jacksonville, Fla.— Union 605 ad. 
mitted sixteen new members in two 
meetings through the individual canvass 
of a few hard working members. 

Nashville, Tenn.— CharTes Staley, a 
contractor, fought organized labor here 
for four years, has skipped the town in 
dead-beat style. Any information of his 
whereabouts can be sent Union 7G6 of 
this city. 



Cincinnati, O. — In January we had a 
job on a building for the Armour Pack- 
ing Co., Kansas City, Mo. The carpen- 
ter foreman Bhowed hostility to nnion 
men. District Secretary Rowland and 
General Secretary McGuire wrote the 
firm, after we could get no redress here. 
The result is the job was unionized. 



Grand Rapids, Mich. — Better pros- 
pects for trade this coming season.Still the 
newspapers have brought too many men 
here. Bosses prefer a non-union stranger 
to a resident union man. We will work 
on and prove our true worth. 

La QrossId, Wis. — Carpenters who left 
the union are now working ten hours a 
day for fifteen cents per hour. Three 
honoraWo ooxuruutors still uphold the 
nine hours. 



Bellows Falls, Vt. — When we had a 
carpenters’ union here in 1892, wages were 
$2.50 to $3 per day. Now that the union 
has disbanded wages are $1.50 to $1.75 
for ten hours. We must re-organize 
again. 

Vicksburg, Miss.— Trade dull. Span- 
gler’s mill has started and he talks of 
piece work inside and outside. He 
offered thirty cents per square for 
weather boardiDg. 

Niagara Falls, N. Y.-Union 675 is 
all ah ve ; had a fine ball Feb. 19, and will 
hold a series of public meetings. Union 
increasing in membership. 

Scranton, Pa. — Entertainment given 
by Union 6C3, Jan. 24, brought out a 
large audience ; had nearly 500 people to 
supper. T. V . Powderly gave us a rous- 
ing address. This entertainment brought 
in 38 new names that night, and new 
ones arc still coming in. 

iÄÄÄlS 

able to B otill larger mcreaee. All thie 
of ttie members^ httn l’ P er sietent work 

ÄrÄÄ“;' 

Rene raM M 8tar ‘ again ’ There is a 

genera 1 desire tojoin^ ju8t afl soon as 

trade picks up. 



thü.tf 0 ’i 7 eX '~ E ' °' Andersou f eels 
thankful for promptness in sending wife 

faneral benefit. He had it published in 
meeti 1 ? PaP6r ' W<S ^ a r0Ueing °P en 




^ ~ vu au 

era. It has helped us. 



New York. — Again another sympa- 
thetic strike has ruffled the quiet of the 
building trades. This time it is in behalf 
of the electrical workers, K. of L. The 
latter are out to secure the eight-hour 
day, though a compromise was offered by 
both sides. The men want it April 1, the 
employers June 1. This strike affects 
the carpenters, though the ü. B. is out 
of the Board of Walking Delegates, as the 
latter did not give us the support they 
should during the Btrike we had against 
lumpers and piece work. 

Detroit, Mich. — The general situation 
looks sombre. A cyclone of emotional 
fanaticism has swept over the labor move- 
ment of this country, because of the dis- 
tressing hard times and suffering of the 
people. It has left darkness, doubt and 
destruction in its trail. If we can recover 
from this wave of cranky idiocy, we will 
have enough tried members to rebuild on 
safe and Bolid trade union ground. The 
dreamers and fault finders must step 
aside. Men of action, practical, hard- 
fisted, hard-headed, common sense union 
men must come to the front. 

Montreal, Canada.— Nine cents per 
hour on some jobs is the wages for car- 
penters in this classic city! When will 
the poor, degraded fellows arouse? The 
lower they go the less manhood they 
seem to have. Last spring we had a 
thorough organization, but a premature 
strike killed us. This city is overdone 
with carpenters. Still they flock here in 
droves, and lots of them have to remain 
idle. 

Atlanta, Ga. — The Cotton States and 
International Exposition, of this city, is 
a huge plutocratic swindle. Convicts are 
doing the grading of the new grounds, 
and all appeals to the directors to hire 
honestlabor are in vain. On the buildings 
skilled mechanics get $1.50 per :day, and 
laborers 75 cents per day. The Atlanta 
Federation of .Trades has placed a boy- 
cott on the Exposition. Newspaper “adB” 
are deluding men to search in vain for 
work in this city. 



RULES REGARDING APPRENTICES. 

At the Detroit Convention of the Unit# 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiner* of Am« 
ica, held Aug. 6-11, 1888, the following rule* i] 
relation to apprentices were approved, and th 
Local Union* are urged to secure their enforo* 
ment: 

become apprentices and lo master 
thoroughly; therefore, in the best interest ofth' 
ingrukä:^ eCare ourselve8 in favor of the follow 

Section 1. The indenturing of apprentices 1 
the best means calculated to irive tim* 8 1 
which it is desirable a carpen^Äld p^seS 
and also to give the necessary guarantee 
employers that some return will be made to then 
for a proper eflort to turn out competent work 
men, therefore, we direct that all Local Unton 
under our jurisdiction shall use every poss/bl 
mean* wherever practical, to introduci the *yi 
lem ot indenturing apprentices. 

Sec. 2. Any boy or person hereafter eiuracim 
himself to learn the trade of carpentry shall bi 

i v 8CrVe a re 5 ular appreKSpof fou 
consecutive years, and shall not be considered i 

r u 1 o ‘ ml 1 i . t IV,!! t\ a4 he has complied with thi 

wfuftho intent!?, ®?, ter,n ? the carpenter trad, 
be beld by aKreemenV?T in . K ^ 0 ■>»»> 

tract fora^efm oÄy^ tUro or w ‘‘ lten 

Sko. 4. When a boy aliall have contracted -wUl 

«wn mp0yer to H ? rve a t ; ertul n term of yearfTh 

«hall, on no pretence whatever wJ!. rtf 8 » h 
ploy er and contract with another* 'win* 11 *. V? 
full and free consent of said IL-hI i l ° Ut Ü1 
less there is just cause nr ♦» ;!♦ employer, ur 
made in consequence of the lull 8Ue " change 1 
ment of business by the lirst^^i ° r rellI, <l u i«k 
prentice so leaving shall^ ^ employer ; any af 
work under the jurisdiction r»f f* rmi tted t 
in our Brotherhood ! bit *hRB f fc any Local Unio1 
turn to hi* employer anfi h f 11 be ^ired tow 
ticeahip. pAOyer and serve out hi* appr«E 

make regulativ a°8 "hnK ^? ch Loca1 Raton t 

prentices to be employed * 1 ? tho . number of ap 
one for such number nf * €acb eho P or m111 ** 
aeem to them just- ar?,! ^Plpoymen a* ma 
mended to admit to ’mSnb« ll iS nlonfl are recorE 



prentic^hlp, they ma v li!? ° f ^ term. of 

Jbe workings of th^TinV®® 0 “ 16 “'-qiinintcd v 
1° Appreciate its nri^o b ona> be better fil 
obligation, u 




# 






RECEIPTS— JANUARY, 1895. 

From the Unions (Tax, etc.) . . . , . .$5.349 02 
44 Jos. Troy, ex-G. T., interest from 

FidelityiB» 11 ^ 481 46 

Returned on Claim No. 2,986 150 00 

Subscribers 300 

Total $5,983 98 

DIVISION OF JANUARY RECEIPTS 
(As per Section 68). 

♦General Fund, seven-tenths $4,188 80 

Protective Fund, two-tenths 1,196 79 

"■Organizing Fund, one-tenth 698 39 

Total $5,983 98 

STATEMENT OF GENERAL FUND. 

♦January Percentage $4,188 80 

♦Organizing Fund 598 39 

Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1895 ...... 447 87 

Total $5,235 06 

EXPENSES- JANUARY, 1895. 

For Printing $488 20 

“Office, etc 536 69 

“ Organizing 26 26 

“ Bond of G. S-T 300 00 

“ Tax to A. F. of L., December .... 50 00 

“ Meeting of G. E. B 633 12 

** Canvassing Board 28 00 

44 Benefits Nos. 8,088 to 3,113 3,050 00 

Balance on hand February 1, 1895 .... 12 1 79 

Total $5,235 06 

Detailed Expenses — January, 1895. 

Printing 600 Postals $1 25 

*• 510 quarterly circulars ..... 7 75 

“ 600 postal receipts 150 

2,000 envelopes, eight lots and 

changes ............ 8 25 

“ 2,000 letter heads 10 75 

44 5,000 membership cards . . . 12 50 

“ 6,000 appeals . . 7 50 

44 5,000 arrears 10 00 

44 5,000 agitation cards 12 50 

14 1,000 stamped envelopes .... 126 

44 52 Treas. receipt books 13 00 

“ 1,000 clearances 3 00 

44 100 Sec.’s order books 25 00 

44 15— 100-page ledgers 11 70 

44 25-200- 11 28 00 

44 5-300- “ 7 75 

44 16,500 copies February Journal . 326 50 

Expressago on Journal 70 

Postage on February Journal 18 04 

Special writers for February Journal . . 12 00 

Engravings for February Journal .... 4 17 

Postage on supplies, etc. 22 58 

I, 000 stamped envelopes and 600 postals . 26 80 

Twelve telegrams 627 

Expressage on supplies 14 27 

Office rent for January 26 00 

Quarterly P. O. box rent 3 00 

“ Gas bill 26 80 

Rubber stamps 3 25 

Salary and clerk hire 3S0 66 

Tax to A. F. of L., December 50 00 

A. F. of L., Debs Defense F.und 12 50 

P. J. McGuire, expenses to Newark, N. J. 6 00 
Union 119, Newark, organizing Union 306, 

Newark 20 26 

Janitor, cleaning office . . 3 75 

Stationery, etc 1 65 

Coal 2 25 

Henry Rice, commission on advertising . 25 00 

Premium on bond of G. 9-T 800 00 

C. A. Taylor, services on Canvassg. Board 14 00 
T. E. Peterson, “ 44 1 4 00 

C. E. Owens, expenses as G. P. and time 

attending G. E. B 42 50 

W. J. Shields, meeting of G. E. B.„ . . . 87 76 

John Williams, 44 ‘ 4 .... 87 75 

J. C. Gernet, “ “ .... 113 00 

A. Cattermull, “ “ .... 121 50 

S. J. Kent, “ “ 178 12 

»« Envelopes and postage .... 2 50 

Benefits Nos. 8083 to 3113 3060 00 

$5,113 27 



Horace Greeley Spe&keth. 



Horace Greeley, being dead, yet speak- 
eth. He say 8 : “ It is the opportunity to 
exhibit the desirable qualities and com- 
mand a just recompense that I plead for 
as the natural right of all men and that 
this is not now secured is the condemna- 
tion of our existing social der. V e, 
then, who stand for a compr ^fr naive ana 
all-pervading reform in the social : 
tions of mankind, impeach he pre ; 
order as defective and radica • . / v . ons. ” 



Claims Approved in January, 1895, 



No. 


Name. 


Union. Amt. 


3088 


Mrs. A. Slttcrlc .... 


. . . 1 


$ 60 00 


3089 


Mrs. A. Ruehrwein . . . 




60 00 


8090 


A. Schmitz 




200 00 


3091 


S. M. Wilds 




200 00 


3092 


I. Morris 




200 00 


3093 


Mrs. M. A. Petrie . . . . 




50 00 


3094 


D. Gruer ....... 




100 00 


3095 


J. T. Darling 




200 00 


3096 


John Duling 




100 00 


3C97 


A. W. Curtis 




200 00 


3098 


Mrs. M. Schlägel .... 




50 00 


3099 


A. T. Earl 




200 00 


3100 


P. Duncan 




200 00 


3101 


A. Coffer . 




200 00 


3102 


M. Danderlcht 




200 00 


3108 


W. G. Taylor 




50 00 


3104 


H. Meyer 




200 00 


3106 


Mrs. O. Parc 




50 00 


3106 


Chas. Steele 




50 00 


3107 


Mrs. S. Sundholm .... 




60 00 


3108 


W. J. Hancon 




50 00 


3109 


Mrs. A E. Stover . . . 




50 00 


8110 


Mrs. C. Ruppert .... 


... 521 


50 00 


8111 


O. A. Olsen 




200 00 


3112 


Mrs. J. M. Anderson . . 




50 00 


8113 


Mrs. S. Broerman . . . 
Total 




50 00 



1894. 
Oct. 12. 
a “ 3i. 

1895. 
Jan. 31. 



Report of Protective Fund. 

MONEYS EXPENDED. 

D. C. of St. Louis $ 200 00 

Loaned General Fund 4000 00 



D. O. of Chicago 500 00 



Total $-1700 00 



STATEMENT OK PROTECTIVE FUND. 

FROM OCTOBER 1, 1894, TO FEBRUARY 1. 1896. 

Cash on hand Oct. 1, 1891 . $7,279 46 

(See last report in The Caep^tek, 

Oct. 1894.) - 

Receipts Oct., Nov., Dec. and Jan. . . 6.169 69 



( 



Total ..... ... .. / . 

Moneys expended (details given above 

Cash on hand Nov. 1 , 1894 . . . 1. jT 7,739 05 

Loaned General Fund 4,030 &0 



Fottier, Stymus & Co., New York 
City, a leading firm in the line of fine 
interior house finish has a job in Galves- 
ton, Tex. It is a splendid piece of work 
and was Btarted in January last. The 
carpenters employed were non-union and 
after two or three weeks persistent work, 
with the help of the Building Trades 
Assembly, the job was finally unionized 
and the men went into Union 52G. The* 
Building Trades Assembly would not 
allow other organized branches of the 
building trades to work on the job, 
until the carpenters joined the union 
and could show the quarterly work- 
ing card of the Building Trades Assembly. 

Chips and Sawdust. 

The General Union of Carpenters of 
Great Britain has 211 lodges and 6,890 
‘members, according to its J anuary report. 
‘It was established in 1827 and lately has 
organized a number of lodgeB in Wales 
and Ireland. 

V 

The headquarters of the American 
Federation of Labor have been removed 
from New York. The new address is 
De Soto Block, Indianapolis, Ind. Ad- 
dress all communications for the A. F. of 
L. to Aug. McCraitb, secretary. 

* * 

* 

All the various branches of the boot 
and shoe trade, including the lasters, are 
considering a plan of amalgamation in one 
national trade body under one head with 
one trade union label. General Secre- 
tary Edward L. Daley of the Lasters is 
foremost in advocacy of the movement. 
*** 

The Procekjhngs of the Denver Con- 
• i can federation of 

^ uow ready in print, also the 



Total Protective Fund 



$11,739 06 



Political Heroes. 



What a pity that workingmen do not 
expend the energy wasted on both sides 
of the political stump in securing strin- 
gent laws prohibiting “black-listing,” 
laws that can be enforced against em- 
ployers as effectually as others are en- 
forced against employees. When the 
season of political festivities is at hand, 
many weary wage-workers will spend 
sleepless nights, wielding leaky torches, 
shouting themselves hoarse in lauding 
and denouncing the protective tariff ; yet 
no flaring of flambeaux, no tramping of 
clubs, in the interest of an anti-black- 
listing law, an anti-Pinkerton law or any 
other law that has for its purpose the 
helping of the wage- earner. Who ever 
heard of a bank president or railroad 
official soiling a dress suit with kerosene 
oil from a campaign torch ? The wage- 
earner does all this gratuitously, but 
seemingly enjoys himself amazingly. — 
Inremen 1 8 Magazine . 



It is Not Legal Ownership. 



A national bond is a mortgage on every 
man, woman and child in the nation. 
Lawyers, bankers and professional poli- 
ticians have issued these bonds illegally. 
The man who stole a ship load of slaves 
in Africa had no right to do so, and the 
man who bought them of him was an 
abettor to the crime and had no legal 
right to them as property. 

The man who bays those mortgages on 
coming generations will some day wake 
up and find that an emancipation proc- 
lamation has been issued, and the people 
— « .1 — ;„ a f nq much oblieation 
to pay him for bin boudn as they did 
thirty years ago to pay one man for 
| claiming to own anotb *r man, because 
j he paiu for him. — Chicago Eupaxu 



discussion pn the i'ofitfeal Programme. 
Both are very interesting hooumonto. 
Price ten cents each per copy. Vddress 

orders to Aug. McCraitb, De Soto Block, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

* * 

* 

In a debate recently between Harvard 
and Yale on the question of trade unions, 
Harvard took the affirmative side “that 
attempts of employers to ignore trade 
unions and deal with individual work- 
men only, are prejudicial to the beBt 
interests of both parties,” and the judges 

awarded the palm to Harvard. 

* * 

* 

February report of the Amalgamated 
Carpenters shows 668 branches and 
43,320 members— 3846 are drawing un- 
employed benefits. They have 39 
branches in the United States with 1556 
members and 9 branches with 200 mem- 
bers in Canada. This is considerable de- 
crease in membership in the United 
States. They have 4 branches and a 
membership of 219 in Chicago; 6 
branches and 444 members in New York ; 
3 in Philadelphia with 172 members ; 2 
in Boston with 64 members ; 2 in Brook- 
lyn with 63 members ; and 2 in Toronto 
with 76 members. 



How They Are Robbed. 



The population of Ireland is less than 
New York, but New Yorkers pay their 
landlords many timeB the tribute that 
Irishmen pay. But this is a free country 1 
England has more paupers in proportion 
to population than Ireland or Scotland, 
but Englishmen are not oppressed IjFifty 
years ago, Ireland, with the crudest of 
machinery, supported a population of 
8,175,114 souls. Today, through starva- 
tion and other capitalistic methods she 
has only 4,706,448, and with all modern 
appliances cannot support (?) them. Bat 
it does support an increased number of 
non-producers. Capitalism is beginning 
to bear the same frh ? t here a* •he: * 
Irishmen are robbed bv mearr of ju- 
lord, landlord and monopoly ioiU So 
are Americans . — Com 'ng Nation . 




ower to 
he mo8te8s 
^ ith which i 

J. E. Brooks, from Union 269, Chicago, 8 P reßi J| j. H 
for misappropriation of Union funds, and ra * freedöe 
benefits of a fellow member and for uegl»ch citizen 
duty a9 Financial Secretary. influence* 8 ® 1 

J. E. Robinson, from Union 605, Jacksouvdch he i.** 1 ^ 
Fla., for stealing $40 worth of tools and sell* j s 04 
them to a pawn shop. >Ur d W *«i<J 

G. F. Green, from Union 88, Anaconda, Mt? ^ ^ Äli 

for defrauding fellow members of their wagef®*®** P^ a j, e 
I. N. Robinson, from Union 428, Fairmont, do t ^ I 

Va., for stealing funds of the Union while b 
was Fi naneial Secretary. relative 1 ! ©o 

Geo. Dbollingkr, from Union 779, Marion, O.«op] e a/* ng 
for general bad conduct and misappropriation o ^ ne 

Union money*. P° htlc 

M. Ci.akk anil Jons CAurBBLL, from Uiiloi. OW ® r t*nsl 
125, Utica, N. Y., for actions unfitting them for 8 know bo 
membership. Od froi 68 * 

Henry Mart/., from Union 61, Columbus, 0.;hafc oi^ * 
for defrauding a brother member out of money tl pohf» 

R. W. Jones, from Union 62, Chicago, 111., who 0 f til d « 
several years ago was expelled for a shortage in j 'he j 
his accounts as Financial Secretary, has rnade^ 1 anu y ( 
full restitution and is now a number In good from 
standing. x IBthf A 

Chas Wheeling, a former member of Union *d, astlif* 1 1 



16, Springfield, 111., suspended afione time for 
scabbing, has been expelled for yctlng as engi- 
neer [to pull out a train load of National guards 
against the railroad men on strilfcfe in Decatur, 
111. f 






ROBERTS’ 

Handy Wood Cutting Tool 

Patented July 19, 189$). 




'til 

76 

t8 

\ J. 
’8 
.9 
t 
n 

it 



— Ig in So ukiug nuu i 

lock-plates, dadoing from \ In. to any width, 

* iöor on a curve. Agents wanted. Car- 4 



1 5 i 

a^, . . BaaMaHjggy 

S enior» preferred fca^iple Bent, postpaid to any ad- 

re*» upon receipt of pQcu. J-hjiiu for circulars. 

ROBERT ROB1BKTS. 

' »w.SKAAvmiue B, Scrautca, 




HAMMACHER 

SCHLEMMER 

&CO, 

£0 9 BOWERY 
NEW YORK 



Something for Carpenters to Read! 



Tho United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America was founded in Convention 
at Chicago, August 12, 1881. At first it had only 
12 Local Unions and 2042 members. Now, in ten 
years, it has grown to number over 716 Local 
Unions in over 630 cities, and 84,377 enrolled 
members. It is organized to protect the Carpen- 
ter Trade from the evils of low prices and botch 
work ; Us aim is to encourage a higher standard 
of skill and better wages; to re-establish an 
Apprentice System, and to aid and assist tho 
members by mutual protection and benevolent 
means. It pays a Wife Funeral Benefit of from 
$25 to $50; Member’s Funeral Benefit, $100 to 
$200; and Disability Benefit $100 to $400. In 
these General Benefits $64.584 have beton ex- 
pended the past year, and $293 548 the past ten 
years, while $671,000 more was spent far Sick 
Benefits by the Local Unions. Such an organi- 
zation la worthy Ih c attent ion of every Carpenter./' 
The Brotherhood is also a Vrotecti* e sTrade 
Union as well as a Benevolent So* 7‘ ‘ 
raised the wages in 668 cities, and * • e 

and a Half Million Dollars more wage., f 

In the pockets of tho Carpenters in those k 
It reduced the hours of labor to 8 hour»» ^ o 

51 cUIog, and 9 hours a day in 416 cii not t 

speak of 457 cities which have «wwf od the 6 « 
or 9-hour sysf cm on Saturdays. *}•/ *.,1» moaitn i 
12,160 more men have gained employ u Is n 
is the result of thorough organization. And yet 
very few strikes have occurred, and very little ’ 
money has been spent on strikes by this society. 

It is not a secret oath bound organization. All 
competent Carpenters are eligible to join, and 
this is an Invitation to you na an intelligent 

/ Uiiiouofv'«urolty. D 

Isa ora nth of fcht Br«‘i*v r^'/od; Ibe vt‘ are but 
small in o:. the s. and It In 

to your interest, vojoii. n- .. growing *n' oov; t- 
fnl Lc<i , 






w 



ig’lit, and You’ll Vanquish all 
2 , Wrong. 

"f (Specially for toe «'AKpkntrr. ) 



TP „ 

WAY with all trouble und sorrow, 

I*\ Th * ro ’* ««ough still on earth to give joy; 

\ ««’or hid the dovil good-morrow 

y--l lie conic» your sweet peace to destroy, 
'cuds by the score should deceive you, 
nd enemies 'round should throng, 

I ne’er let your proud spirit leave yon, 

,r Do right, and you'll vanquish All wrong.” 



re 



ii. 



io road to success is all covered 
With ardent hopes, wrecked on the wny ; 
jf* nd hearts that too late had discovered, 

W The friends who sought them for prey. 

■ This counsel Again let mo give you, 

I As through life you journey along, 

I" Give others, as others should give you, 
i>o right and you'll vanquish all wrong.” 

ra. 

Ci ff riehen are just what you're after, 
lr for thom you strive night and day ; 

■ Then heed not the derisive laughter, 

H From the vulgar and envious, but say : 

•J “ Whilst» poor man I can’t help my brother, 
If Who’s lashed by dread poverty's thong ; 

I And f live by-this cotinsel from mother— 

* r> ° uuJ you'll vanquish all wrong.' ” 

IV. 

The footsteps of cowards never follow, 

Avoid all that’s vulgar and low ; 

False men, like all bubbles, are hollow. 

That aro crushed by the gentlest blow. 

By the noble and true bo you guided 
Be honest and you will be strong ; 

The lives of great men have decided— 

** Do ri K ht . ftnd you’ll vanquish all wrong.” 

V. 

If fortune should bless your endeavors, 
Remember your brother, who’s poor ; 

Be kind to Die frail mm who wavers 
In the path of the honest and pure. 

Them If creatures attribute your action, 

Tu seeking the praise of the throng, 

Go ahead, never mind the base faction, 

“ Do right, and you’ll vnnqulsh all wrong.” 
Thos. (J. Wal 

L. U. CS, New York. 



A Village Mm-ch. 

— 

BY 1. P. HfCKB. 

b there is more ur lees 
demand for email 
church plane suit- 
able for the average 
country towns, we 

will now preeentauch 

plan to the readers 
GP of Thk Cari •kntkr. 
The size of the 
plan iB 30x50 feet. 

, Z Height of ceiling 

18 feet. * 

Length of foundation wall 178 feet 
34 feet high, 16-inch stone wall. 

Number piers for porch and under 
centre of floor joists, 8 brick piers 12x12 
inches. 

- Length of main cornice, 212 feet. 
Length of ptwch cornice, 28 feet. 
Length of tower cornice, 48 feet. 
Length of main rafters, including pro- 
jection for cornice, 24 feet. 

Length of main rafter on tower 20 
feet. 

Number of window, frames on floor 
plan, 14. 

Number of frames in tower, 10, includ- 
ing the large triple frame in front. 
Number of cellar frames, 6. 

Number of door frames on Moor plan 
3. One cellar door frame. 

Cellar under front end, about 20x30 
$ teet In size ; bottom bricked and aides 
mV cemented to keep earth from caving, 

KZOAVATINO AND MASONRY. 

110 yards excavating, 30c . . . $ 33 00 
1^^ 35 perch foundation wall, $3 00 105 00 

38 lineal feet chimney, 00c . 34 20 

Bricking bottom of cellar, 3,000 

bricks, $10 30 

Cementing Bides, 60 yards, 10c . 6 



I 



5208 20 



LUMRKB BILL. 

Feet. 

5, 6x8 30 ft. sills 600 

3, 6x8 28 “ “ 836 

1,6x8 16“ “ 6 4 

12, 6x6 18 “ posts 648 

4, 6x6 24 “ “ 288 

8, 4x8 18 " for trusses 884 

4, 4x8 16 “ for braces 168 

160, 2x6 18 “ studding 2,880 

24, 2x6 12 li gable studding . . . 288 

30, 2x6 12 “ spire 360 

30, 2x6 16 “ plates 48 0 



28,000 shingles $3.25 per m . 

2.000 round butt shingles, $4 . 

4.000 ft. 5-inch siding, $25 . . . 
850 “ beaded ceiling, $30 . . 

2,100 “ 6-inch flooring $25 . . 
1,800 “ l pine finish, jambs, cor- 
nice, etc., $40 per m . . 

1.000 ft. 1$ pine finish outside 

casings, steps, etc., . . 
10 plinth blocks 10c .... 
10 corner blocks. 8c .... 
6 cellar sash 12x24, 2 light, 
$ 1 . 20 . . . . 



. $ 91 00 
8 00 
. 100 00 
. 26 50 

52 50 



72 00 

40 00 
1 00 
80 



7 20 



I 



* 



■jjHggE 



00 OQ 



□ 



#1 



FRONT ELEVATION. 

"), 2x10 1(1 ft. floor joists . . . o 4'«T ne 

??' . 16 ft - ceilin 8 joists . ! [ ’i’ 440 2 front doofB, 2-6x7, oak, $10 



10, 2x8 10 “ for coiling 
90, 9x(i 24 “ rafters . 

10, 4x0 12 v purlin plates 
4, 2x8 20 “ spire . . . 

’S, 2x0 20 " “ . , ’ 

8, 2x0 14 “ « 



1,440 

210 

2,160 

240 

108 

160 

112 



13,356 

13 ’ j£® *• *“ fratne «17 perm . . $227 05 
4,600 sheeting outside walls, 

$18 t 1 

3,300 ft. sheeting root, $17 ! | [ 6 0 10 



2 aside doors, 2-8x7 oak, $9 

12 ft< 6 ' ln cr own mold, $2.50 
per h 

76 ft. 3Hn crown mold, $1.75 
per h , # 

-88 ft. Jin bed 
perh .... 

~50 ft. I quarter iotmd,Wp h 
rrn « p ^ tin K 8t °P8, 50c per h 
000 Linch window stops, $1 
per h . . 

80 ft. 2-in door stops, $1.50 

per h 

230 ft. wainscoating cap, $2 p h 



20 00 
18 00 



5 50 



£a 

64 ft. 3}-in window stool^Su 

Per h $ 1 60 

16 “ 5-in oak thresholds, $4 

Per h 64 

$828 65 

MILL WORK. 

Porch finish $jo oo 

Panels on spire 12 00 

17 windows, including saeh, cas- 
ings and making of 

frames, $10 no oo 

12 windows in spire, $4 48 00 

4 windows in spire, $2.50 . . 10 00 

36 side seats, $3 108 on 

15 center seats, $6 . . M 00 

^ 15 00 



$468 00 

CARPENTER WORK. 

21 sqrs.framing and laying floors 

.. * 1-3 ° • ; * 30 

45 sqrs. framing, sheeting and 

siding $2 50 112 50 

28 sqrs. framing, sheeting and 

shingling roof $4.00 . . . i 12 oo 

20 sqrs. framing ceiling $1.00 . 20 00 

212 feet main cornice 15c. . q. on 

112.feet gutter 10c. . . . ’ i i 9n 

Work on porch . 10 00 

Work on spire 85 00 

Outside casings 10 00 

Outside base, 178 ft. 4c 7 12 

Casing and finishing windows . 50 00 

Casing and finishing doors . . 10 on 

Wainecoting 16 

Finishing pulpit and rostrum . . 25 00 

Setting seats 40 00 



$566 92 



D C 



J C 



J L 



□ C 

□ E 






□ c 

Bot »IT 



— 



1 Hall 8xli 



I FLOOR PLAN 



- HARDWARE. 
^ lbs. 20d nails 

> “ I2d “ 

> “ lOd “ 

) “ 8d “ 

) “ 6d “ 

> ** 3d coarse 
) “ lOd finish 
) “ 8d “ 

) “ 6d “ 

3 “ 3d «« 
ilbB. eash weights, ljc 
j skeins sash cord, 60c. 

1 sash locks 20c. 

3 sash pulleys 4c . ] 

3 pair butts 3Jx3J*40c.‘ 

1 set flush bolts 

2 mortise knob lock's 



$ 2 94 
1 27 
5 20 
10 80 
3 70 






I \ 



Nfk 



-• 













THE CARPENTER. 



* 



h 



y 



us 



Detail of truss, Scale £ Inch to the foot. 



I front door lock 


2 00 


12 doz. wardrobe hooks, 15c. . 


1 80 


114 lineal feet gutter, 12c. . . 


. 13 68 


100 tin Bhingles for spire 2c. . 


2 00 


24 feet valley tin for spire 6c . 


. 1 44 


40 feet conduciors 10c . . . . 


. 4 00 


Caps for windows 


6 00 




$87 14 


RECAPITULATION. 




Excavating and masonry . . 


, $208 20 


Lumber bill 


828 65 


Mill work 


. 463 00 


Carpenter work 


566 92 


Hardware 


87 14 


Painting 


. 125 09 


Plastering 650 yards 30c. . . . 


195 00 



Gas fitting 28 00 

Furnace complete 98 00 

Total estimated coßt $2,600 00 

We find the estimated cost ot the 
church plan to be $2,600, finished in a 
plain and substantial manner. If the 
same plan was finished in a very fine 
and elaborate manner throughout, it 
would probably cost $3,000. 

There is no particular feature in the 
method of construction, but what any 
carpenter of ordinary ability can readily 
figure out and understand. The roof 
and ceiling being rather large, make it 
necessary to span the building with four 
trusses to support the same. 

The construction of the ceiling, truss 
and roof is fully shown in the detail. 
The ceiling joists rest on the wall plates, 
the centre being framed into a double 
2x8 header which runs lengthwise the 
building. 

This header is supported by lour 
trusses which span the building at reg- 
ular spaces. The truss is formed with a 
pair of 4x8 rafters cut to about } pitch, 
with heavy rod bolt running vertically to 
the header supporting center of joists. 
A plate is placed on top of ceiling joists 
about seven feet from center on each 
side, and braces cut in obliquely as 
shown. These braces are continued above 
the truss in the shape of short posts to 
the proper height for a purlin plate 
which will meet the rafter about mid- 
way, and thus support the roof. This 
truss answers a double purpose, it sup- 
ports both ceiling and roof. 



A Judicial Decision In Favor of Labor. 



The Court of Appeals decided the 
famous Binghamton cigarmakers’ con- 
spiracy case in favor of the labor organ- 
izations, whose members were originally 
indicted lor conspiracy. The strike oc- 
curred in the factory of Frank B. 
Reynold & Co., in 1890. The strikers 
were indicted for consDiracy in combin- 
ing to in c t he business of r • inu- 
facturers. The matter re? d itself 
into a question of tht right of ! i Pend- 

ants to quit work and entice others not 
to take their places. The court uecided 
That they wore not gi of conspiracy 
under tlid meaning l fc> t act. 




Government by the People. 



(Specially for The Carpenter.) 



cially have we»tm 

blasts. AS the earth ever 

Take the Cigarma enjoyed any real, 
Union for example, genuine govern- 
over 20 years ago wment by the peo- 
dues, and when the pple? Some may 
over, there was only ooint to us, as spe- 
The work of re-orgamens, the prim- 
taken up in 1877, and Uve forms of our 

— « ««h ™rfection co mial systems, 
overlooking the fact that they were per- 
meated by a certain form of white slav- 
ery, large numbers of people bound to 
service for a number of years, with al- 
ways an abundance of them imported 
from the old countries, ready to take the 
place of thoBe who became industrially 
free, after a fashion, to find all the best 
land in possession of somebody, and 
forced to sell their labor to such people. 
Oar modern proletariat or wage-slavery 
comes from that social status. Our 
colonial system, when at its best, was 
but a religious oligarchy of a ve£y de- 
pressing type, because their religion was 
full of sombre jealousies and mental ter- 
rors. 

Then again, the courts or councils of 
that time were mostly composed of min- 
isters controlling all land distribution, 
and transmitting it to small groups of 
large property holders, or land trustees, 
as soon as a new section was opened for 
regular settlement. The wilderness re- 
mained, of course, at the disposal of 
everybody, for a while, but that meant 
hardships that few were willing to face, 
and poor returns for labor of the most 
painful character. Besides, men are 
born to live in society, and mighty few 
have much taste for the life of anchorites. 
That does not imply that we should have 
to group ourselves in large centres of 
population. We doubt if civilizations 
with very large cities shall ever be much 
of a success. So far they have marked a 
decline in certain forms of healthy social 
growth. They have evolved problems 
that we have not yet solved. 

Vast accumulations of people an lim- 
ited areas are apt to develop new social 
complications, because involving the 
need of increased governmental func- 
tions. In its turn that necessitates what 
we have not yet acquired, higher moral 
perceptions, larger views of life, and 
nobler conceptions of what we owe to 
humanity, for public good. And so we are 
forced into collective functions of greater 
and greater importance. Hence greater 
temptations all around in abuse of power, 
or in shirking necessary duties connected 
with national honesty. 

That question of public or collective 
functions as someth log apart indi- 

vidual ones, is at the root of the science 
of government, and has never been 
understood, although simple enough in 
itrelf. We have fallen into the habit of 
sts^at^iag that increased public functions 
pha.ll bring increased government corrup- 



7 :■ FnknJc Ourtts, m Jack*', hi 



tion. We have not stopped to think 
that government can only be corrupt 
when resting on wrong principles, and 
hence on oligarchic devices, and so on 
especial privileges inviting monopolistic 
schemes, with which to evolve the gTeed 
of the few to rob the rest ; just the oppo- 
site of what government by the people 
Bhould be. You may ask, but how shall 
we agree about functions to be left to in- 
dividuals, and those falling to the action 
of organized society? The answer is 
extremely simple. It can be reduced to 
the following formula : 

44 All industrial functions become pub- 
lic and should be controlled by the peo- 
ple, when they involve some monopoly 
interfering with free competition and 
equal rights, and necessitating some 
especial enactment for some men to do 
what all men cannot do.” 

Shall we stop or fail to abide by that 
logical and correct process, because of 
that platitude of government corruption 
above referred to? Well, government 
can only become corrupt, or remain so, 
by excess of power infringing some in- 
dividual rights, or by deficiency in pow- 
er, allowing some to interfere with the 
rights of others. 

To these timid people or innocent souls 
in holy fear of dire calamities produced 
by increased government patronage, to 
them we shall say : Friends, govern- 

ment patronage can only be dangerous 
when men are forced to beg for employ- 
ment, because kicked out of God's patri- 
mony to all human beings, because 
of land monopoly, and the industrial 
ones that follow. Suppress that land 
monopoly with all its intimate connec- 
tions, and the majority of men shall pre- 
fer to employ themselves rather than be 
employed by the government. Few 
shall care a fig for public employment, 
except as a meanB to save money enough 
with which to more rapidly become their 
own men, handling their own canoes. 

What brings government corruption is 
that immoral power we grant to legisla- 
tors of giving privileges and franchises 
to groups of sharpers, under false pre- 
tenses of public good. Just as if the 
people, in their own corporate capacity, 
could not take better care of their own 
interests, than a few schemers,* with no 
other object but the rapid accumulation 
of wealth at the expense of the people ! 
That invites bribery, the purchase of the 
officers or servants of the people, legisla- 
tors, judges, governors, mayors, aider- 
men and the whole brood from top to 
bottom in the political fabric, either 
through actual purchase, or by combina- 
tion in the issue of stock, bonds, etc., 
resting on the future profits of the priv- 
ileges granted, by which combinations 
rapid fortunes are made all around, in 
that double oligarchy of ours, political 
and industrial. There you have the key 
to all governmental corruption. 

Under government by the people all 
such corruption would rapidly vanish, 
just as a snow bank flooded by the Bolar 
rays in a semi tropical region. All be- 
cause of no class legislation. There 
would be no purchases to make, no bribes 
to offer, under the law of equal rights 
excluding all privileges. What the in- 
dividual could not do, or groupB of them 
in free association with each other ; that 
would be done by the municipality, or a 
number of them, or by the nation as a 
whole, under the eyes of the people, 
through officers who, elected by the 
people, would simply act as mere clerkB, 
to preside over fixed details. All that 
involves a new political dispensation, a 
simple or in opposition to the dreadful 
complexities of all poet and orcsen»- 
governmental device». 

The wboic. course of human history 
exhibits the «a me tendency that we seem 
to Lave carried to-day to its maximum 
point, that of giving to government too 



much power for evil and not enm. c 
good, power to transgress natural 
and natural laws, and power to ab^TT 
in favor of individuals, the most ess 
governmental functions with which i 
we can respect natural lawB and pres^ aIJ ^ 
natural rights and natural freedc*j 10 
freedom enough for each citizen 
equally «/use his own influence***** 
shaping the laws under which he 
live. Is that the caee in our days oresid 
more than ever before ? Does It not hr, an 
pen now what has always taken pla? 
that the few alone have anything to do!. 1 * 10 B 
all legislation? y 

To-day as much as ever, and, relative»» <?o 
speaking’more than ever, the people ai rd *«s 
victimized by economic and politic ,al 80 
monopolies. They have the power t anaJ 
vote for this or that set of men, we know e no 
but, do we derive any especial good frovj* 68 » 
that? A change of masters is all that o\ ny * 
voteB accomplish. Economic and polit'^,,,^ 
cal monopolies remain. Most of th <i a 
wealth is forever flowing into the hanepeke i 
of the few, and forever gliding off from. ,ry 1 
the hands of the many, although it is thc r ^ 
latter who produce all wealth. And, as (hJ si 
it has been in the past and iB in the 
present, so it ehall be in the future, until qjj 
the people realize that they must have 
the power to vote for specific enactments^ 
besides that of voting for specific men.“. ' 
We can never trust the few to make laws r 
for the many. The experiment has- 
always been a wretched failure. Don't * 
you see that that is too much temptation/ $ 
for any set of men ? Don't you see that 
they are bound to abuse their power be- 
cause that power is in itself unnatural, 
anarchical ; because it appeals too much 
to human selfishness and greed ? 

Let us remember that greed and sei-, a 
fishness are evolved and nurtured by s 
laws of monopoly, which are simply #7, 
denial of the law of equal rights. Th|K* n 
latter has not yet made its appearance®^ 
any of our civilizations. Laws of mofer. 
opoly have so far prevailed in all nation?^® 
heathen or Christian. The law of equaj H * 
rights means solid joys for all, Bufficien. 
wealth for all, and no wealth enough to. 
spoil anybody, to corrupt the souls o 
anybody, or darken the minds ofsny.se* 
of men. That alone shall give us gov- 
ernment by the people. Laws of liionop 
oly give wealth to the few, poverty to fhe 
many, solid joys to no one , to nobody 
all. We have, then, oligarchic gove.nven- 
ment, what we have always had, gover napo * 
ment of the few, for the few, open c once 
masked. * nd 

The process by which we can suppress »» 
every form of oligarchy and initiate the 8t 
government by the people— such pro- *' 
cesses are extremely simple, and we shall >*r 
try, in future articles, to be mpre specific 
on the subject. What we do most need “ a * 
in our labors for a funded ritu sociat 
reorganization, is to stop worshipping 
the fathers while trylng to really worship 
“ 7 he Lather and His laws of vjhteous- 
ness! 11 

Jose Gros. 

______ SliMda 





i (©er.) H. Baumaim, otf in av. 

Patriot W\ 49th at. 



Confine Trade Unions To their Proper ” l 
Sphere* 

Those who urge the unions into poli- 
tical action, seems to me, do not fully 
comprehend the process by whi 
economics are reached, by which !£> 
greatest results can be and are attain d 
with the least amount of effort. 11 Differ- 
entiation " conveys the idea exactly. W > 
must learn that the individualizing of 
effort in every sphere of activity is alv ay a 
followed by the greatest poesible result >n 
In the earlier stage of industrial develop fnx 
ment the individual was house builder * 
clothes maker, and food raiser, bin w 
1 r ” s* by division o; 

Ahoi', by me individualizing 
I by having different organ izatu a 
| which to dc different things, l 
’ the principle of differential.,..-, v 
i we u, h.'c oinpi’nii very mac# mote with 
! the saxno amour. », of energy .—Joe Labcdie. 

>- ■•■KT— - 

_ , txic: Paukei, 

Uo. IF .-ntr 

| (uA. UjwJMWGr— T- im 

, m, N ' ;,r 



THE CÄKFENTER. 



c CARPENTER 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OP Til 1C 

. Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
; Joiners of America. 

th*A Month!]/, on the Fi/ltenlh of rach Month. 
AT 

«1 N. Ninth St., Phil*., Pa. 

j P. J. McGuire, Editor and Publ liker. 

ed at the I*oit-Ofttce at PhUa<!clph!a, Pa., 
an iccond-claHi matter. 

K ScMCRimoN Prick Fifty cente a year, in 
,vnoe, postpaid. 

all letter* and money to 

P. J. McGuire, 

Box 881, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PHILADELPHIA, MARCH, 1895 . 



( t \ny member of the U. B., or any trade 
| lonist, desiring a copy of Governor 
- “tgeld’s recent biennial message, can 
^tone by writing to Geo. A. Schilling, 
iireau of Labor Statistics, Springfield, 
llinois. The message is a powerful argu- 
, ent in behalf of the industrial interests- 
t needs to be read to remove the preju- 
dices of those who have been poisoned 
gainst Governor Altgeld by the croaking 
ubsidized press. 



The Government Arbitration Board of 
New South Wales has been abolished, 
ind the labor members of the Provincial 
’arliament favored dispensing with it 
on the ground that was beirg used too 
argely for the interests of the capitalists. 
Still some good, well meaning labor men 
mong us favor compulsory arbitra- 
ion. Compulsory Abitration is the ex- 
hange of the "silk purse” of Liberty 
or the "Sow’s ear ” of State authority. 



vVh v charter trade unions? To get a 
arter from the State or National Gov- 
nment makes a union amenable in its 
It* and by-laws, more than ever, to the 
dotation of the State or Federal Courts 
ud officials. Besides that the union 
^uler such charter can have its funds 
tied up and enjoined by any member at 
any time, or by capitalists, in times of 
trade troubles. More than that, any 
member suspended or expelled for cause, 
"bring the union into court under its 
rter and seek re-inBtatement, despite 
!8 $ pleasure of the members. S.ill in 
Mihing arbitration by legislation in 
congress the idea of government charters 

;or trade unions was tacked on the bill 
and that will place trade unions more 
i^lxan ever in the bauUa enemies. 



* *• 1,1 Large Fortune*» 



f „ „ mmm ■ „ w 

— 

there w o reTe w" m dliona i ros and 
few large fortunes in this country, but 
since then a rich class has sprung up, so 
according to reliable statis- 
^tici, 1 per cent, of the people own as 
much wealth as the other 00 per cent. In 
'1890, there were 12,090,182 families in 
the United States, and, according to 
George K. Holmes in the Political Science 
Quarterly , 4,047 of these possessed seven 
to chs of the wealth. Just think of it— 
oni family possessing the wealth of 2,000 
v families in the country over l In the 
city of New York alone there are said to 
be five men whose aggregated wealth ex- 
ceeds $300,000,000. How many hundred 
millions are held by various wealthy 
corporations— coal and oil syndicates and 
other trusts— we are unable to state. In 
each of the cities of New York and Chi 
cago more than 100,000 men and women 
willing to work were out of employment 
last winter, many of whom must have 
perished from want but for charity 'said 



Points To Study. 

Do you want to understand the prin- 
ciple underlying the eight-hour move- 
ment ? If you do, then read this intently 
and study it thoroughly. 

If not, then let it alone and grunt and 
toil ten hours a day or more. Or at other 
periods go around chasing a job, and 
find too many men for the amount of 
work. 

But if you want to know how to uplift 
yourselves from drudgery, how to get 
steadier employment and more manhood» 
more liberty, more rest and leisure 
regularly, then listen to what we have 
to say and don’t throw this down to read 
some article in a sporting paper or some 

novel, or some sensational story in the 
daily press. 

If ten men go to a shop or job where 
only eight are wanted (wages $3 00 per 
day), two are refused employment. Men 
must live. When out of work they are 
often willing to work cheaper. The two 
men out of work accordingly visit the 
shops and jobs and offer to work for lesB 
than $3.00 per day. Each one of the 
eight employed, fearing he may be dis- 
charged to make place for the cheaper 
idle men, drops his price to keep his 
place, say to $2.50. 

This is a plain illustration of the prin- 
ciple, that competition regulates wages 
by reducing them below the level they 
would be if there were no competition. 
Each of the eight men lose 50 cents a 
day by the competition of two and still 
those two men are idle. And the com 
petition will continue until finally wages 
come down to $1.50 or $2.00 per day, 
and the number idle are not diminished! 
The eight men working each ten hours 
day would make eighty hours a day for 
11. Suppose now the eight men agree 
to each work only eight hours a day, 
which would be a loss of two hours from 
each of the eight men, or a total of six- 
teen hours loss. What would the em- 
ployer do if he could not induce the 
eight men to keep on at ten hours, or get 
other ten-hour men to take their places? 
He would then hire the two idle men to 
each work eight hours a day to make up 
the sixteen hours shortage. 

But, you will say, these eight men 
would get only eight hours pay or $2.00 
a day, instead of $2.50, thereby losing 
»0 cents more a day, simply to oblige an 
employer to hire two extra men. This, 
you will contend, would be a Iobs of $3 00 
pe* week to each man under the eight- 
iour.„tcm, and that you Bay i B really 
the square reason why , ou don’t believe 
>n «rryin* unl the eight-hour principle 
Htop not too fast. Here comes in a 
principle yon don’t know much abont 
evidently, or you would not say so. 

Granted the men are reduced to $2 00 
per day. What then ? The ten men are 
at work, the two idle men whose compe- 
tition obliged the others to take lower 
wages, are at work. They are not out- 
side to beat down wages by competition. 
There is no competition now among the 
ten, ami they stick together. What is 
the result? There being no outsiders to 
bid for work and underbid the rest, their 
request for more wages is conceded and 
wages go back to $3.00, and even more 
hy a law as universal and unerring as the 
law of gravitation. 

Therefore, reduction in the hours of 
labor does not in the long run reduce 
wages. And onr first move should be to 
establish eight hours as a day’s work for 
carpenters all over the land. Let us 

can 



all 



The Thoughts of a Capitalist. 

Labor ib so submissive always, so pli- 
able, tractable and docile, what need we 
capitalists and corporations care if at 
times a few rebel? They can be shot 
down or coerced ; they can be jailed or 
black-listed ; they can be lashed or 
crushed into submission. 

When election day comes they will vote 
for the capitalists’ choice anyway, and 
divide themselves into hostile political 
factions. Political stump speakers can 
gull” them, promises of political "pap” 
can tempt them. They don’t care about 
trade unionsor paying dues. That is too 
much trouble and too expensive. 

They must be taught it will not do to 
offend the bosses — yes, offend the bosses 
in the shop and the political bosses too. 
To let them organize and unite together 
won’t do. It might bring workers of all 
nationalities together, and that will never 
do. The poor devils mußt believe a for- 
eigner and an American can’t mix, nor 
can an Irishman and 
along together, or i 
German. They mu 
nistic on account of 
religious hatred ai 
mußt be stirred up. 

All this will keep 
from thinking on 
organizing togettv,! 

fit and advancement, xueanwniie wages 
can be decreased ; profits, rent and inter- 
est enlarged, and the coffers of the cap- 
italists filled to overflowing. 



and, with that end achieved, we ^n 
move °n encouraged to secure other re- 



I he competitive articles on architect- 
ural and building construction published 
in The Carpenter, the past year have 
proven very interesting and valuable. A 
prize of $10 was offered per orders of 
G. E. B. for the best article. The same 
has been awarded to D. L. Stoddard, of 
Union 281, Indianapolis, Ind. 

The “Carpenter’s Problem” brought 
in hundreds of solutions. The prize 
offered was a copy of John Swinton’s 
book, "Striking for Life.” Prizes were 
awarded for three best solutions to Bros. 
J. R. Nace, Tacony, Pa.; R. J. Hagey, 
Germantown, Ta , and Justus H. Schwab 
Jr., New York. 



Yes, When Will They Do So l 



Prizes Awarded. 



Four New Unions. 

In the past month, four new unions 
have been granted charters, viz : Union 
No. 348, Oekaloosa, Iowa; 349, Orange, 
N. J.; 429, Montclair, N. J. ; and 438, 
South Orange, N. J. 

This iB practical evidence of a revival 
of interest among the carpenters in the 
work of organizing more thoroughly. 
The hard times and general depression 
of the last two years has taught them a 
pregnant and forceful lesson. Now more 
than ever are they awakened to the 
value of maintaining a widespread com- 
pact union of the craft. With the com- 
ing of better times, with work for the 
men and money in their hands, their 
first thought will be to join the U. B. 

We have an application for a charter 
now pending from the English-Speaking 
Cabinet Makers* U nion of New York city 
with several hundred members. The 
affiliation with us of Cabinet 



Our banking schemers want to retire! U nion 'no. 7 of New° YorT'adds 

t e United States Treasury noteB, usually^ [thousand more members to outrank* 

*3Tnl a nno‘‘ greenb f Ck8 - ” Th *" are l^e charter recently ££ ££& I 
$ 6,000,000 in circulation, and they are (formerly the House Framers) New York ' ' 

SSooo M0 1CilJ ’’ h " b,0 “ ght r " U ' » tb°«uul more 

iSKitTÄ hr?- “ th *‘ “v. • ■ 



interest -bearing debt 
In this way these bankers will have a 






based on these bonds, and loan their 
paper to the people again at high rates 
of interest, and added to it do a business 
of note shaving and discounts. Thus the 
bankers can draw interest on their bonds 
and on their deposits, and also on their 
banking business and on their paper 
money issue. 

The people’s non-interest bearing 
money— the greenback— is a menace to 
this scheme of the bankers. No wonder 
the Wall street interests desire the retire, 
ment of greenbacks and urge the issue of 
more bonds. 

1 he working people don’t care! They 

ofn’? 0the ” heir head8 about questions 

eub XTfh f T They leave those 

«injects to the bankers and brokers 
Such questions are too knotty. A base' 
hall score, the record of a favorite horse 
e prospects of the coming Corbett and 
Fitzsimmons prize fight-those are sim- 
pler, plainer subjects-the questions of 
primary interest. 

When, when will the massof workmen 
think of their own true interests and use 
e brains they possess to study these 
more 'mportant problems and not forever 
be the drudges and slaves of a few? 

When they do thßn ( 

and tho . ’ . en ^e moneyed class 

tools of h Pa v y haCkB ’ and the Political 
h ,, anking and capitalist interests 
had better stand from under. The past 
wo years gave ample time and lots of Ant 

lard, cold, bitter experience to the mul- r , 

titude. Willthey profit by it? Or will G °° d 
they go on as over, trusting to othei 
agencies and interests, rather than organ 

1Z& HDr] niliiiinf A 41 i 



u_ T r — 7 “““ people Thus our Order in New York citv ha« 



, ' ” j an evil vi I* 

tion of fully two thousand more members 
and by the adhesion of two of the 



trade anions in existence. , 



Machinery Should Be The Ouly Slave. 

Father Mackey, in an address to the 
workmen of Cincinnati, says : 
“Machinery should be the only slave 
of man to do his bidding and lighten the 
burden of his toil. It is not in the power 
o organized society to destroy the em- 
ployment of labor without providing for 
he laborers. The genius of the individ- 
ual should be a contribution to the good 
of the whole, instead of oppressing the 
toiler and sending him adrift. It should 
shorten his hours of labor and contribute 
to his happiness. Legislation w ill secure 
these results. It is the balance- wheel of 
society.” 



COPIES OF PROCEEDINGS 
of Eighth General Convention 
of the U. B., held at Indian- 
apolis Ind., are now ready. 
Price, five cents. Send orders 

p - J- Mcguire, 

p . O. Box, 884, 

a , p hila.,Pa. 

ppeais and Agitation Cards 

“wpruHiDyur ur will „ wading f or Non-Uni™ 

on as ever, trusting to other Car Penters. ° n 

• , and interests, rather than organ- Furnished Loralo c 

th . oducate themselves to work out your R. S writ u ree * ^et 

their own emancipation? for the * Wnte the Gen. Sec. 













*or m tl 



THE CARPE^TAYVr 



General Officers 

OK THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

General President.— Chas E. Owe ns, Westches- 
ter, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

General 8ecrctary-Treaaurer — P. J. McGuire, 
Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 

General Vice-Presidents. 

First Vice-President— Henry Gale, 330 W. Ver- 
mont st., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Second Vice President— Louis E. Tossey, 601 
Larned st., East, ▼- Detroit, Mich. 

General Executive Board. 

(All correspondence for the G. E. B. must be 
mlled to the General 8ecietary.) 

W. J. Shields, 10 Cheshire st., Jamaica Plain, 
Mass. 

S. J. Kent, 2016 S. st„ Lincoln, Neb. 

J. Williams, 31 Spring st., Utica, N. Y. 

A. Cattermull, 8914 S. Halstead st, Chicago, 111* 
Jos. C. Gcrnet, 161 Foot Ave., Bellevue, Ky. 



respected him, and if he got along still 
farther we honored him more, and all 
my life I have seen the same feeling 
prevalent in this country. It is wealth 
got by tbiB means and by that, by trick 
and device, but all the time according to 
law, which is under the ban of the splen- 
did intelligence and moral sense of the 
people of thi« country/ * 



From Across the Sea. 



Au Argument for Higher Dues and a 
Good Financial System. 



Thk Second International Building 
Trades Exhibition will be held in Lon- 
don thiB month. 



The Building Irade Nev'8 is the title of 
a new monthly Bheet now published 
several months by the Federation of 
Building Trades of London. It is a 
newsy, well-edited journal. 



The Brooklyn Trolley Trouble. 



The noble fight made by the motor 
men and conductors on the trolley roads 
of Brooklyn is another object lesson in 
the labor movement — not tha. “ all 
strikes are failures,” but that there 
must be first a thorough National organ- 
ization of trolley men and of each craft 
and branch of labor before such move- 
ments can win. And then these corporate 
interests, if they will not yield to just 
and fair demands and measures of con 
ciliation, can be brought to terms by the 
united political power of the working 
class need independently at the ballot 
box. 

Still, this Brooklyn strike had its edu- 
cational effect. It has been another eye 
opener to the thinking citizens of our 
country. It has proven how readily all 
the militant forces of government are 
brought in to coerce the workers. The 
police, spies and detectives, the scabs 
and State militia as of old are all at the 
behests of the moneyed interests. No 
thought was given the enforcement of 
the State ten-hour law as asked by the 
trolley men. The subjugation of labor 
was of more importance. 

But in this strike one ray of hopeful 
judicial fairness penetrates the gloom of 
defeat, and that is the decision of Judge 
Gaynor. His arraignment of the man- 
ner and methods, under cover of law, by 
which several of the Brooklyn companies 
had watered stock and squeezed out 
stock-holders and used nefarious prac- 
tices was maBterly and convincing, and 
on this point we must quote some of his 
language : 

“ The transactions which I have called 
your attention to are not singular to 
Brooklyn. Their like are to be found in 
nearly every locality in the country 
They have come to be the order of the 
day. In place of being checked by laws 
they are often fostered by laws. If this 
condition were to continue, what the end 
would be no one who has studied over 
causes and effects can fail to perceive 
w’ith clear vision. The prime object of 
government is to promote distributive 
justice, and thereby make the governed 
stable and content, and no government 
which does not do this may, in the 
nature of things, long endure. That our 
Government, through the instrument 
ality of the people, educated in our com- 
mon schools, is not to fail in this in the 
end, is not to he doubted, though it may 
not he perceived in the present political 
outlook. 

“ There is no jealousy against wealth 
in this country. On the contrary, those 
who accumulate wealth in any legitimate 
calling, professional, mechanical, mer- 
er.-. 4,51 "?; agricultural o r otherwise rka 
* subjects of emulation and honor. Wheu 
I was a bov ii a farmer got along so thü* 
Loüld *. ird to paint his house, w* ail 






No trade union, local or international, 
unless it is based on high dues, liberal 
benefits and a strict financial system, 
can hope to prosper or be enduring. 
Experience of trade organizations here 
and abroad amply confirms this opinion. 

During the storm and stress of indus- 
trial severity the paßt two years, those 
trade unions which have had low dues 
and no benefits have suffered most. 
While those who were well-fixed finan- 
cially have weathered the severest 
blasts. 

Take the Cigar makers* International 
Union for example- That organization 
over 20 years ago was founded on low 
dueß, and when the panic of 1873-75 was 
over, there was only a skeleton of it left. 
The work of re-organizing again was 
taken up in 1877, and the system of high 
dues and perfection of a strict financial 
system has boen advanced year by year 
since then. 

And with what astonishing, marvelous 
results ! The recently published annual 
report proves that the Cigarmakers’ 
International Union has more unions 
and members than it bad at the be- 
ginning of the panic two years ago. And 
in that time only five strikes against re- 
ductions in wages w T ere loBt. The annual 
report shows that during the year 1894 
the Cigarmakers expended benefits as 
follows: Strike, $44,966.76 ; sick, $106, 
758.38; death, $62,158.77; traveling, 
$42,154.17 ; out-of-work, $174,517.25, 
making a total of benefits paid for the 
year, $430,555.32 ; and a grand total of 
$2,522,378.40 expended in benefits the 
past fifteen years. The reserve fund 
shows a balance of $340,788.66, or $12.24 
per head. In addition to the payment of 
the above vast amount in benefits, the 
International Union has successfully 
protected the rate of wages during one of 
the greatest industrial depressions that 
ever visited this or any other country. 
The report will show that the actual 
membership on January 1, was 27,828. 
This does not include the members on 
the road, which is always larger at this 
time of the year. However, despite the 
depression, this shows an actual increase 
of 1,040 members during the year. This 
record, says President Perkins, is an 
unanswerable argument to the critics of 
the trades union movement and is food 
for reflection for those who profess to 
believe the movement is still problemat- 
ical ; it completely demonstrates that the 
trades union organized and conducted 
along correct lines can successfully hold 
its own against all comers and under any 
circumstances. 



Lkicbbtkr, England. — The Carpenters 
and Joiners on April 1st will ask an ad 
vance from 8d. to 8£d. per hour, and that 
‘improvers*** wages be one penny per 
hour less than the standard rate of skilled 
workmen, whereas at present they are 
paid according to merit. 



London. — It is generally feared that a 
universal strike of the building trades of 
this city will take place May first this 
year. The employers refuse to renew 
the agreement which was made shortly 
after the memorable eight-hour strike of 
the carpenters three years ago. 



Wolverhampton.— :The carpenters of 
this place have just closed a strike of 
thirty-seven weeks* duration for the 
restoration of the wages paid seventeen 
vearB ago* The men return to work 
defeated because of the importation of 
the lowest classes of scab labor. 



A large number of trade' tiuion mem- 
bers have been recently elected to Vestry 
Boards and Poor Land Guardians in all 
sections of England, among them General 
Secretary F. Chandler, of the Amalga- 
mated. General Secretary Matkin of the 
General Union of Carpenters has been 
chosen a Magistrate in Liverpool. 



There are three distinct national or 
international carpenters* organizations in 
Great Britain, and at times they clash with 
oneanother in a very emphatic way. They 
are : The Amalgamated, with headquar- 
ters at Manchester ; the General Union, 
with headquarters at Liverpool; and the 
AssociatedCarpenters, with headquarters 
at Glasgow. To make it more interesting 
the employers have lately incited the 
formation of a fourth society, called the 
Independent Carpenters’ and Joiners’ 
Society.*' 



Child Labor. 



&OB Bl 

Council. 



(Insertions under this head cost, ton cents a* 

'»on «hall k 

41 of tha 

Fast St. Louis, III., Feb. 4, 

Whereas, death has removed from our ^ 
our noble and faithful brother, George Sii posec 
be it «tie« !q tl 

Resolved , by this Local Union 169, thr beim? n, 
mourn the loss of one of the oldest and motL. 
seien tious workers in the cause for which v ” P^sld 
organized, and be it further 

Resolved , That Union 169 tender the ber«*ned. 
family their heartfelt sympathy, and th»t a . 
of this resolution be spread on our minutes « 

published in The Carpenter and daily parent gu 
of this city, and a copy sent to the berea 
family of our deceased brother, George Simol»*. 

G us Baber, ) iwlco 

Wm. H. Austin, > Committee. >rd fag 

H. A. Marmaduke ) lC fal g© 



George W. Jones, of Union 602, L«udington, 
Mich. ,wentja way last August for parts unknown, 
Ho told Baron Munchausen tales of a fabulous 
fortune coming to him through the death of bis 
father. On the strength of this he duped bush 
nenn men «nd the p«**>y*l e cf 1 -idfn'gion rfgh* 
-nd lef? And to comp? to a'l ho duped a young 
•- vnan uya promlseo: marriage. . He originally 
j from Norwalk, O. He is] a downright 

swindler. 



Child labor has rapidly grown to mon- 
strous proportions within the last twenty 
years, but the more enlightened portion 
of the nation is waking to the folly and 
wrong of it. This is Bhown by the fact that 
legislation on this subject exkts in many 
States, though often evaded, and that 
factory^nspectors have been appointed, 
though their number is inadequa'e. 
Some working people will not let their 
children go into the mills, saying they 
“ learn too much badness.** Others Bay it 
is better for them than to be on the streets. 
Mr. F. Willoughby has shown that the 
rate of wages is lowered by child labor, 
since the rate of wages depends on “the 
standard of comfort,** which standard is 
lowered by the employment of the young 
children of a family The effect of the 
prohibition of cK labor would be a 
purmtuudil gp wagea, owing to the 
lesseued comt dtion, and also an im- 
proved coniHtion of the laborer, render- 
ing him more valuable as a consumer, 
which would lt *id to a better condition of 
tue market. — Lippincott's. 



Union No. 736, 1 Ui«n fl ) 
O , Jan. 29, ,895 \ ^ " 



Nelson ville, 

W here as. it ha» pleased the All-wise Killer o *7 
the Universe to take from our midst Brother E ea » 

C. Cunningham be it any< 

Resolved , That we feel that we have lost ai 
earnest worker iu the cause of labor aud unloiL__ . 
ism. VondK 

Resolved, That we tender our heartfelt sympa^d s 
thy to the bereaved widow and orphans. Be the i 
it also 

Resolved , That a copy of these resolutions be ^ 1 
sent to the family of the deceased brother and alec 
spread on the minutes of our union and they u ^ 

published in our official jovial, 1 The Carpenter A 

and in our city papers, aiid that we drape ourj* thfjj 
charter for thi ty days. 1 dej<^ 

A. H. Miller, 1 
John F rier > Committee. 

M. Maxwell. ) 



1 ««Jo!, 
«es 
ot it»,' 



Madisonville, O., Nov. 21, 1894. 

Whereas, the Supremo Ruler of the Universe 
has in His infinite wisdom removed from among 
us one of our esteemed brothers, Ernest H. 
Sbilkop, to a better realm. 

Resolved , That we, as brothers, extend our 
heartfelt sympathies to the family of our de- 
ceased brother. 

Resolved , That a copy of those resolutions be 
sent to the family and be published in our official 
journal. The Carpenter, and our city paper, 
the M<idisonville Review. 

Alex. Zoll, ) 

Wm Gannin, Committee. 

E L. Beiden,) 



ft Union No. 427 \ 

*9mahA, Ki:r.. Nov., 22, 1894. j 

Whereas, Üjo angel of death has entered our 
rank Hand removed from our midst a true and 
tried brother, be It t hereto r«> 

Re srt/vid .That in e cleat n of : >r i • fiUicr Nkls. . 
A. N Yt} Unfir, a charier mender rj • . nion 427, 
which occurred. November 4, l*c! . • !'t»i<£n 
has lost a faithful and earru^ft mem * -r 

Resolved, That \v> e*tfhd to the sort Iny,.'?*’ 
and children our heaftBlt >t> , /*»u- 

mend them to the care of our iiuave > iflie-r.y 
Resolved, That our charter bn d r.V | <» * vbfc'rt»- 

ing for a period of thirty days. A cop . •( \theso 
resolutions bo published in the ER, a 
copy forwarded to the widow and a^uopy also 
spread on the records of our Union. 

O. Ryder, 1 

J. J. Kkrrigan, f Committee. 

Geo. Weeks. ) 



General Executive Board Proceedings, 



8KPTEMBEU SESSION. 

Indianapolis, Ind., Sept. 26, 1894.- The G. K. 
B. newly elected at the Eighth General Conven- 
tion, met in Room 20, Hotel English, Indianapo- 
lis, Ind., Sept. 25, 1894, 7.30 P. M., and at once 
proceeded to organize. 

Secretary Kent called the Board to order, and 
Htated nominations were in order for Chairman 
and Secretary. Upon motion the Secretary cast 
t he ballot of the Board for Brother W. J. Shields, 
as Chairman, and S. J, Kent, Secretary, 

It was decided to dispense with the O’ctober 
meeting and to hold the next meeting at 8 A. M., 
Jan. 7, 1895, at the General Office, Philadelphia, 
Pa., unless called together for a special session 
by the Chairman. 

Adjourned at 8 P. M. to meet Jan. 7, 1895. 

S. J.*Kent, 

Attest : Secretary G. E. B. 

P. J. McGuire, G. S. 

first day’s session.— January 7. 

G. E B. met at office of G. S. Chairman 8hiclds 
called Board to order at 8 A. M., Brother* 
Shields, Kent, Williams and Gernct present 
Auditof bills and accounts of G.S taken up.an 
occupied entire day. 

First Day’s Evening Session.- Gen. . r 
Owens arrived from New York and con* 
with G. E. B on matters in general co* 
with the welfare of the U. B. (], ; . 

- li h-» r 

SECOND DAY 1 8 8E8SI 

All members of Bo r 
books and accounts o»k i' >r ' m 

the day. 

Consideration of .,«* York, 

against decision York D. O., on 

vote uken Id ‘ r ; , ra r Cabinet Makers 1 Union 
No. 7, of New York, into the U B. G. S. was 
instructed to communicate immediately with 
Secretary of l1u> New York D. C., revues ting fhll 
•Huteuieu of fach> regarding protest of Union .a?, 
against admission of Cabinet JMakeii* Union 

(Continued on page J%) 









Tkt “tob.” 



(«pMAftlly for na oAmrarraB.) 



yfnn hard to »lari the verse on theme of bal« % 
(•|J When ev'ry breath the viper doth 

1 release 

The air doth eore Infect. Yet I'll ne'er prate 
Of laok of mother wit, nor of decree»» 

Of nounde of jingling rhythm , nor word* to 
elate 

The acorn 1 Inward feel, nor will 1 cease 
To battle with the muee. till flowing gab 
In horning accents doth indict the M Bceb.” 



The “ Scab," then, be my theme. A dirty job 
You think. Yet, let it be a venial crime 
To hold one up before the quiet mob 
Like mirror up to nature. Filthy grime, 
*Tie true, to taint the morale, or to rob 
An honeet man of purer thoughts sublime 
Yet I’ll compass have, nor leave you blind, 

If I am “ cruel, only to be kind." 






\ 



A 'Scab" on man or beast denotes disease ; 

An Incrustation o'er Infected wound. 

It means a low and dirty fellow. Please. 

To note the 'semblance. Do not yet confound 
The one the other with. But let us »eise 
The filthier of the two, and gently sound 
His inner depths. He'll test our greatest skill 
We'll treat like the doctors- cure or kill. 



4 

I 



To jou nol pooled, might you ask hi* fault ? 

One moat efregtouajo hi. fairer fame— 

“ Betrayed hla oomr.Saafor a drop of aalt”— 
Bla oath made tola*- bla resolution, game. 
Ha barter'd honor for a cup of malt. 

And braced hla folly with a wanton's ahame. 
Tat guilt .teals In and plays the havoc's part, 
And, In his seeming triumph sears his heart, 



The " Saab ” la no uncertain, doubtful sprig; 

» ■ . Mae yet consummate, as you might surmise, 

. Hall draaa n telaebaod with a mask, and rig 
In boa s at habit— Simple truth dliguiae— 
While moat the villain plays ; nor care a tig 
Ta cover shame with most malicious lies. 
With nothing clean, or pure, to give or Mil, 
He'd drag bla fallows all to bell, pellmell. 



If thorns ha reap in such a dastard causa, 

. Mo pity can ha hope for. *Ti» the tree 
Ha pleated for himself; and, If the laws 
Bn rule It, let him bleed. ’Tie plain to sea 
Ha chase It for the gain. . And now, because 
The Bait Is bitter, ha would fain be free 
Of soorn and oengure fait In honor's breast, 
And sank sea)j!8ion In a tomb of rest. 



*rak( «award never on himself relies.”— 

/ Whan foo'd by expos« of a dirty creed— 

* But ta aa equal, for assistance files." 

And, so, 'tla fashion with this soaly 'breed 
Ta ha Mgpeeted moat, when moat ha trim 
To ape a kindly mian— to drape hla dead 
In garb of verdant youth— and seek to crave 
’ Taur pardon «I n foult so dastard, grave. 



■ The lion's akin Is quite loo abort to hide 
The recreant limbs of such conniving fool. 
Tla treason's curse to have moat kata abide ; 

Where treason's service most I « used. The tool 
Worn out t h e job complete— *tls cast satds; 

And, while the culprit utters whining pula. 
The honest world loo k s on. nor trusts him moto 
The time may oome whoa he’ll repast the score. 



Thera be that ala« of crime which ruin brings 
Upon ttaatf and author. Than 'tla asset 
TVs world be proad sod soupla. with its stings, 
Baris! vc jaara the laugh of triumph. Bweet 

.. At dlra disaster, downfollefe cheat— 

A “ living lie, and mighty of tbs saaan 

Whose deads deny him plana la amm’ry 's green. 

Ir AfdftyMi/af». Jonuory, 



perform with the obligation* of hla office. 
He toned a deaf aarto all appeal* to hla 
class sympathies, aa he did alao to 
repeated sommonaea to gurrender the 
garrison. At length, on Oorpoa Christi 
Day, the order to storm the walls was 
reluctantly given. In never-ending 
streams rostits and artisans swarmed op 
the ladders that were raimd in ovary 
direction. In desperate hand to band 
conflict the scanty garrison was backed 
to pieces ; end the governor, reeolved to 
capitulate only to death, killed twelve of 
hla assail ants outright before he sunk 
ander the axes of the aurroonding 
throng. Bat scarcely had the long de- 
layed march of the Norfolk boat began 
when the messenger arrived, bearing the 
king's assnrance that he bad granted 
letters of emancipation and foil pardon 
to ths Essex men, and that similar letters 
would be immediately forwarded to the 
villages and towns of avery other ooonty. 
Relying upon this assnrance, the in- 
surgent host disbanded and by groups 
forthwith returned to their bomea. 

In the adjoining county of 8nflolk fifty 
thousand insurgents, we are told, had 
assembled in the town of 8t, Edmond’s 
Bury on the morning of the fifteenth of 
Jane. Here they arrested Sir John 
Cavendish, the Lord Chief Justice of 
England. Escorting their prisoner to 
the town market place, where a Jury was 
soon impaneled, he who bad judged waa 
judged. Accused of pitiless acts of 
tyranny committed in the name of 
justice, the judge was prononneed guilty, 
bis head was struck ofi and aet upon the 
pillory. 

The townsmen, it appears, now that 
their day of triumph had at length ar- 
rived, were not content to merely wreak 
unprofitable vengeance on their opprtee- 
ors ; they were determined without 






land, waa the son of a mix i 
waa known to be in strong sympathy 
with ths class from which be had sprang. 
Accordingly, John ths Dyer flmmederi 



danger of delay to gain poss es sion of 
those charters which were the legal evi- 
dence« of thair subjection to the lords of 
the soil. Since the very beginning of the 
century the townsmen had constantly 
been at strife with the sbbots of Bury, 
but their every effort to obtain redress of 
their grievances, whether by legal prtf 
cess or by force, bad provsd futile. This 
fierce antagonism between abbot and 
townsmen certainly appears sträng« and 
unnatural whan we consider that the 
social and eoonomic influence of the 
monastic clergy had been steadily exerted 
for oratories in fkvor of the Industrial 
clam. But it is necessary to bear In mind 
that the influence of the 8tete over the 
Church had bean constantly increasing 
from a time almost contemporaneous 
with the rise of the lawyer and other 
«pedal dames With this Increasing 
state tuBwewce the previously high 
character of ths superior clergy bed been 
steadily lowered ; sad when we observe 
the! the amass of the military aris- 
tocracy, the Spencers, Anmdles, Percies, 
Nevilles, etc., had become more end 
more frequent among the clerical digni- 
taries we may accept that feet as at once 
the recoil and the os urn of that abase- 
ment. The bishoprics and abbacies 
which in the p revious oratory had been 
filled by men scalene for the elevate» of 
the masses ware now bestowed on the 
yoongsr sow of aristocratic fh mUto c as 
patronage Thera is no doubt that the 







with ths governor with «view I clergy were ever asore equitable in the 




of inducing him to land the 



trmtmrat of their cgrionltiiral tenants 



forces fas ths march on London. ** Rob- than the military clam bad been, but 
ert,” he aeid,“ you are a knight renowned theae later churchmen understood little 



t wees of outlawry were revemd, all 
prisoners implicated is the outer* 




m 

. * 





for year valor and a man of great weight and sympathised lees with the burning 
In the eoontry , yet you are ths sou of a popular desire for emancipation, and 
poor in sera, who was a serf like countless ware consequently averse to making con- 
thousands of those now In arme for free- cessions to the inhabitants of the towns 
dom. You ere oueef ourselves. Oome that had grown up around the cathedral 
with w ; aad with the ecufltlsam and er ml aster ra their domains. In Bury, 

gnrtttuds of the Ootnmow, none will be though the townsman poeeamed the right 

Si mooting in foil popular aeawifaiy, yet 



pomd by the king's Judges were realm 
On the other bend, the charier of tree 
dom whlahbad bow extorted fr« Um 
abbey five yean before ww surrendered 
During the eveutfol years that followed 
this compromise; during the first years 
at the subversion of the trade ^w 



Vv 



Douhj” the 



k 







Jtuutf#«* r . 



xorin the labor services 



, ’red from them in the days 

of pure ; and the organization 

of the brotherhoods to resist the en- 
croachments of the lords ; the relations 
between the abbots of Bury and their 
tenants had become more and more 
embittered. The abbacy was now tem- 
porarily vacant ; and the abbey had been 
for some time in charge of a prior named 
John of Cambridge, a cunning and rest- 
less man, whose chief ambition it was to 
use the utmost rigor of the law in enforc- 
ing the “ rights” of the abbey against 
the claims of the tenants of its fields and 
town for greater freedom. 

It was then to the mansion of Prior 
John, outside of Bury, that the insur- 
gents directed th ir steps on the morn- 
ing of the fifteenth of June. The prior 
Bought to save his life by flight, but waB 
delivered up by his own servants. His 
head was cut off and borne to the pillory 
in the market-place, where it was placed 
"ide by side with that of Sir John Caven- 
dish. The vast throng then swept on- 
ward to the abbey and demanded of the 
monks that they should forthwith bring 
all the charters of their house to the 
market-place, and there deliver them as 
a pledge that the future abbot should 
sign the charter of the town’s liberties. 
Having secured the abbey charters, the 
insurgents turned their faces toward 
London, but infoimation of the king’s 
concessions at Mile End caused the Suf- 
folk men, as it had those of other coun- 
«17. vanoout or~ur«r5oid*«, b< 



i«® 

iff 



«4«. W innipbg, R. Beil, 76 Schult 

COLORADO 

560. Colorado Oity— G. F. Hamil. 

515. Colorado Spgs.— 0. Geisuler, 33 Frat 
55. Denver— D. M. Woods, 2253 Logan a 



letters of emancipation and pardon— one 
of which is still in existence at Walsing- 
ham— and also a letter to the abbot of 
St. Alban’s, commanding him to deliver 
up to the townsmen the charters which 
bound the town in bondage to the abbey. 
The abbot immediately declared the 
king’s letters to be of no legal effect, but 
the townsmen burst into the abbey and 
compelled him to deliver up the charters. 
The chief justice now informed Grindcob 
that his life was forfeit by the terms of 
the king’s late proclamation, but if he 
would persuade his fellow townsmen to 
restore the charters to the abbey, his life 
should be spared. Upon this Grindcob 
turned from the judge and addressed the 
assembled people: "Do to-day,” he 
said, "as you would have done, had I 
been killed yesterday. I shall die for the 
cause of the freedom we have won, 
counting myself happy to end my life by 
such a martyrdom.” 

The army then penetrated into the 
midland counties ; where, in Coventry, 
already celebrated for its textile indus- 
tries and strong trade union organiza- 
tions, John Ball was taken a prisoner. 
It is said that great efforts were made by 
Tresilian, and probably torture was fre- 
quently used as a means, to induce this 
grand apostle of labor to confess that 
the great revolt was instigated for 
political purposes. But this inviduous 
insinuation so pertinaciously made, was 
as steadily denied by the famous Poor 
Priest, who was soon condemned and 
hanged on a gallows, which, in considera- 
tion of his clerical character, was built 
somewhat higher than the one used for 
his fellow-sufferers. 



In this way the royal army and the 

4 1«.' S«,' 831 n! Ooma king’s judge, the one arresting and fight- 

CONN ECTICUT ing ’ the otlier insult ing and assassinating, 

115. BRiDGRPORT^Ohariea Watkins, 50 A traversed several of the judicial circuits 

43. Hartford— W m. A. Neiison. 32*Wooe of the land. In London, Kent and Es- 
49. Meriden Geo. J. Stanley, 258 East M 

97. New Britain— J ohn Hiitpoid, P O.B. ßex permanent special commissions were 
799 . E - Ohipman, 406 Wa a pp 0 i n t e d for the detection and punish- 

d yef^r Aflylum it ment of all who had taken part in the 
->d faith, had arbitrarily arrested John revolt. 
p Dyer and other leaders of the late 






urgents. The men of the villages, 
in took up arms, but their efforts to 
centrate in any formidable numbers 
e baffled by the landholders’ forces 
tch had now taken possession of the 
strongholds. The royal army in 
3 x was again put in motion, but when 
rrived in Colchester, it found that 
Essex men had marched up the 
'ey of the Colne with the intent to 
;e with the Suffolk men who were 
3 more assembling. The Essex men 
), however, forced by the pressure 
le enemy’s cavalry to turn and give 
'.e in a disadvantageous position at 
mry in Suffolk ; and here, after a 
md severe struggle, they were fin- 
outed. 

er this decisive advantage of the 
army the king visited the field of 
jell and established his court at 
tasford in Essex. He here appointed 
s pbert Tresilian Lord Chief J ustice, 
4 ce of Sir John Cavendish executed 
4 vy. Tresilian now followed in the 
££>f the army, and his first decisions 

63« condemnation of the prisoners 
679. Jas, 1 Bennett, 1163 Wilcox &ve 
«90. (Ger.) (Mill Bench Hand«) F. H. Quitm 
1126 Hlnm&n st. ^ 

780. H. * rledrlch, 20 Heine place. 

741. F. Larson, 751 Jane st. 

W6 . Oollinbtilljb— G eo. Shoettle. 

169. East 8t. Loure-E Wendling,512Illinoi 
944. Elmhurst — (G er.) H. Sleling, P. O. Box 
o??* — O. F. Nugent, 643 Chestnil 

SZ- ^nston-J F McFerran. 1425 Emerso] 
S60* Buhman, Jefferson, cor. 

379. H^BV^L oTMon..' Uol "°" 

298. Highland Park J ft 

MS.-. „Chleftgo. 



. «V * lv> r‘ N ~ B - £ p oe. 527 Sixth ft 
togeth er. . i^J-^Frauk Watson. 

features i n w T * R ^ m i e ’ ae ??A , P* 1 ® flt - 

; withta hi k years* m * 

from bia post (hol^®“Y^« 8t D «Leon .t. 

wise), nor has thereJjjjjjjb 206% Hancock st. 

period one SOlitarvrfonner, 220 N. Front at. 

% v * ~ J os. Neufeld, 427 7th at. 

« i— 



But we are justified in believing 
that the solidarity of the Brotherhoods 
was sufficiently strong to make the work 
of obtaining evidence very difficult. 
That the work of the circuits and com- 
missions was not exhaustive we find evi- 
dence in the parliamentary roles, which 
contain a list of many leaders of the 
revolt who had escaped indictment. One- 
hundred and seventy-four of these were 
resident in Middlessex, of whom one 
hundred and fifty-one were London 
craftsmen; tw r enty-eight were men of 
Kent, of whom eight were of Canterbury; 
twenty, among whom were four clergy- 
men, belonged to Suffolk ; seventeen were 
in Norfolk ; eleven in Essex; eleven in 
Somerset; eight in Winchester; eight in 
Sussex ; four in Cambridge, and four in 
Hertford. 

November, 1381, saw the assemblage 
of the Parliament which was supposed to 
decide the question of serf emancipation. 
Upon this subject the royal message said: 
"If you desire to enfranchise and set at 
liberty the said serfs by your common 
assent, as the king has been informed 
some of you desire, he coast, it 
your prayer.” The answer adopted by 
cue house in reply to this part of the 
royal message certain > has the merit, of 
frankness. It declared that the hing’e 
letters of emancipation were null and 
void. Their serfs were their goods, thev 
said, " and the xiug c&mioi our 

goods but by our owe con sc* J i a ton 
sent we have never given and never will 
give, were we all to die in one day.” 

If, like most of the nominal historians, 
we Bhould regard this great revolt aß a 
local or national attempt to solve tue 
social question of that age by political 
5£^ 18Trf d be forced to admit Jiat 
baginaw-s not success j ui. Phis we 
im. J. J N Murp Sd to admit becanos the 



334* Sl^Chax during the first 

466.’ (Ger.) Win. 



DAGO— J. O. G .ar 

ave.. Sta. S.,OhL re 
I. Thompeoi 
v ~‘~eet, Ohicftp- 



-. 0 . W. 



Mom 



ftiiöwlSStPF' 

:AüBe— Frank OurOi, 



days of panic was turned to disaster when 
the insurgents attempted to withstand 
the charges of disciplined soldiers in 
battle array; and because during the 
summer and fall of that year seven thou- 
sand men of the Brotherhood, as esti- 
mated, gave up their lives on the battle 
field or the gallows. But the uprising in 
England, characteristic of that conserva- 
tive but determined people, was not an 
attempt to abolish serfdom by royal fiat 
or legislative enactment; it was an appeal 
to the king, in his traditional capacity of 
Bupreme judge, to enforce real though 
unwritten contracts between the land- 
holders and their tenants. And if the 
appeal was made with arms in hand it 
was because they believed that access to 
the source of justice would be denied by 
interested and corrupt counsellors who 
held the king in thraldom. In the light 
of our present experience the attempt 
certainly seems chimerical ; but we 
should judge men according to the light 
of their age, and it was then believed 
that "there is a divinity which doth 
hedge a king.” 

Furthermore, it should be recognized 
that the uprising was not merely local or 
national in character, but was common 
to the countries of Western Europe where 
industry was most developed. The 
struggle for emancipation from military 
control, which had been inaugurated by 
civic populations, may be paid to have 
become general during the latter half of 
the fourteenth century as witness the 
formidable insurrection of the Jacquerie, 
which broke forth in France, May, 1358. 
Froissart, the military chronicler, bears 
testimony to the universality of the 
uprising when writing of the events of 
June, 1381. "Now observe,” he writes. 
" how fortunately matters turn out, for 
had they succeeded in their intentions 
they would have destroyed the whole 
nobility of England; after this success 
the people of other nations would have 
rebelled, taking example from those of 
Ghent and Flanders who were in actual 
rebellion against their lord, and, in the 
same year, upward of twenty thousand 
Parisians acted in a similar manner.” 

Serfdom, the secondary phase of the 
involuntary organization of labor, had 
now, in the most advanced countries, 
served the social purpose for which it 
had been instituted. From the time 
when serfdom succeeded to slavery, it 
had given the worker something like 
social right; it gave him that right 
which he did not enjoy as a slave — the 
right to family life. It had also given 
him the right to accumulate some little 
wealth, and thus he was enabled to pro 
ceed, though by extremely slow degrees 
toward freedom. The landholders, suffer- 
ing from a sudden scarcity of labor 
caused by the ravages of the Black Death, 
had attempted to reverse the natural 
tendency to independence, and the ter- 
rible insurrections of this period were 
the result. The king’s irrational, if 
honest, action in granting emancipation, 
without regard to individual conditions* 
was supplemented by equally irrational 
legislation forbid., jl^ je children of 
serfs entering the pried* nood or being 
bound apprentice m towns. But despite 
the passionate declamation 01 hud holder« 
and rabid legation, emancipations, 
under pressure of economic cond’t ; 1 
proceeded with increased rapid 1 ; unm. 1 
eventually, the male »iiU'tion r 
nodem industry wer ! biiehod 
-join was not uestin*?*! v .<£, violently 
overthrown; iftgrvdtaftl.y gave place to 
wagedom, with a mo^ or lees pr-vf ..L 
hierarchy of landlord;*, lega', dterary, 
artistic, medical, technical, financial! 
commercial, manuf*n;turirg, and ex 
tractive specialists and their professional 
and domestic laborers, personal and col- 
lective. And w r th this great social tranH- 
form&tion, the greatest revolution in the 
history of our race, that neriod of one 
fcnpucand yea's duration kaevn a a the 
Middle Ages is brought t n r* 



° 114th st. 

. „ r~"kkk‘*°* vo22 E * 156th st. 

U * Do >ffö. 232 K. 26th nt 

Ict Sr , &2 “ tol MW»* 

, «7. (GeO H. Baunuuu*. 38 lai ar. 

j 09. Patrick W mb 



CONSTITUTION FOB Bt 
TllADES COUNCIL.^ 



at 

'Jon 



ARTICLE 1. ^ 

Section 1. This organ izatlon shall t 
as the Amalgamated Council of the 
Trades. — - 

Seo. 2. Th Is council shall be compoBet 
gates duly chosen from all Societies in tl^ 228°K A 75tl 
lng trades, who shall, before being at 
produce credentials signed by the presid® 1 «) Henry 1 
recording secretary of their society, Rn^jj ^ E | w 
have the seal of their union attached. 

Seo. 8. In caso of a secret society, the fd93. 
their lodge attached shall be a sufficient gu ~ t _ 
tee of their genuineness. Hoi a 

Seo. 4. The officers of this society shall co' 1 'hw 
of a chairman, vice-chairman and recording' 1 v ** 

retary, corresponding secretary, financial sc 
tary, treasurer and sergeant-at-arms. f Jraig st. 

Seo. 5. The cluilr man and vice-chairmans) J* ^ r 
bo elected at each meeting, and shall be no < Jersey 
nated from delegates of different societies, 
shall any chairman sit in judgment on any < 
affecting the union ho belongs to, , n 

8eo. 6w The recording secretary, correspond i 
secretary, financial secretary, treasurer and s 
geant-nt-arms shall bo elected quarterly; the i ‘ 
cording secretary shall receive such salary 1 
this council shall deem advisable. 

ARTICLE II. 

Section 1. The executive functions of thf 
council shall bo vested In th© officers and dele 
gates while in session, and in such committees 
this council may find necessary to conduct its -k 
business under this constitution. 

Sec. 2. The objects of this council shall be to 
centralize the united efforts and experience of 
the various societies engaged in the erection andjj 
alteration of buildings, and that they may forn 
one common council, and with common inters- 
to prevent that which may be injurious, ai 
properly perfect and carry into effect that w hi. 
they may deem advantageous to themselves, at' 1 
for the common good of all. 

Sec. 3. All trade and labor societies represent« 

In this council, when desirous of making a de- 
mand for either an advance of wages or an 
abridgement in the hours of labor, shall, through 
their delegates, report the same to this council, un. 
prior to the demand being made, when, if con- 
curred in by a two-thirds vote of all the societies 
present, at any stated meeting, the action shall be 
binding. This section shall not prevent any 
society from acting on its own responsibility, ^ 

ARTICLE III, 

Section 1. No trade shall be entitled to more 
than three votes on any question that directly 
affects the material interests of any trade society. 

8eo. 2. All trades or societies represented shall 
be entitled to three delegates. 

Seo. 6. Anv society having three or more 
branches shall be entitled to one delegate for 
each branch. 



301 

781 

198 

ST7» 

% 

r 



»B. 



ARTICLE IV. 

Section 1, Any trade society represented II (oi 
this council that may desire material aid, shall 
state their case to this council, and, if approved ' 
by the delegates, »hall bring the matter before 
their respective organizations for immcdiaJ« 
action. 

ARTICLE V. 

Section 1. It shall bo the special duty of this 
council to use the united strength of all th© 
societies represented therein, to compel all non- 
union men and “scabs” to conform to, and obey 
the law-s of, the society that they should properly 
belong to. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of any trade or 
labor society to use every lawful means to in- 
duce all non-union men or scabs to become 
members of their respective unions *md any 
trade society failing In their Just efforts, shall 
bring the matter before this council thn M ^ h 
their delegates, with all the facts in the 
with the names of the men. If possible, wf 20i - 
employed, and the name of the employer, 8t 
same to be presented in writing with the fllgi^;, 
ture of the president of the society affccte 11 
when this council shall take Immediate action ixV 
the matter, and, if deemed advisable, this council 
may, by a two-thirds vote of the delegates then 
present, forming a quorum, order a withdrawal 
of any or all trades or societies who may be on 
any building where said uon-union men or 
scabs may bo employed. This order shall b© 
carried into effect through the agency of th© 
walking delegates of the various societies. 

-.0 ,-h. 6 th 

ARTICLE VI. mor ^ B b 

Section 1. All »ocietics represented. In tins 
council shall pay th© sum of two dollars each per 
month, 

ARTICLE VII. 

Section 1. On demand of a union represented, 
a general strike shall be ordered to reinstate a 
member or members who have struck and are 
refused employment on that job that waa struck. 

Sec. 2. Any walking delegate or delegates o! 
any society ordering a strike without the con- 
sent of this council, the trade be represent« shall 
be held responsible for the wages of the men on 
-♦-»feet. Th*- -*'«**! -io* delegate fr..m 

cni rl g * strike of the membeis oi the roch , 
ho reupr.te o adjust Us own internal miair# 
wltiio.it tue assibotnceof this council. 

Sec. 8. Memt ^ of a union at'«. v\ih , ; m 
parontOrganiTAt >n and forming« > « pa.-nU uni' « 
shall hr m bis council 

V.i brant of a union shall druitiod 
*h a.: ie v/ageeand the same hours of labor. 

article viil 

h'LonoN 1. When the mer-^3ra 0 / v.v inlor v 
represented In this oounwli work at 
trade, it nhul! be unlawful for onft ^ th 3 
place of the other who > on strike, 

ARTICLE IX« 

Section 1. No society or branch of fi. „ sJek* 
•hall be allowed to aOiko more than one 
. over at a time, u Jt.aa there- are two or 1 jtc 
eu. «doyers ou the »acne job. 

article x. 

Sf.ction 1. Two-thirds of all th© Irr Jee re* 1 
seated in this council 3hall form ' >ru:n. 

Bko. 2. It shall take two weeks’ notice <4 m»>- 
t f on. and two-thirds majority io : or amsn 
apyarrioloof thi‘? oonstitutio« 



xl5, 1 

— , xüö Web. 

I Adolph Batz. 131 12tl 

I Ita (F Fnd\ W A. Fin#'«— 

’S?, F. Bo oipron. Juliet 3L, I 



1 «36. 



THF > CAFS?S rER - 



M 



.codings of the G. E. B. 



(Continued ft om Paye 0 ) 

Uo llmt the O. H. write Her. of Union 
ortatn If that union Im« complied vrlih 
• cl < I on In filing copy of prolotl with 

i *• 

' mil«* governing tho retiring G. R. B. were 
ihtf ftI *d adopted aa the rules governing 
truont Board. 

■If , 

l jt rmun da v’h hkmmon.- January 9. 

in nation of audit of books and accounts 
J • f Genera) Office. 

*n approved (Usability claim of John Doling, 

0*1 to, Wilmington, Del , referred to G. K. B. 

* k^MÜlanapoll« Convention. Upon thorough 
^ *1 trstigatlou the G. R. B allows this claim, and 
An iby instructs the G. 8. to pay it. 

T '«t F nubility claim of Robert Killomle, Union 7(1, 

1 «z Orleans, Da. Owing to the unsatisfactory 
44 Unee presented, the G. E B refers the case 
8* to tue G. 8. for n more thorough investiga* 

An'. 

t meisapproved death claim of O A. Cole, Union 
j fi To. Findlay, O. After due investigation the 
i ‘he K. B. concurs In the decision of the G. S for 
fijj, Tasons explained by him in his communlcalion 
i Us the F. 8. of Union 188. 

W M >Ve Disapproved death claim of D. W. Walters, 

'nion 287, Banisburg, Pa. G. K. B.on examin- 
Ö jfo tlon of card of deceased find erasures have 
*. ‘ x* 0 made. Thoy therefore instruct the G. 8. to 
H‘ (Order Union 28T to forward its books at once to 
f this office for examination. Bhould they be 
£ If found correct then claim can be paid. 

* Vo " foubtii day’s session.- January 10. 

A n disapproved disability claim of John Bellas, 
nion 165, Pittsburgh, Pa. Evidence reviewed! 

The eferre<1 l<> Brother Gnttermull of G. K. B. an 
N ;fereo to investigate and report back to the 
U,.«oard. 

Disapproved death claim of Sarah K. Green, 

Union 10H, Lynn, Mass. Evidence reviewed. 

Decision ofO. 8. and G. T. reversed, aud claim 
^ ordered paid. 

h Disapproved death claim of Rudolph Lebcau 
Union 885, Ohlllicothe, O. Testimony examined. 

Decision of G. 8. and G. T. concurred in. 

Disapproved death claim of Mrs. C. Pare 
Union 407, Lewiston. Me. Evidence examined, 
and on now testimony the decision of G. 8. and 
j It G. T. was overruled and claim ordered paid. 

T Disapproved death o’ aim of Mrs. Jane Clap- 
1 Of P«fton, Union 269. Chicago, III. Evidence re- 
il \ viewed. Case referred to Brother Cattermull 
of G. E. B. as referee to investigate and report 

' ^ * u> °- E * B - 

Claim of Boston D. O to 815 00 now in hands 
. of Treasurer of lapsed Union 558 of Boston, 
ar G. E. B. finds said union was justly indebted to 
no the Boston D. C. to the amount now held in the 
. ^ hands of Treasurer of late Union 658 Therefore 
In thoG * E * B * Gruels the G. 8. to order these 
Y<J funds turned over to the Boston D. C. in line 
with above decision. 

T» fn the appeal of H. Thornton, Union 881, New 
York, vs. the decision of the Grievance Commit, 
tee of the p. O. of New York, after careful and 
exhaustive «lamination of all the evidence, the 
Yv G. K. B/ reverse the verdict of the Grievance 

OornrpAltee, .ml tl.e ,l cc | H lon of , be D . C „ an.l Fields vs the 
The ho, V* *"“*>« TI.orn.on is Mill entitled to nil “ Ziel. 
The tin rlRhu aml henetlts as a member of Union 



I‘ 



f 



New York D. C. that it immediately sends to 
this office this balance of 5617. 

Claim of Jas. Duguid, Jr., against Unton 119, 
Newark, N. J., for strike pay due him while on 
strike in New York, submitted to G. K, B. for 
decision. G. E. B. decide that where a member 
working in New York, but belongirg to an out- 
side Union, Is called out on strike, he oomes 
under the trade rules of the New York D. 0.. 
which docs not allow strike pay to outside 
members* Therefore, Brother Duguid is not en- 
titled to strike pay from the New York D. C., 
nor can Union 119 be held for the same. It is 
only just that where a member from an outside 
district goes Into a large city to take advantage 
of better conditions, he should be willing to bear 
some of the burdens borne by the members of 
the U. B. In that cl«y, and be willing to take the 
risk of being called out on strike without pay. 
This decision does not apply to strikes supported 
financially by the G. E. B. 

FIFTH DAT's session.— J anuary 11. 

Appeal of Jas. McDonald, D. J. McDonald, 
Hugh McDonald and J. J. Fitzpatrick, Union 
382, New York, vs. the New York D. O. and 
Union 382. The defendants were found guilty of 
lumping, and expelled under 8ec. 70 of our laws. 
The G. E. B. hold the action of the New York 
D. O. and Union 882 Is legal under the above 
section, and sustain the verdict of Bald bodies in 
this case. 

Appeal of Peter Morch, Union 381, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., against decision of the Kings county! 
D. O., repayment of local sick benefits. I^ald 
over for further evidence. 

Appeal of P. Morin, Union 21, Chicago, vs. the 
D. C. of Chicago, in olaim for sick benefit, evi- 
dence furnished, the G. E. B. sustain the decision 
of the Chicago D. C. 

Communication from Secretary of Union 22, 
San Francisco, requesting decision ofG.E.B as to 
whether or rot a carpenter whose wife is engaged 
in the sale of intoxicants can be admitted to mem- 
bership. The decision of G. E. B. in this case is 
in line with a former decision, viz. : that no car- 
penter can become a member of the U. B. who 
himself, or any member of his household, Is 
engaged in the sale of intoxicating liquor 

Appeal, Union 270, St. Louis vs. decision of the 
St. Louis D. O. The evidence shows Union 270 
preferred charges ngainst Union 257 for violation 
of trade rules, and then withdrew said charges. 
Controversy ponding is over payment of costs in 
this caRe adjudged against Union 270 by the St. 
Louis D. C. Upon review of the evidence sulv 
muted, the G. E. B. are of opinion said charges 
were made by Union 270 in good faith. Appeal 
sustained, and the 8t. Louis D. C. held to be 
liable for the costs in this case. 

Appeal, Union 257, against decision of the St. 
Louis D. C. Evidence shows Union 270 pre- 
ferred charges against Union 267 for Initiating a 
suspended member. Upon trial of the case by 
the D. C., Union 257 was ordered to pay nix 
months’ back dues to Union 270, and all costs in 
thee*«, The G. E. B. hereby ...stains the de- 
c ..on of the St. Louis D. O. in this ease as far as 
it relates to the six months’ dues, but reverses 
that pai t as to costs. 

Consideration of bill of Wise and McNulty for 
attorney fees of defense In suit of Mrs. Ellen 
Fields vs. the U. B. Referred to the G. S. with 



. und he shall noth« required to pay he l ne ° f Uni ° n8 382 a " d 468 ° f New 

The r ,‘P;^ ™ him by the Grievance Committee of ”f a,nMt K m " t,n K barter to Cabinet Makers' 
U , U! h r ' l rom thc evidence it is plain the u <« "* 0n 7 aßftin considered. The grounds of pro 

T1 or (,ri cvnnee Committee bus not complied «m t ® 8l i arH : That Unlon was not entitled to vote 



i u in pmm tii 0 I» p 

nr Grievance Committee has not complied with 
prcv.ous d eel. ion of G. E. It. and ha, ,.< 
granted Brother Thornton a new trial 



v.e.uvu IV voie 

on the subject, and that tl.e vote of said union be 
----- ir.a. a. " ot '»«"ted : tl.at the votes of Unions «8 and 

ordered The Grievance Committee simply “con When «»ey should have 

accepted the minutes of the that trial, and went icg^ly ont,tled^ , flnd8 ‘ hHt ÜBion 375 
ose f!! rt,U!r 1,1 “ n '- w *rl»l than to call on R.uy entitled to vote on this question. it 



the 

Gr 

Q, 



«um went 

Whose 0!' ther in * new tr, “l ‘han to call on Brother 
*° preacn* new evidence. This docs 
. t«i it 1 1 the decision of theG. K. B. of .July 21 
1891, which required a complete new trial be’ 
cause at the first trial Brother Thornton did’ not 
have •ufficient time and opportunity to present 
hi« case. TheG E. B. have this day reviewed 
tho eutiro case and all the evidence, and decide 
the testimony does not warrant the findings of 
tho Grievance Committee agni net Brother Thorn- 
ton. nor the Imposition of the fine levied. And 
further, tho G. E. B. do not consider the I). O. of 
New York justified in refusing to entert *in the 
appeal of H. Thornton because he had not paid 
the fine Imposed. The non-payment of no 
excessive line ($50.00 tn this case) should not act 
HH a bar to the right of appeal. In addition the 
G. E. B. respectfully suggests that the D. O. of 
New York should amend Sec. 18 of its By-Laws 
and Rules governing trials of members under 
'*• V charges, so that the report of the Grievance Com 
ml! toe should bo passed on by the D. C. 

Appeal, Union 162, Chicago, against decision 
of Chicago D. O., on question of initiation fees 
paid to Union 102, and claimed by Union 75«. 
placed in the hands of Brother Cattermull as 
h h r, " ,erco 10 Instigate and report to this office. 

G. 8. submitted accounts as sent this office 
to «bowing expenditures of moneys under appro 
WC priation made by G. E. b. to assist In overthrow 
CU log the lumping system in New York. The 
account shows that $617 of the $1,500 appropri 

A 1 fi.ivili I Ilk lIHll A/livi. ..A « * • .. 



sixth day’s 8ESSION- January 12. 

L S. was Instructed to print In circular form 
the preamble and resolutions adopted at the 
Indianapolis Convention concerning a concerted 
movement for an eight-hour day. Said circular 
to call Attention of the Locals and members to 
the desirability of starting a thorough agitation 
all along the line, and also inform the Local 
Unions that no application to strike for anything 
but an eight-hour day will be considered by the 
E. B. 

In conformity with action taken by the Indian- 
apolis Convention in adopting Section 6 of the 
committee’s report on G. S. report, the G. E. B. 
have framed a set of D. O. By-laws for publica- 
tion in our official journal. The adoption of 
these laws is in no sense obligatory ; but it is 
recommended that they be followed as eJosely 
practicable, as uniformity ln D. C. laws is very 
desirable. 

G. E. B. took up and completed tho audit of 
the books and accounts of the G. 8., from which 
the following summaries are drawn 

GENERAL FUND. 

Balance on hand, July 1, 1894 $5,275.54 

Receipt«, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., 
and Deo 30,560.74 



Tota1 $35,836 28 

35,388.41 

$447.87 



Expenses for same period 

Balance on hand Jan. I, 1895 . . 

PROTECTIVE FUND. 

Balance on hand, July 1, 1894 

Receipts, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., 
and Dec 



$5,166.40 

8,206.56 



Total $13,362 96 

Expended on strikes and lockouts for 
period ending Jan. 1, 1896 2,320.69 

Balance on hand Jan. 1, 1895 . . . $11,042.26 

Less amount loaned to General Fund 4,000.00 



they can enter into any fiumuemen in pa¥\ 
these reasons the G. E. B. ^ „ j 

defer definite and final actir^° um StÄ 
quarterly meeting in April. ° Meanwhile the 
G. S. is hereby instructed to consult the unions 
and districts directly interested, and proe rc 
written statements from them to present to next 
meeting of theG. E. B. 

eighth day’s SE 8 SION. — January 14. 

Appeal Union 186, Steubenville, O., for support 
against a reduction in wages. Laid over until 
union sends schedule of inquiries, and complies 
with Constitution. 

Appeal for similar support. Union 640, College 
Point, N. Y. Same action taken. 

Communication, Charles Higgason, Tipton, 
Ind., submitting proposition for organizing. 
Placed on file. 

Appeal D. C. of Chicago for donation of $1500 
to assist in strike on the Marquette Building. 
G. E. B. hereby appropriates the sum of $1600 
for above purpose. 

Apppoal San Francisco D. C. for $t00 for or- 
ganizing purposes. In the present state of 
finances of U. B., theG. E. B. cannot grant the 
request in full, but will donate the sum of $150 
later on to be used under supervision of G. S-T. 

Appeal D. C., Milwaukee, Wis., for funds for 
organizing. Referred back to G. S-T, with in- 
structions to procure more definite information 
in regard to local conditions in Milwaukee. 

Union 257, St. Louis, submitted set of resolu- 
tions, passed on by that body, and signed by a 
committee, praying the G. E. B will refer to the 
unions for vote a proposition to abolish conven- 
tions, and introduce the initiative and referen- 
dum Instead. G. E. B. are of opinion they are 
without jurisdiction to do so, but will refer the. 
matter to the next convention for action. 

Appeal D. C. Brooklyn N. Y., for support In 
resisting a reduction In wages. Laid over, and 
G. S-T. instructed to procure more definite in- 
format ion from said D. C. as to amount of assist- 
ance needed, etc. G. S-T. to communicate the 
necessary information to G. E. B. as early as 
l .08sibleJh a t.the^ l! ,«gM Wifiil ."-- a -- w Y ' 

ie royal troops arrived they found little 
h ® a P B of smoking ruins. It is 

Ittle h. f T eral hundredB of horned 
ittle, hundreds of swine, one thousand 

t S t6 L t ‘ 1 °, USand shee P belonging 
muh m disappeared during the 

mult. Many hundreds of prisoners 



at the time ,he vo.^ Ä ^ 
cre.i Union of the U. B., n C ’ mrl ‘ 

entitled teal, the ri K ,n. .„d VmEZ? 0 7T 
Order. «. E B. further flnda that the D c ' 
certain date for tl.e return of vote on the^ * 
Hition to ml mit Cabinet Makers’ T7ni ? p0_ 
Union» 478 and tW did not Hubn.it tlietrVi ai>d 
rv.tl.ln tho prescribed time. Therefore the UK 
B lo not feel 11. ey can do oll.ertl.an approve the 
action of the New York I) C in til ® 

Ckbioat M.k.n' Onion T. Tl 10 a. E. B 

sraiKÄTSÄ 

Communication, looking towa rd» a Fcdera 
on of tho International Furniture Worked 
Ln.on, the Machine Wood Worker^ 
national Union aud the U B ,»i 0 i , * n t®r- 
U. E. B. by the Cl S IomL! b ° foTO the 
The G.S. of tho I. F. W. U on 
organization, propows a meeting between ren! 
reaenutlve. of the I. F. W. U., the M. W 4T 
u. aud tho G. E. B. of the U R ft „,i W 

that the G.E B setatim ’ A *\ r «<Uiesting 

The G. 8. wan iuntructed to 
prop.».*! conference at lo A. M„ January^ ® 
j General Office of tho U. B. * 18 

O-Ha^Vr lnt ° C ° nBU,tat,on with tho 

confcrH,, „ LO . 0O " Bider . lh<! tlvieahliity „f 



True balance'on hand $7,042.26 

Communication Union 474, Nyack, N. Y., ask- 
ing for support in resisting reduction in wages. 

Laid over, and G- S- instructed to notify said 
Union to fill out schedule of inquiries and pro- 
ceed as required by Constitution, pages 18 and 

From an audit of the books of the G. 8-, tho 
G- E- B. finds it necessary to levy three assess- — ~ " 

ments of ten cents each per capita on all mem- Ä<MJ - uunarPM« • 

bers of the U. B- in good standing February 1 ere taken hut f Pn80ner ' 

1895. These assessments are levied to cover our enrfi r nnl^ t Equate evi 

liabilities caused by an increased disability and . C ° Uld be Stained, no more than 

death rate. The G. 8. is hereby instructed to 26 thlr ty-two village priest« 

notify ail Loeai Unions to pay said assessments * ent y* four of the townsmpn w ^ 
by March 18. 1895. A Local Union in default of ‘ l’Le G'. S-T. was instruct««! t 
payment of these assessments by that date will sions of the G. E. B covering a rel^ VI" 6 ? 

be liable to suspension from benefits under 8ec. *— * g a reasonable ti; 

111 of Constitution. These assessments are 
levied under Sec. 60. 

The G.S. was instructed to draw on the Gen- 
Treas., James Troy, for the sum of $481.46 U B 
funds now in the Fidelity Bank, Philadelphia! 

By agreement with the G. P., it was decided 
that the amendments to the Constitution of the 

I!« r ", <l in fuU forcßa ' ld «feton and 

after Monday, January 14, 1895. 

of A S XrL Un '?. 108 ' Lynn ’ Mas8 - for donation 
Mat. ^ organizing outlying cities in 

’ 1®? BI>peal for donation of *200 from 
Union 83, Boston, for same purpose. G. E B 
are of the opinion that organizing in New Eng- 
a,1< district-should be done under the direction 
of the Massachusetts State Council, subject to 
provisions of Sec. 32 of Constitution. G E B 
therefore refer these appeals to the Massa- 
chusetts State Council and recommend that 
it devise a plan for organizing Massachusetts 
and submit same to this office. 



for insertion m The Cahperteb, and for 1 
appendix to the Constitution. 

As per previous arrangement, the G Jf! 
met a delegation, Mess. Middleton and Fn 
in. of New York, representing the Amalgam' 
Society of Carpenters. A long conference* 
held, and after preparing a few general p r0| r 
tions upon which the two bodies might uj 
the Board adjourned 6PM J 

t, 

ninth day’s session- January 15 . d 
Board convened 8 A. M nmi i», «u* 

Brother Shields elected Brother Catter 
temporary chairman romer Catter^ 

represinÄ“ Sfth? f? nf «« a nce wUt tt 
Entire morning wa» consi.mcd a !n ,lt delihe°r >1 
on mutual propositions. G. E B and r * 
had a long consultation, and at 2.3» f m ',« 
met the delegates of tl.e Amalgamated ,, 
informal agreement waa drafted, but n^dc^ 
action was taken. It was the sense of ii.eTi 
ference tl.at the Amalgamated should 
a representative lo OTlicago to nvcsth^e 
troubles now pending. And G P R ill 
that if the Amalgamated takes’ auch #!• ’ 
member of theG. E B shal I 
° f t r,® U „ B - <lu , rl1 '^ ‘he inve stigation? 1 ® 
a „ A te iV\ l9CU8 f 0n of the advl sability of st^ 16 
an agitation throughout the U. B. for ant« 

nnt U !> d ^ y ’ t , he ?* E ,\ H - 1 struct« the G. S-T. i^° 
out a circular to all the locale, calling for üd 
ascertarin the senliments of the general m 
slnpon making a concerted move for inn le 
no^now^th^nile hour_day » ^ cities^h^ 

zen^ Tr his hond, given by i(«- 

for *30 Oft) 1 änd S rt rety Company of Pldlafo 

P»Cihe n ä. l E®B® ame Wa “ 'he 

rttfHuatr ; upon which he wa B allowed 
e discovered and brought home. In 
ort time thereafter the terms of the 
■promise were carried out. The sen 

(or dUcuse.on7.n73 ^ ° f . outlawr y w«e revemed a- 

proval.by theG E B w *i „ ado P tioa °r a i>- loners implicated in iU 8€d » 

Z ;r e ® hould -bmutr I e releMed - and - - 6 °- utbreak 

ons between these Bister bodies, «.iter the 
delegation from the I F. W. U. had retired, the 
E. B. went into e: 
sidered the pro;M>sed t 



seventh day’s session.— January 13. 

H^ CC °i dlnfi: t0 prevIous agreement, a delega- 

deinhu 688 ?- ® dWaFd Cu P pi ^er of Phila- 
. and Ohas. F. Gebeline of Baltimore 

willi the G. E. B o « . \ ‘ con fer«nce 
pondence between T' ' 

SÄS f M W. w r T 

mation or federation of the three bod e i < e8 am 2a a 
a mutual exchange of views, Messrs CW ^ 
and Gebeline submitted a proposition t?' 
gamate the three organization« 1 m 1 a “ a1 ’ 
taken however on thil . N ° action 

not deemed practical at 2h°i8°iT tl0n m 8 U WR8 
gentlemen then submitted anoth 6 ’ ^ 
for discussion und anot her agreement 



e released ami 6 0utb reak 

a. :l id b„h. «W I». 

»harmonious ithe other hand fl , Wererei Dltt?d. 

a. After the L whiph Lo i u ^ cb ftl*ler of froa. 
l retired, the l had been extor tort C. ,ree - 




— - w-.w-w ..pptupn- con ferrt n tr «.it* »uviaabillty of 

ated, remain« unacoountcd for by the D. C. of 5 re F reBOn tative» of the Amal- 

Ncw York UP Vo data. The G. K. B. hereby a H titi d of Carpenters, looking toward 

Instructs the G. b. to at onoo demand «f tm. i Cment of cx,8tin K grievances betw«.^ th ^ 



.Au-.g.^a 



_ — m tbe I F. W. U. had retired, the ! J b een extortod r f " ee_ 

. E. B. went into executive session, and con- l 6y five years before w« ^ ^ ° m tbe 
sldered the pro-josed agreement. They decided ‘fog the eventful W0B flUrreB dered 
that while disposed individually to aLpt the I COmlcl ye<lr8 that fonZ , 

propositions, presented by tkrurJsitinir rrm l P roB U8e ; during tho fi ö Wed 
mittee, as a bssls for a futOfc m w “ -® the ^bversion of L h ® fir6t years 

y are hound hy 5e “ bl y> yet the terrible pesUleL j^ 6 ^s; * 

- was ^ “Black Death .» tv, 66 kn ° WD as tlm 



mittee, as a 

officially they are bound by * 

the Indianapolis Convention, Wa0 Con- 
sult tho unions and districts OSt galling 



’ .a... . 












>kyji 



t> eutff 




THE CARPENTER. 



''«ft der Bn use 



ALABAMA 

L»~ C. Hutchinson, 1022 Government st. 
(Col.) W. G. Lewis, 761 St. Louis st. 

ARKANSAS 

Hot 8prings— W alter 'oore, 318 Market st 
Pin» Bluff— J. E. Walker, 676 S. State st. 

CALIFORNIA 

' 47. Alameda— J acob Hoeck, 1512 R. R. ave. 

*32. Los Angeles— 8. Gray, Box 224. 

645. Pasadena— Geo. W. Reed, Box 205. 

235. Riverside— Chas. Hamilton, 4th and Euca- 
lyptus ave. 

341. Sacramento— E. 8. Mason, 1017 J st 
86. Ban Bernardino — H. Wegnorl. Box 797. 

San Francisco— S ecretary of Dist. Council. 
J. E. Neiswender, 116 Turk st. 

22. N. L. Wandell, 23 Ninth st. Sta. B. 



804. (Ger.) Wm. Jilge, 2231% Mission street. 
483. Guy Lathrop, 115 Turk st. 

816. San Jose — E. E. Crews, 596 8. 3d st. 



85. 8 an Rafael— R. Scott, Box 673. 

226. Santa Barbara— K. A. Smith, 1429 Costello. 
188. 8anta Cruz — Geo. M. Thompson, 147 Chest- 
nut ave. 

CANADA 

88. Halifax, N. 8.— A. Northup, 169 Morris st 
18. Hamilton— W. J. Frid, 26 Nelson st. 

194. London— E. J. Aust, 706 Dundas st. 

184. Montreal— (F r.) 8. Levellle, 240 Logan st.. 
3d Flat. 

876. “ H. T. Holland, 86 Kent st 

666. “ (Fr.) Jos. Bedard, 3 D Chambly 

Ave. 

88. St. Catharines— H enry Bald, Louisa st. 

897. 8t. John, N. B.— W. F. Oronk, 122 Adelaide 
street. _ 

27. Toronto— D. D. McNeill, 288 Hamburg ave. 
617. Vancouver, B. O.— L. G. Doidge, Box 200. 
848. Winnipeg, Man.— R. Bell, 76 Schult* st. 

COLORADO 

560. Colorado City— G. F. Hamil. 

515. Colorado Spgs— O. Geissler, 33 Franklin st. 
55. Denver— D. M. Woods, 2253 Logan ave. 

410. Pueblo — J. B . Harmer, 626 W . 14th st. 

46. Trinidad— E.O. Pierce, 631 N. Commercial. 

CONNECTICUT 

115. Bridgeport — Charles Watkins. 50 Alice st. 
43. Hartford — Wm. A. Neilson, 32 Wooster st. 

49. Meriden — Geo. J. Stanley, 258 East Main st 
97. New Britain — John Hlltpold, P.O. Box 902. 
799. New Haven— G. E. Ohipman, 406 Washing- 
ton st. 

137. Norwich— A. D. Lewis, 94 Asylum at. 

746. Norwalk— Wm. A. Kellogg, Box 391. 

610. Rockvtlle— Geo. Diedring. 

260. Waterbury— Joseph Sandlford, Bot «£3, 

DELAWARE 

40. Wilmington— W. P. Crawford, 1810 W. 8d. 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA 

190. Washington— L. F. Burner. 1001 R st.. N. W. 

FLORIDA 

124. Jacksonville— (Col.) M. E. Dunlap, cor. 
Hawk and Union sts. 

605. Jacksonvilb.— G .T. Hood, 825 W. Church st. 
74, Pensacola— Geo. Marble, Box 71. 

127. 44 (Col.) A. B. Pettiway. 313 E. Chase st 

196. Tampa— J. Hudnall, Box 44. Ft. Brook. 

254. West Palm Beach— W. V. Rushing. 

GEORGIA 

18«. Augusta— (Col.) T. P. Lewis, 1309 Philip st. 
822. Dublin— A. A. Cowart. 

144. Macon— J. W. Waterhouse, 1411 Third st 

ILLINOIS 

488. Belleville— Louis Goss, 622 Bristow st. 

70. Brighton P’K—P. Pouliot, 2106 Joseph sL 
663, Canton— Homer Whalen, 345 W.Cass Place. 
Chicago— Secretary of District Council, 

W. R. Bowes, 49 La Salle st. 

L Adolph Stamm. 120 W. Lake st. 

21. (French) P. Iludon, 54 Vernon Park PI. 

23. J. H. Stevens, 5058 Dearborn st. 

28. Wm. Mead, 7164 S. Chicago ave. 

54. (Bohem.) Vaclav Sorna, 973 W. 18th st. 

73. (Ger.) Aug. Reiche, 4068 Atlantic st. 
lBl. (Scand.) E. Engborg, 80 Heine st. 

242. (Ger.) Theo. Deach, 5327 Union ave. 

269. Wm. Bennette, 1744 N. Clark st 
416. (Ger.) Jas. Bell, 1810 Van Horn st. 

419. (Ger.) John Suckrau, 3243 Oakley ave., near 
83d street. 

445. (Holl.)K. F.Vansteenberg, 147-1 18ihst. sta T 
521. (Stairs) Gust. Hansen, 2«8 Austin ave. 

555. (Polish) I. Masiak, 125 W Blackhawk st. 

623. (Bohem )— J. Svoboda, 4816 Cook st. 

679. Jas. T. Bennett, 1163 Wilcox ave. 

890. (Ger.) (Mill Bench Hands) F. H. Qultmeyer, 
1126 Hinman st. 

780. H. Friedrich, 20 Heine place. 

741. F. Lmoon, 751 Jane st. 

296. Collinsville— Geo. Shoettle. 

169. East 8t. Louib-E Wendling, 512 Illinois av 
244. Elmhurst— (Ger.) H. Sieling, P. O. Box 39. 

62. Englewood— C. F. Nugent, 643 Chestnut st. 
317. Evanston— J. F. McFerran. 1425 Emerson st. 
653. Fbrnwood— O. Buh man, Jefferson, cor. 103d 
S60. Galesburg— P. F. Swanson, 73i E. North st. 

1 41. Grd Crossing— G. F. Aimers, 7720 Dobson ave 

279. Harvey— D. O. Morse 

298. Highland Park— J. H. Zimmer. 

162. Hyde Park— 8. 8. Baker, 7015 Oglesby ave. 
849. Jacksonville— 8. P. Carter ,742 E.Chambers. 
484. Kensington (Fr.)— E. Lapolice, 214 116th at., 
Chicago. 

‘B Forest— R. W. Dean, Box 66 
llb— F. B. Elliott, 1118 Oreve Cour st. 

Poe. 527 Sixth st. 
j>uth— Frank Watson. 

Syip-nJ. T. Hume, 2629 Kinele st. 
lU^cu' *• Boettcher, 138 Marengo st. 

featurSd'H Rogeir o^ry, 216 DeLeon st 

within six ye.v^ h “^ noockat 

from hie poet Jorge. 

. , Benner, 220 N. Front st. 

Wise), nor has-jos. Neufeld, 427 7th st. 

period one o. *023 

ave.. SU. S., Chi. 

*od— I. Thompson S32i Morgan 
'■ 4 ~eet, Chicago. 



16 Springfield— J II. Freund, 1613. S. Grand av. 
496. Strbator— F. Wilson, 806 W. Staunton st. 
448. Waukegah— W. J. Strickland, 104 6th ave. 

INDIANA 

378. Alexandria— 8. W. Rich man. 

352. Andebson— A. M. Cooper, 69 E. Butler st. 
261. Connersvillb— A.O.Moffett,916 Sycamore at 
Evansville- 

90. Jos. F. Wurth, 902 E. Columbia st 
470. (Ger ) P. F. Nau. 1601 Fulton ave. 

742 (PI. Mill, Mach, and B. H.) G. V. Mann, 
Howell. 

158. Fort Wayne— A. 8. Haag. 201 Taylor st 

728. Frankfort— Frank Strothman, 1st & South 

streets 

1177. Haughville— I. H. White. 

60. Indianapolis— (Ger.) H. Brandt, ICO 8. 

Linden st. 

281. “ H. E. Travis, 272 Brookslde ave. 

445. “ J. M. Pruitt, 228 Prospect st. 

215. Lafayette— H. G. Colo, 887 South si. 

788. “ (Ger.) Jacob Bberle. 138 Union st. 
744. Logansport— J. L. Schrook, 720 Eleventh st. 
860. Marion— J. M. Simons, 609 Sherman st. 

592^ Munoie— J. D. Clark. 715 Kirby av. 

19. New Albany— A. T. Smith, 160 W. 8th st. 
756. Richmond— Jefferson Cox, 527 N. 19th street. 
629. South Bend— Geo. Lesher, Box 658 
48. Terre Haute — S. Hutten. 312 8. 14th st. 

668. Vincennes— A. O. Pennington, 818 N 8th at. 
68L Wab> H— R. P.Macy, Box 812. 

IOWA 

584. Burlington — Wm. Ruff, 1115 Elizabeth at. 
554. Davenport— W. O. Meyers, 924 Harrison st. 
68. Des Moines— A. Y. Swayne, 753 Oak st . 

678. Dubuque— M. R. Hogan. 299 7th st. 

348. Oskalocsa— J. H. Parker. 

767. Ottumwa— A. Mellis, 223 N. Davis st., 8. 8. 

KANSAS 

499. Lju.VENWORTH-G.McOaully,6th & Seneca sts. 
158. Topeka— C. R. Gardner, Box 846. 

KENTUCKY 

712. Covington— A. Cherrington, 86 E. Thomas 
785. “ (Ger.) Joe. Kampsen, 216 W. 12th st. 

641. Dayton— James Hosking. 

442. Hopkinsville— W. O. Hall. 

7. Louisville— S. W. Downard, 1712 Port- 
land ave. 

103. " H. 8. Huffman. 618 Twenty-fourth at 

214. 44 (Ger.) J. Schneider, 1538 Brent st. 

729. “ (Car) BuPer Leebolt, 1715 Hancock st. 
698. Newport — M. McCann, Gen. Delivery. 

201. Paducah— W. B. Williams, 707 8. 10th at. 
701. Winchester— Jas. Powell. 

LOUISIANA 

New Orleans— Secretary of District Coun- 
cil. F. G. Wetter, 518 Josephine st. 

76. D. C. Keeler, 2818 Constance st. 

249. F. D. Ross. 3609 Constance at. 

704. T, Duhrkop, 4536 Annunciation st. 

789. John Salser, 612 Vlllere st. 

45. Shreveport— Peter Garson, Box 881. 

MAINE 

iC7 . Lewiston A. M. Flagg, m Spring st. Aubnrn 
3-14. Portland— N. C. McDonald. 161 York st. 

889. Rockland— A W. Smith, 6 Willow st. 

596. Watkrvillb— E. 8. Hutonlns. 13 Perdval ot 

MARYLAND 

29. Baltimore— W.H. Keenan, 1137 E. Fayette at 

44. 4i (Ger.) H. B. Sohroeder, 505 N. Wolf st 

MASSACHUSETTS 

State District Council— Secretary W. O 
Deagle 237 Central Park av., Hj de Park 
33. Boston— W. J. Shields. 10 Cheshire st 
Jamaica Plain. 

56. “ (Jewish.) L. Richter, 6 Sheoffst. 

549. 44 (Shop Hands) W. & Jardlne.6 Burn- 

side ave. , Somerville. 

138. Cambridge— D. Maloney, 5 Holly ave. 

204. “ A. 8. McLeod, 68 Mt. Auburn at 

218. East Boston— J E. Potts 226 London at 
408. Fall River— J as. Walton, 6 Branch at 

890. Fitchburg— Y. Weatherbee, 96 Green aft. 

880. Gloucester— H.W. D avis. Box 443. 

82. Haverhill— P. D. Cass. 100 Locke st. 

424. Hingham— Colin Campbell, Box 118. 

455. Holyoke— M. D. Sullivan, 109 Sargent st. 



400. Hudson — Geo. E. Bryant. Box 125. 

196. Hyde Park— B. Daly, 41 Garfield st. 

111. Lawrence— James McLaren, 160 Water st. 
370. Lenox— Jno. P- Kirby, Box 143. 

196. Lowell— Frank Kappler, 291 Lincoln at 
108. Lynn— M. L. Delano, 103 Lewis st. 

221. Marblehead — F. Hammond. Box 10«. 

154. Maelboro— J. O. Donohue, 21 School st 

192. Natick— S. P. Annia, 18 Oakland st. 

409. New Bedford— O. G Francis, 14 Spruce st. 

Newton— Secretary of Distrlot Council, C 
L. Connors, West st. 

275. Newton— C. Conners. Box 71. 

124. Newton Centre— Fred. Boisner, Box 739. 

193. North Adams — J os. Dary, 64% Prospect st 
808. North Easton— A ugust Ledln, Box 185: 

485. Norwood— J as. Hadden, Box 424. 

417. Quincy— A. O. Brown. Box 13«, Wollaston: 
67. Roxbury— H. M. Taylor, Fenton at., Dor- 
chester. 

140. Salem— F. A. Evitts. 1 Smith ave. 

24. Somerville— Ira Doughty. 6 Carlton at 
9«. Springfield— (French) I. Bassette, Box 76«. 
JxJ ~ A. F. Russell, 66 Essex at. 

491. Stoughton— F. O. Fowler, Box 1068. 

874. Taunton- D O King, 10 Gen. Cobb. 

216. WALTHAM-John Reilly, 254 River at. 

426. West Newton— K. F Ryan, Box 566. 

420. Weymouth— E. J Pratt, Weymouth Heights 
•8. Worcester O. D. Flake, 720 Main at 

MICHIGAN 

8a. Battle Creek N.K. Nichols, 114 Upton av 

421. Detroit — T. 8. Jordan, 427 Beaufait ave 

689. “ O. H. Glbbings, 677 Beaublen'at 

760. Grand Rapid»— Aug. Nelson, 16 Marion st, 

26. Jackson— H. Behan, 208 Deyo st 
331. Kalamazoo- H. Greendyk, 1003 N. Parkst 
184. Lake Linden— A. Lanotot, P.O. Box 405. 

502. Ludington— A. R. Dibblo, P.O Bor 596, 

450. Manistee— Wm. Blodget, 806 Maple st 
100. Muskegon— Henry Katz. 230 Southern ave. 
Saginaw— See. of D. C.,0. B. Oraigan, 121 
N. Jefferson ave.» E. S. 

168. J. J. Murphy, 622 Farwrll st 

248. (Mill) L. Maler, 131 Barnard st., W. S. 

884. J. B. Charlebois, 923 N. Fayette st. , W. S. 

46«. (Ger.) Wm. Teckentlen, 281 S. 11th st., E. S. 



«t- 

87. &r. Paul 



MINNESOTA 
”• TT ''<»«lev. 415 6th ave. W. 



MISSOURI 

519 Benton Station— C. E. Nicholson, 6976 
Arthur ave. .St. Louis. 

160. Kansas City— W. A.Ix>clunan, 709 Moody av 

877. Springfield— J. H. Hoselton, 1515 N. Grant 

Station A. 

480. St. Joseph— A. L. Curtiss, 2007 James at 
St. Louib — Secretary of District Council, 

V. S. Lamb, 6348 Odell ave. 

4. Geo. J. Swank. 2124 Alice ave. 

5. (Ger.) Rudolph Gloor, 409 Sidney st. 

12. (Ger.) Edw. Kiessllng, 2218 N. Market st. 

118. James Shine, 4254 Hlalne ave. 

240. (Ger.) D. Fluegel, 1417 Benton st. 

267. S. G. Ferguson, 617 W. Jefferson ave. 

270. A. N. Wolff, 5325 Theodosia av. 

423. (Ger.) G. Jablonsky, 2630 Clara avo. 

518. (Ger.) Henry Thiele. Lough borough and 
Gravols ave. 

578. (Stair Bldrs.) E. Fodsh, 4211 Linten av. 

604. (Millwrights)— J. S Miller, 2920 Eads av. 

699. O. H. Guipe, 1528 Olive st. 

784. (Ger. Mill) P. A. Laux, 2207 Gravols ave. 

MONTANA 

88. Anaoonda— C. W. Starr, Box 506. 

135. Basin— A. I. Woodbury. 

266. Belt— W m. K. Riley. 

112. Butte City— H. F. Lapier, Box 628. 

286. Great Fall»— A. J. Emmerton. 

MO. Helena— Ohas. Cain, 810 5th ave. 

330. Kalispell— P. R. Nelson. 

NEBRASKA 

878. Llnooln— W. H. Klngery, 1612 N. 28th st. 
Omaha— Secretary District Council, O. Rein- 
hart, 918 N. Twenty-seventh st 

651. (Ger.) R. Ruppert, 2016 Martha st. 

685. (Dan.) J. Tolstrup, 1873 8. 16th st. 

427. Thos. McKay, 2623 Franklin st. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

288. Oonoord— Hans Larsen, P.O. Box 553. 

118. Manchester— S. Thames, 65 Douglass at 
585. Portsmouth— E. O. Frye, 13 School at 

NEW JERSEY 

750. Abbury Park— Henry P. Gant, Box 897. 
486. Bayonne— Stephen Hussy, 743 Avenue E. 
121. Bridgeton— J. H. Reeves, 145 Fayette st. 

20. Camden— T. E. Peterson, 837 Mechanic at 
388. Dover— L. G. Pott. 

167. Elizabeth— H. Zimmerman, 347 Fay av. 

So. Elizabeth. 

687. Elizabeth— (Ger.) John Kuhn, 827 Martin at 
647. Englewood — H. L. Westervelt. 

391. Hoboken— F. Steigleiter. 109 Garden at 
265. Hackens* ck— T. Heath, 250 State st. 

Hudson County— D. O., Secretary, David 
Morrison, 614 Palisade ave., Jersey City 
482. Jersey City— G. Williamson, 220% 3d st. 

564. ( J. O. Height») D. K. Hadsall, 494 Central av. 
151. Long Branch— Ohas. E Brown, Box 241, 
Long Branch City. 

232. Milburn — J. H. White, Short Hills. 

305. Millville— Jas. McNeal. 

429. Montclair- Thos. Kehoe, 9 Fulton st. 
“fÄ^ORRlKiDWÄ— CA-Y. 

119. Newark— H. G. Long, 2,0 Norfolk st. 

306 “ A. L. Beegle, 811% Orange st. 

723. “ (Ger.) G. Arendt, 698 S. 14th st. 

602. Oceanic— Zacn. T. Alas, Box 70. 

1,8 Paterson- (Hol 1 ) Al. Meenen, 35 N Main 
825. “ P. E. Van Houten. 713 E. 27th 

490. Passaic— F rank Wentink, Box 122. 

399. Phillipsburg— W m. Hodge, cor. Mulberry 

and Spring Garden sta., Easton, Pa. 

155. Plainfield— Wm. H. Lunger, 94 Westervelt 
665. Somerville— W. W. Plttonger. 

456. Summit— Edward Mart'», Box 618. 

543. Town of Union— Jos. Wohlfarth, Weehaw 
ken P. O . 

81. Trenton— L. T. Reed, 153 Rose at 

NEW YORK 

Albany.— Secretary of District Council 
D P. Klrwln, 43 Myrtle av. 

274. James Finn, 337 Orange st. 

659. (Ger.) Alex. Rickert. 416 Elk st 
«. Amsterdam— Herbert Clark, Perkins st. 

453. Auburn— W. W. Gillespie, 119 E. Genesee. 
181. Binghamton— O. H. Torrey, Box 993. 

Brooklyn— S ecretary of District Council 
T, B. Lineburgh, 890 Gates ave. 

66. Coney Island— H. E. Young, Box 148, Grave- 
send,^!. 

109. M. A. Maher. 61 Irving PI. 

147. W. F. Gregory, 1615 Atlantic av. 

175. R. V. Ellison, 1103 Putnam av 
247. Chas. Monroe, 51 St. Mark's ave. 

258. M. Spence, 36 Van Buren st 
291. (Ger.) C Thiemsen, 34 Dittmars st. 

381. S. E. Elliott 89 Rockaway ave. 

387. C. H. Richardson, 94 E Broadway. 

451. Wm. Carroll, 792 Bergen st 
471. Fred. Brandt, 465 6th ave. 

657. (Millwrights) W. E. Kelk, 12 BuUer at. 

639. Jas. Black, 269 53d st. 

Buffalo— Secretary of District Council, 

Geo. Ullmer. 674 Genesee st, 

9. W. H. Wreggitt, 56 Trinity st 
356. (Ger.)R. Luense, 127 Rose st. 

374. K. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguson ave. 

440. J. O. Weigel, 26 Waverly st 
99. Cohoes — A. Van Arnam. 22 George at 

640. College Point.— G. A. Pickel, 5th ave. and 
11th st. 

Cornwall-on-Hudson— K. Decker, Box 282. 
806. Cortland — K W. Crandall, 8 Maple ave. 

815. Elmira— E. M. Snyder, 761 E. Market 
928. Fishkill-on-Hüdson— Ja«. Hayes, Mat- 
toawan. N. Y. 

714. Flubhing— F. 8. Flold, 154 New Locust st 
500. Glen Cove. L. I,, John Marlin. 

229. Glens Fali»— Ira Van Dusen, 86 Sanford at. 
149. Irvington— Alex. H. Smith. Box 187. 

603. Ithaoa— E. A. Whiting, 38 Lake ave. 

261. Kingston— J. Deyo Ohlpp, Box 100. 

591. Little Fall»— T. R. Mangan. 529 Garden st. 
493. Mt. Vernon— J. Beardsley. 131 N. 7th ave. 
801. Newburgh— D. O. Healy, 46 Johnson st. 

42. New Rochelle— T. Quinlan, 45 Drake av. 
507. Newtown, LI.— J. B. Way, Corona P.O., LI. 
New York— Secretary of District Council 
J. H. Wright 220 W. 44th st 

51. E. A. Rodd, 1346 Chisholm st. 

63. Jas. J. Kane, 837 E. 36th st 

64. J. U. Lounsbury, Hudson Bldg., 801 W. 87th 
200. (Jewish) John Goldfarb, 212 Madison st. 




518. (Ger.) Richard Kuehnel, 51 Ave. A. 

707. (Fr. Canadian) L. Bellrnare, 228 E. 751 

715. J. P. Spalno, 2462 8th ave. 

78«. (Ger. Millwrights and Millers) Henry 
889 17th at.. Ho. Brooklyn. 

575. Niagara Falls— E.K.Cornell, 446 Ein 
ave. 

474. Nyack— R obt. F. Wool, Box 493. 

101. Onronta— A. J. Ryan, E E. ,, 

404. Portchbhtkr — W. H. K. Joncj. Rye. N J 
203. Poughkeepsie— G. E. Baker. Bo *g>. 

72. Rochester— H. M. Fletcher, 31 Bar 

179. “ (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 M-vv P a 

159. Rome— D. Parry, 111 N. Madison str . t 
479, Seneca Fall»— F. A. Ilillmho. 

146. Schenectady— Heury Bain, 32' Craig at. 

Staten Island — Secretary of Dint Cc r 

O. T. Shay, 19 6th ave. New Brighton A« 
606. Port Richmond— J. Keenan 2?‘ Jör»*>8uolo« 
New Brighton. . q — ■ ■ 

567. Stapleton— P. J. Klee, Box 49*. 

10. Syracuse— (Ger.) E. Kretech, 7‘ Butt -J 1 ir. 
814. Tarrytoww— D. Page, North sryui (1 
78. Troy— Robt. Laurie, box 65. S« 

125. Utica— G. W. Griffiths, 240 D ave 

580. Watertown— P. J. Doocey, : Union. t — 
Arsanel st. 

238. Waverly— 1. M. Terry, Box 

West Chester County— S e< eta * o 
trlct Council, James Gag; t, VI L$ \ 
st., New Rochelle, N. Y. { 

352. West Troy— Charles Angus, 1 <ki a . 06- 

698. Williams Bridge— John Edj -y. Be : _ 

378. Yonkers— Chas. Gordon, 142 i »iibuitof f. 

726. •• H. W. Mallinson,r <K-r * td 

NORTH DAKOT/ 7?f' 

19« 

174. Grand Forks— R. S. Tyler, 1 01 N. jd a. g?» 



OHIO 



it. 




m. 7 AO ?- t iURfi— Frank Ourtt a, 0C9 ;*ek * 



309. (Ger. Cab. Makers) Louis Becker, 225 E. 
761 h st. 

840. A. Watt. Jr., 103 W. 106th st. 

376. (Ger Framers) O. Kacchele, 2087 2d ave. 

382. H. Seymour, 1800 2d ave. 

407. (Scan.) J. Lo wander, 28 E. 114th st 
464. (Ger.) H Maiberger, 622 E. 156th st. 

468. J G. Doyle, 232 E. 26 tb »t 
*78. Wtu. Trotter. 918 9th ave. 

478. W. Chamberlain, 637 E 138th Jt 
497. (Ger.) Ü. baumani*. ö»Ui av. 

<x». Patrick KarADaph. 4 *** W. 49th *tf. 



84. Akron— J. Glass, 111 E.Thori o 
17. Bellaire— G eo. W. Curtis, H 

170. Bridgeport— John A. Fawoe’l 
501. Bucyrus— J. A. Fink. 

143. Canton— K eller Huff, 37 Cent r si 
886. Chillicothb— E. F. Thompson, 167 W.Ml 

Cincinnati— Secretary of D)> rlct ( tunf 
D. P. Rowland, 102 Symmrs -t. . V. .?! 
Hills. 

2. W. A. Kenyon, llßSymmes h . W li 
309. (Ger.) August Weiss, 359 Freeman a , 

824. (Ship Carp.) J. A. Hamilton, 6.«l & h . 

327. (Mill.) Goo. Marshall, 457 Main st 
481. (Stairs) H. Hogg 427 Milton si 
628. A. Berger, 227 Fergus st., Staton 
664. A. J. Haines, 392 Delta ave. Sta^io 0. 

867. M. A. Harlow, 284 Eastern ave 

676. L. A. Groll, 213 Jefferson ave., 4 ’ 

681. F. A. Wagner. 729 Freeman av« 

683. Wm. Ethel, 1344 W. 6th st. 

692. J. P. Luckey, Bloom st. 

Cleveland— ' vary o; ] 

Vincent HJiW In, 168 Snp*.ril 

11. A M. Blair, 2« Gayles at. 

39. (Bohem.) V. lllavln, 12 r| 

234. (Ger.) Wm. Kornpko, 52 Norwf 
393. (Ger.) Theo. Welhneh. 16 Par] 

449. (Ger.) W. II. oiiuUz, 35 CoturaJ 
461. H. J. Riggs, 8 . -avfes at. 

231. College Hi' l — M. Simons. j r 

OoLUMBUB--Berretary o i District Council. 1 
iw. c. FarhiJ , 658 Boon st. 
si a 4 O. Welch 762 W Broad st 
Gahai 258 Leor -a -ve. 
in?’ fw™^N- V C. Smith. ViS F luffc 

DA ^ (Ger.) Jos Wirth. 011 Clover si. ) 

•i?’ twt c A. Rubroeht, 17 Uu U t^Hy v r 

677. Delaware ; HomeOitv. «w 

775. DELHi-JamesSla^^’J^“®^;;* , f 

828. East Liverpool- R Y 

188. Findlay— W- Alspach. 828 An ... si. h 

637. Hamilton— W. C. Museh, 1141 Heaton st 

636. Ironton.— A. D. Neumeyer, 125 R. R. slr^ter 
267. Lima— J. Vansweringen, 712 S. Main st. nK]i c 
703. Lock land— Chas. E. Hertel, Arlington,*: 

360. Madisonville— E. L. Beiden, Box 202. J’Ve- 
85«. Marietta— J. W. Forester, 800 4th st. 

779. Marion— J. R. Smith, 910 N. State st. . 

14. Martin s Ferry— T hos. V. Salisbury, Buf’ ,,h r 
725. MiDDurrowN-Wm. Hill, 45 Vand evert,., “ 

74B. Mt Washinton-W- H. Nidiolson. ^ u pal 
73«. Nelson viLLB- A. H. Miller. 

705. Norwood— A.E.Best, Ivanhoeav., JCnly 

Norwood, Cincinnati. Ohio. ; niin 

660. Pomeroy-J. M. Fowler, Mason City, W. 

437. Portsmouth— J. F. Wanless, Box 326. */ of 

107. Sandusky— J. H. Brown, 923 Hancock sl r 
284. Springfield— W. B. Knlsley, 215 louden ,eus * 
186. STEUBKNViLiaE— D. H. Vlrden, 810 S. 6th * 

243. Tiffin— A. Weigle, 151 Sycamore st. 

35. Tolrdo-J. W. Mitchell. 49 Vance st. 

168. 44 (Ger.) A. Nopper, 824 Moore st. 

171. Youngstown— C. N. Crozier, 124 Baldwl 

716. Zanesvii.ijs — F red. Kappes, Central 



t to 



10th Ward. 



OREGON 



. Wi 11 ' 
eS e-P a l 
r ,iail to 



520. Astobia— J acob Frey, 291 Bond st the 

50. Portland— David Henderson. Box Jl . . 

action 



PENNSYLVANIA 



nex“ 8 * 16 - 
e th? f not 



Allegheny City— 

HI. O. L. Mohney, 70 Wilson ave. - — 

187. (Ger.) Robert Gramberg. 21 Itenst.ds 

487. Altoona— II. L. Smith, 2005 4th av edition 

551. Bangor- John Alben, Box 150. ) 

aver Falub— A. Burry, Box .^„-ICt, at 
Brighton. l0ur . . , 

550. Bradford— O. Cummings. 1 Chall t 11 C 1 P al 
TSS. Carbondalb— T heo. E. Crain, 56 

307. Chester— Eber 8. Rigby, 240 E. I 

139. Easton— F rank P. Horn, 914 But,,* ftn ,iActB 
422. Frankford— J. R. Nace, 6410 K L ana . OTY ._ 
Taoony. o be t jame 

401. Franklin— M. D. Cline. 

122. Germantown— J. K. Martin. 58 \ Uarpf 
462. Grbknsburg— J. H. Rowe, ‘235 Cqk 0 
Ä7. Harrisburg— G. W. Diehl, 1228 F ue r< 

388. Homebtead-T. H. Wilson, Box said f- • • 
258. Jeannette— J G. Baker. Penn S 

308. Lancaster— O. Hensell, 304 New 

177. McKeesport— 8. G. Gilbert, 1010, «fl m. . . 

181. Manbfihld — R. H. McOonkey.CT J 

Box 106. drmlv 

278. Merger.— J. D. Boyd 
888. New Kensington— C W. Shaf 
«A N*" Castle— W. W. McOleary 

Philadelphia— their 

8. Matthias Moore, 412 N. 6th st, r nm Car* 
17 (Kensington) Chas. L.Spangh * , 

(Ger.) Jos Oyen. 1029 N. 4th drgn, 



859, (Mill) J. Duertnger, Jr., 2831 8 ctfullv 

Ptpmbueoh — H ecrotary of D’ „ V 

W. F. Wlllotk, Hoi 215. ' OrRBni- 

142. H. G. Sch ’ or, 126 Web» f 

164. (Ger.) Adolph Bat*, 131 litt 1001 « 561116111 » and 
16A (wr «vdi vr a. Kjn^-y Legislature of 

*'■ . F. .y. jUutif . #;i . Juliet St, 1 
I iri _* !cr.) Ludwig Pan kei, Ifif?« ient. 

i > Aft. rTm XHTTAW X €V- - W P‘. fVH 

i 8S6 T^sl-joins — T. Klsslngrc* U)? 

. W5. Vt r - ur 



,i8 - „ceding* of the 0- 

1 P 



<<■ 

"iso i~ 



, ' -W Ul»™»-»«"- “| 

THE CARPENTER. 



sixth day’b session- January 12. 

- i/v r»ri~.i.in circular form 
'i B* the 



they can enter into any ftttmsmen in pMV 
these reasons the G. B. B. *i 0 perfonn h|d 

Ault the. »** 

V 



crtaoBAFTOur— Secretary District Council, 
i. Ion Hubert Gould, 812 Marion at. 

1 ' oo. Btoonback. 908 Oxford at. 



\ oclie« «AMOKIN-.., UU . 1 U>, »av H 

. a.i.td ftlABON— ^ J. P. Smith, 86 A at 
tht< HU ° akkutum — T. O. Miller, Box 267. 
ico®"» ’aylor — G eorge Wfcka, Box 45. 

.le Jniontown— W. B. Koonta, 18 MorgantowT 

l n TI,, friLK»-BABRH-M. Malloy, 319 N. Wash at. 
i uuft Wll*LiAM«roitT— L. F. Irwin, 441 Hepburn at. 

) gGen/ 0 “"" 1 “- Mlckley * 19 N - *•»«» ^ 

•Si Appro RHODE ISLAND 

o* *°- Newport— P. B. Dawloy, 693 Thame« at 
1 tc*ndlai Pawtucket — J. J. Lecdham, Box 22. Valley 
In , ...liirat Falla. 

tin k Providence— 1\ Dolan, 32 Grand View at. 

’ An shy in 

et isabilitj SOUTH CAROLINA 
T i »v Orle» haru»ton-(Oo 1.) E. A. Washington, 12 
lence Mount «1 

“ qr to tn Joldmbla — (O ol.) O. A. Thompson, 106 Eaat 
Tailor at 

An • 

l mei®»l TENNESSEE 

a To Fg, Knoxville— N. Underwood, 14 Anderson at. 
'tie E. 16. Martin— E. H. JeflTreaa. 

< j t’aäoiH. Mu p his — C haa. Weiner, 851 Front at. 

| T ‘ 16. Nash vint»— J. F. Dunuebacke, 14o5 N. 

M im th. lege |t< 

■ TEXAS 

p n Llo K Austin— H. Roeaaler, 1912 Breckonrldge at. 
I / . CJoBfliGANA— W. J. Foster, 1110 W. 11th ave. 

» DCS , Dallab-O. L. Wiley, Box 299. 

11' lore . Denison— Ü. H. Miller, » ox 306. 

_ 4 v.u ». Ft. Worth— J. B. Bohlock. 
f It , n. “ A Krause, Cor. New York and 
t Hfoui Willie fllB 

. . »11. Gainesville— A. A. Laird. 847 E. Truelove. 

i Vo <26. Galveston— O. E Ballard, Box 396. 

; rill. “ (Ger.) Richard Seidel, N. W. Oor. 
Ann M% Bn d 27th ata. 

r fll. Hillsboro— M cClure H. Parker. 

Th v 114. Houhton — A. Dennison, 7t3 Walker av. 

867. Ban Antonio— G W. W. Smith, Rubioio 
N< * Store. Rock Quarry Road. 

FV »* (Ger.) T. Jauernlg, 1111, E. Commerce 

“A. G. Wletzel, 135 Centre at. 

1. Taylor— W B Pyhaa P. O. Box 696. 

> K Terrell— L. E. Walker. 

^ i2. Waco— B . G. Longguth, 11 Walnut at. 

\ or 



Col- 



UTAH 

IT 263. alt Lakh City— G eo. B. Stum, 818 W. 

I, D f ®°* ® fc - 

/ VERMONT 

f Un, ° Burlington— Jas. Childs. 22 North at. 
and Rutland — J. A. Thibault, 8 Terrill at. 



4th, 



He G J 

rp Dll 
;k 1 
oi , 

")1 A vlev 
. of G 



ti< 

an 

tr 

nr 



VIRGINIA 

Dert , Portsmouth— L. W. G. Soorey, 809 4th at. 

1 . Richmond— Wm. H. Gaul. 00* Albemarle at 

“ (Ool.) J. B. Mason, 70-1 Clark at. 

WASHINGTON 

b 

> 8ßl. Shattlb— J. O. Heymer, Box 1450. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

511. Charleston — J. L. Jone«. Box 59«. 
nil 236. Clarksburg— J. H. Ridenour. Box oa 
619. Elkin»- D. R. Martin. Box 209. ,, 

, q 428. Faibmont—G. K. White ’ 

Yo & S^:;™ b T Z _T Ä 1929 4th ave. 

V ' wit^^V G ^°« L L 8cb OPP®«. 

. Wkll».^ro — Sami. Patterson, Box 248. 

T* r Wheeling — A. L. Bauer, 1619 Jacob «t. 

Yov Sec. Diatrlot Council Wheeling and 
tee » vicinity. 

cxhft WISCONSIN 

G f 1reen Bay— W. Wagner, 528 N Madison at. 
Com a Crosse John Leide, 1306 Adams at. 

• ^adibon— Wm. Moll, 208 Murray at. 

The hoi ijLWAUKEE-Secretarv of District Council 
The tin John Bettendorf, 766 7th av. 

'.Ger.) Wm. Bublltz, 740 18th at. 

WGer.) Jonn Bettendorf, 760 7th ave 



hidden there is one declaration which is 
w, nwouunvK. iwo uiiuru bi>. not only controversial, hut decidedly 

ÄTÄÄ theoretical, and which even if founded 
laron— J. p. Smith. 86 a at upon economic truth, ia not demon- 

strable, and ao remote as to place our- 
selves and our movements in an unen- 
viable light before our fellow-workers, 
and which, if our organization is com- 
mitted to it, will unquestionably prevent 
many sterling national trade unions 
from joining our ranks to do battle with 
us to attain first things first. 

It is ridiculous to imagine that the 
wage workers can be Blaves in employ- 
ment and yet achieve control at the 
polls. There never yet existed co inci- 
dent with each other autocracy in the 
shop and democracy in political life. In 
truth, we have not yet achieved the ini- 
tial step to the control of public affairs 
by even a formal recognition of our 
unions. Nor does the preamble to the 
program outline the condition of the 
labor movement of Great Britain accur- 
ately. In that country the organized 
wageworkers avail themselves of every 
legal and practical means to obtain the 
legislation they demand. They endeavor 
to defeat those who oppose, and elect 
those who support, legislation in the 
interest ot labor, and whenever oppor- 
tunity affords elect a bona fide union 
man to Parliament and other public 
offices. The Parliamentary Committee 
of the British Trade Union Congress is a 
labor committee to lobby for labor legis- 
lation. This course the organized workers 
of America may with advantage follow, 
since it is based upon experience and 
fraught with good results. 

He would indeed be shortsighted who 
would fail to advocate independent vot- 
ing and political action by union work- 
men. We should endeavor to do all we 
Possibly can to wean our fellow-workers 
from their affiliation with the dominant 
political parties, as one of the first steps 
necessary to insure wageworkers to vote 
in favor of wageworkers' interests, wage- 
workers' questions, and for union wage- 
workers as representatives. 

During the paßt year the trade unions 
in many localities plunged into the polit- 
ical arena by nominating their candidates 
for public offices, and sad as it may be to 
record, it is nevertheless true, that in 
each one of these localities politically 
they were defeated and the trade union 
movement more or less divided and dis- 
rupted. 

What the results would be if such a 
movement were inaugurated under the 
auspices of the American Federation of 
Labor, involving it and all our affiliated 
organizations, is too portentous for con- 
templation. I need only refer you to the 
fact that the National Labor Union the 
predecessor of the American Federation 
of Labor, entered the so-called indepen 
dent political arena in 1872 and nomi- 
nated its candidates for the presidency 
of the United States. It iß equally true 
that the National Labor Union never 
held a convention alter that event. The 
disorganized condition of labor, with its 
tales ol misery, deprivation and demorali- 
zation, from that year until the reorgani- 
zation of the workers about 1880, must 
be too vivid in the minds of those who 
were trade unionists then and are trade 
unionists now to need recounting by me. 

In view of our own experience, as well 
as the experience of our British fellow- 
unionists, I Bubmit to you whether it 
would be wise to steer our ship of labor 
sate from that channel whose waters are 
strewn with shattered hopes and unions 
destroyed. 

Before we can hope as a general organi- 
zation to take the field by nominating 
candidates for office, the workers muBt 
be more thoroughly organized and better 
results achieved by experiments locally. 
A political labor movement cannot and 
will not succeed upon the ruins of the 
trade unions. 

This convention is an important one, 
more important than any previously 
« f rec l u * re * comprehensive view of the 
field, close discrimination, wise and de- 
liberate counsel and aggressive action, bo 
aa to enable us to overcome all obstacles 
in the way and achieve all the rights 
labor. 



buy uniok made goods 

It Is an old, well-established principle of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters for member* 
to buy Union Label Goods in preference tc 
other articles. And why not? If we ask fall 
wages for our labor, why should we buy goodt 
made at unfair wages by others. 

The Union Label in every industry is a guar- 
antee of fair wages, decent working condition! 

and union labor employed. - 

We here give a facsimile of the Union Isbell 
•o our members may know Union Label good* 
and make it a point to ask for them. 







•J; I 

M&sK 



AMERICAN FEDERATION LABEL. 

This Label is used on afi 
goods made by Union men 
connected with Union* 
affiliated with the Ameri 
can Federation of Labor 
where such unions have 
no distinctive trade labe? 
of their own. This labe? 
is printed on white paper 





Thor«” (Ger.) J. Werner, 1235 11 lb st. 

U- (Q«r.) John Haswmann, 695 82d st 
. or Julius Kallike. 431 15» h st. 
p ri 01ivc" Taylor, 1191 8th st. 

No. LaOroshh — O. Woraus, 2105 Kane st. 
Oshkosh— J osepb Tuttle, 404 Mt. Vernon at 




Views on Politics in Trade 
Unions. 

his annual ad- 
dress as Presi- 
dent at the Den- 
ver Convention 
of the American 
Federation of 
Labor, Samuel 
Gompers took 
very decided 
and eminently 
practical ground 
on the introduc- 
tion of politics 
in trade unions. 
^ We commend 

of cbioO the attention of our readers : 
paid t«ist convention a political pro- 
placed flU i)nritted to our affiliated 
us for discussion, to be re- 
ebowiuff at this convention. In con- 
priation i matter it is but proper 
mg the hjk e BU b m i aB j 0 n of this pro- 
atedl^’J* organizations was largely 
New Yorfehe membership as an in- 
instruct» tL j^y the Federation. 

the demands contained in 
\ave been promulgated in 
rade union throughout the 
tw rW «tailed and almost 



UNION BREAD. 

SatantfloaRl This 1« the label of th* 
M Journeymen Baken and 
^Confectioner», under theii 
J International Union. It i* 
^ \ printed on white paper In 
(J black ink and is pasted oi 

(Begibxeeed» *" ® ac l loaf , ofbr t ad ‘ ltmeanr 

death to long hours and lov 
wages in bakers 1 slave pens underground. 

UNION BOOT» AND SHOES. 

This is the joint Label of tin. 
Boot and Shoe Workers’ Inter 
national Union and of th* 
Lasters 1 Protective Union and 
all other union men In th* 
Boot and Shoe trade. It ii 
V^nUsd in blue Ink and pasted 
v *“i4r»ü * mar on every boot and shoe mad« 
oy Union men. It guarantees the boot« and 
ffioes are not convict or prison made. 



UNION PRINTER» 1 LABEL. 

This Label it 
issued u n d e i 
►authority of th* 
Internationa 
Typographic» 
Union and of the German Typographic Th 
label Is used on all newspaper and book work 
It always bears the name and location of whw. 
the printing work is done. 

BLUE LABEL CIGAR«. 

Essess , 

^ Cigars. ^ 

■ — ' 

rrmnnm m n n imij 

This label is printed in black ink on light blu# 
paper, and Is pasted on the cigar-box. Don ; 
mix it up with the U. S. Revenue label on tb* 
box as the latter is nearly of a similar color. Be* 
that the Cigar Makers 1 Blue Label appears on th« 
box from which you are served. It insures you 
against Chinese made cigars and tenement mad« 
goods. 

CUSTOM TAILOR«’ LABEL. 



UNION MADE HATS. 

This Label 1» about 
an inch and & hall 
square and is printed 
on buff colored paper. 
It is placed on every 
union made hat be- 
fore It .leaves the 
workman^ hands. 

/ I* a dealey takes a 

0$ T u *abel from one hat 

’^eSJsTERE^ Bnd P>*oe»vU In 

. , , , , ' , , another, or Iujb any 

fThU . h f K? 1 ’ 8t ° re > do 1101 buy froo\ him 

m hi. label. m.y be counterfeit, and hi. bat. An.y 
be the product of «cab or non-union labor. \ 

RETAIL CLERKS* LABEL. 

This is a fao-simile oi\ 
the badge worn by afi 1 
members of the Retail 
Clerks’National Protect 
ivo Association of the 
United States. See that 
all salesmen and clerk« 
wear this badge and you 
may be sure they are 
union mem 

UNION MADE STOVES. 










The above Label is Issued by the Iron Moldau 1 
Union of North America and can be found on All 
anion made stoves, ranges and iron castings. It 
I« printed in black ink on white paper and pasted 
on All union made stoves, ranges and castings. 

TACK MAKERS* LAHKL. 




The Tack Makers 1 Union is tli© oldest labor 
organization in America. It was founded in 
1824. Above is the label placed by the Boclety 
every package of Union made tacka, 

BROOM MAKERS* 





All Trade. Unionist, are requested to ask fo. 
the label of the Journeymen Tailors’ Union, and 
insist on having: It when they order any clothing 
from a merchant tailor. It Is to be found In th. 
lu.lde breast pocket of the coat, on the unde, 
* , the buokl ° of the vest, and on tht 
waistband lining of the pants. Itl. printed U 
black ink on white linen, with the word. “ Jou*. 
»•ymen Tailors’ Union of America” In nd ink 

wort^ 11 * fBlr Prf«» to* 



MISCELLANEOUS LARTT-y ^ 

The label of the German printers will be (bun 
on page 15, in our German department 
There are labels also for these trade* t Th 
Coopers, Journeymen Barbers, Horse Oolls 
Makers. Elastic Web Weavers; Intematiom 
Furniture Workers and Hardwood Finisher*. 

lastkrs’ label. 



issued 



» UT HORITV 




ii 

z 

o 

z 

2 

D 






Thi* Label is the only positive guarantee that 
Ready-made Clothing, including overalls and 
jackets, is not made under the dreaded, disease* 
infested tenement house and sweating system. 

You will find the linen label attached by ma 
Thin« stitching to the inside breast pocket of the 
x>At, on the inside of the buckle strap of the v«*t 
^ s* fea Tfttofa** iiaiE* *f tfefrtats, 



y^BRANTEO 




hand lasted 

The Lasters’ Protective Union of America h 
copyrighted the above trade-mark, which wh 
found on the .ole or lining of a boot or «ho« 1, 
guarantee that the same la hand lasted by uni 
men. On account of the Introduction of so-oall 
a. ing machine, and “scab” workmen, t 
lästere deemed It necessary to take this eflcotl 
means to protect themselves and purch-ere 
footwear from unscrupulous manu c yea 
The hand lasted shoes and boots • ? 

^ ^ * - - - uniom 

i as tl 

-oaccesBful j 

offl to force th< 



«uues ana boot 
cheap as the inferior lasted article. 



Labor organizations 
truth of the principle 
should 11 beware of enU 
re V ; —kut it he has got to 
good enough training to dt 
fellow .— Boston Labor Lead 







£)«utf($cl © u^brutfer » label 

liefet 2abct toirb tat, 
alien 3citungi# unb am 
jl*o bereit 2)ru<far&eiten btt» 
toenbet, in b tut* 

fc$en Union « fcnuferfte* 
berßeflellt toerben. 




(For Our German Members.) 
2Runat0*9hin&fdjau. 



Son 3ofepf)u8. 







^äßrenb faft aHe 2lrbeiter«Drganifa« 
itoneit be 8 Sanbeä im vergangenen 
Saßre juriitfgegangen ftnb, inbem 
fte Saufenbe non 2RitgIiebern oer» 
loren, roetc^e infolge von SlrbeitSloßgleit 
leine Beiträge meßr bejaßten lonnten, maeßt 
bie Brüberfeßaft ber ©arpenterS ßetigejjort« 
(cßritte. $ie leßte roertßooHe Slcquifition, 
reelle gemalt mürbe, ifl ber Beitritt ber 
Stem 5)orler ©abinetmalerS, beren feit meßr 
al 8 30 Saßrei beßeßrnbe Union 9to. 7 nun 
ebenfalls unter unferem ©garter an bem 
großen ©inigungSroetle mitarbeitet. ®S bat 
jroar etroaS lange gebauert; aber, roaS 
lange roäßrt, rotrb ja befanntlicß gut unb 
mit greuoen ßeißen mir bie neuen Brüber 
roiUfommen in unferen Beißen. ©ie finb im 
Kampfe erprobte SRänner unb mit ißrer 
§ülfe wirb eS l;o ff entließ gelingen, au<ß bie 
übrigen ffiarpenterS oon SRero 2)orf, roeltße 
ß<ß nodj barin gefallen, lleinen ©onber« 
Organifationen anjugeßören, unter unfer 
Banner ju ßßaaren, fotoie bie Broollpner 
unb 3 erfei;er g-ramerS ju veranlaßen, bem 
Beifpiel ißre • Stew gorier gaißgenoffen fol» 
genb, ßcß u.lS ebenfaS anjußßließen. 



$)er Büdgang, foroeit bie 3aßl ber 2Jlit= 
gliebfeßaft in grage fommt, ift ganj befon» 
berS ßatf in ben Organifationen ber ©ifen< 
baßnangeßeuien ünb Xelegrapßiflen. ©o 
ßat ließ bie Brüberfeßaft ber Seßteren oon 
13,000 auf 6,000 ..bucirt ; bie Brüberfeßaft 
ber trainmen ßat 130 Solalorganifationen 
mit meßr als 4.000 9Witgtiebetn oetloten, 
bie Btttberfeßaft ber Solomotiofüßrer unb 
biejenige ber $eijer oerlorer ebenfalls meß. 
rere Saufenb SRitglieber unb bie Mutual 
«ib »ffociation ber ©niteßmen iß ganj unb 
gar oon ber Bilbßäcße oerfeßtounben. $iefe 
©rfeßeinung beS BücfgangeS iß inbeffen 
nießt nur bureß bie SlrbeitSloßgleit ju ertlä. 
ren, fonbern tßeilroeife bureß bie Berein« 
faeßung beS Betriebs, bie Berlängerung ber 
«rbeitSjeit unb bie ©infüßrung von eleltri- 
feßen SÄotoren, toeleße an bie ©teile ber 
$ampf*2olomotioen getreten ftnb. Unb 
mit biefer Bebucirung berSlrbeitSlräfte geßt 



gefagt, nic$t 8 mc^r Reifen, als bie lieber* 
itafjme beä Sa^nbetriebö burdfr bie ftäbtt* 
fdjen Sebörben unb©efe$e, nad) welken bie 
SngefteHien nur non ber Drganifation ber 
Sezieren geliefert werben bürfen- 
* * 



$ie Regierung „per ©infjalt 8 &efef)l" ift 
baö 9teuefte, worauf bie amerifanifdjen 
ßapitaliften feit bem großen ©ifenba^nftrile 
in ©Ijicago verfallen finb. 2 lud) in 39roof* 
Ipn Ijaben fte ftdj unter bem Sorwanbe, bie 
Ser. Staaten $oft 311 beförbent, ben Sd&ufc 
ber Se^örben geliefert. Sebe i§rer Scab* 
©arö trug ein S#ilb mit ber Sluffdjrifl 
“ U. S. Mail,” au$ wenn nidjt ein einjigeS 
^apierfc$ni$elcf)en, baä wie ein Srief auä* 
fa§ # barauf beförbert würbe. „Dn!el Sam"' 
würbe auf biefe 2 Beife als ©üttel für eine 
Säuberbanbe in ben S)ienft gepreßt, roeldje 
nad&geroiefenermafjen feit bie be* 

fteljenben Staaiägefefce bureb wabnftnnig 
fcb«eUeS ga^ren uerlebte unb babei mehr 
wie bunbert ^erfonen getöbtet unb uerfd&ie* 
bene bunbertanbere auf SebenSjeit ju Äriip* 
peln gemacht bat. 

£ajs ein „freies'' Sol! fub derartiges ge* 
fallen lägt, bürfte burcbauS unoerftänblicb 
fein, wenn wir nicht wüfjten, baft feit Se* 
ginn ber fapitaliftifeben Slera bie greibeit 
nur noch auf bem Rapier ftebt, unb ba^ fte 
nur noch für bie Reichen unb Mächtigen ju 
haben ip ; fonft wäre eS wirüicb nicht mög* 
Heb, ba& ein 3ttann wie debS wegen angeb* 
lieber Serlefcung eines @inbaltSbefeblS ju 6 
Monaten ©efängni^ uerurtbeilt werben 
fonnte, ohne non einer überwältigenben 
SolfSmenge auS ben ®änben feiner §äfcber 
befreit 3 U werben. SiS jefct haben bie obn* 
mächtigen Serfucbe ber ©enoffen ©ugene S. 
deb3\ ihm bie Freiheit §u fiebern, über 
125,000 geloftet, waS wieberum beweift, baß 
bie ©eriebte in Slmepifa nur für bie reichen 
Seute ju haben finb, unb bafj arme deufel, 
•J)fe*in ©elb aum SppeUiren beft^en, ent* 
weber baS ®a\}J4 ftUen unb ^ * on ^ rcn 



beren Sänbern, eS in unferem 3ab*bunbert 
gebracht haben. 3 « 3 ran!reicb reftgnirte 
nicht nur baS 3JHnifterium unb ber Sßräft* 
bent ber Sepubli!, weil fte bei einer einfa* 
eben ©ifenbabn*Äontraft*9Ranipulation bie 
HRajorität ber Kammer nicht mehr auf ihrer 
Seite hatten. 2lber in Söafbington blieben 
fowobl bie TOinifter wie ihr So&, ber feifte 
©leoelanb, gemächlich auf ihren Soften, als 
ihre gefammte ginana* unb 3 oIIpoliti! oon 
ihren eigenen ^arteigenoffen mit Schimpf 
unb Scbanbe unb ^ohngelächter übet* ben 
Raufen geworfen würbe, die amerifani* 
feben Kolititer ftnb ebenfo fdjamloS gewor* 
ben, ba 6 fte, fo lange man fte nicht am Ära* 
gen nimmt, um fte mit gu&tritten auS bem 
Slmte au werfen, bleiben, wo fte ftnb, auch 
wenn ihnen bunbertmal naebgewiefen wäre, 
bafj fie nicht nur unfähige Sammerburfchen, 
fonbern fogar offenlunbige Serbrecber finb. 

# M * 



5ltach bem Süben, nach bem fchönen Sü* 
ben möcht ich sieben, wo bie Halmen wachfen 
unb Drangen blühen ! So ftngen jefct plöh* 
lieh eine 2 Renge amerilanifcher Äapitaliften. 
Um bie Halmen unb Drangen ift eS ihnen 
babei aHerbingS nicht hauptfächlich au thun ; 
benn bie fönnen fte ftch ja auch hier im 9 tor* 
ben in ihren prächtigen ©ewäd^Shäufern sie* 
hen. ©S hat bei ihnen mit biefem drang 
nach bem Süben gana ©twaS anbereS auf 
ftch- dort ftnb nämlich bie SlrbeitSfräfte 
oiel billiger. ©S giebt bort mehr Sieger unb 
oerarmte Sßeifje, roelcbe froh ftnb, wenn fte 
für 60 bis 80 ©entS per dag unb, wenn 
möglich noch weniger, arbeiten lönnen. 2 lud) 
braucht man boxt im SBinter bie ShopS nicht 
SU beiaen unb bie Arbeiter fönnen mit wem* 
ger Äleibern unb billigerer Nahrung auS* 
fommen. ©ine grofje SJlenge Äapitaliften 
hat bieS tängft gewußt, unb fte haben bal)er 
im Süben gabrilen etablirt, bie bebeutenb 
billigere SBaaren liefern, als biejenigen im 
nörblichen dheil beS SanbeS. die Spefu* 
lauten im 9torbm lönnen alfo mit benen im 
Süben nicht mehr fonlurriren. ^auptfädj* 
lieh ift bieSoor läufig in ber dejtil* 3 nbuftrie 



weoer oaö üKaw «nv wwii lytcii na) t]i oteoDötiaupg in oes ^ejiuj^nouiute 

»offen »BeS aefaflen ^ inter 5aB «nb leßtete «oipb baßet balb gmjj. 

. ett-r ” ,'' en ' ^ -vs-* auS bem 'Jlorben oerfchwtnben. dte 

©chio^ unb Siegel „brummen" mütfen, - ^ertilarbeiter, welche unter uns leben, wer* 

.. . . I ^cnrl (oitt mif otvi ftofövoS 



Die Bruderscliaft <Ier Bause 




(United Brotherhood of Carpi 
Joiners) hat eeit den 18 Jal 
Bestehens 873 Strikes inecenii; 
waren 7G1 erfolgreich, 54 gingt 
und 58 wurden durch Compr 
gelegt. Seit 1. November 1 
welcher Zeit an die allgemeir 
U nterstützung existirt)wurden t QC 4 . c 
$210.683 aus der Allgemeinen K*^U> # 
$120,000 aus den Local- Kassen 
derschaft verausgabt. Der Af». 
dentag wurde in 54 Städten, 
grösseren, eingeführt und der N s " 
dentag in 425 Städten. Ebenso ^ 
die Bausch reiner seit 1886 in 568 
eine Erhöhung der Löbne, vo 
schlechten zetten, die sich im 
schnitt auf 50 cents pro Tag und 
beläuft. me ‘ 

rers 



OUR PRINCIPLES. aici ' 
her- 

tJNION-MADK GOODS. 

Resolved, That wo as a body tlioro 
prove of the objects of the American I 
of Labor and pledge ourselves to ci 
earnest and heart y support. 

Resolved , That members of this ori 
should make it a rule, when purchasfaty - 
to call for those which bear the trad^cti 
organized labor, and when any indivi 1811 “ 
or corporation shull strike a blowatlataics 
earue stly requester ’ 
that individual, hrm or coi^joratiou th»®^“ 
consideration. No good union man 
rod that whips him. ^Uor- 

^ged 



knights op labor. 

Resolved , That we most em phati cal’ 
courage carpenters and joiners from orgii 
as carpenters under the Knights of Labor 1 
believe each trade should be organized un 
own trade head in a trade union. This do 
bUes*^ ° Ur mem k era l rom Joining mixed A 

LABOR LEGISLATION. 

Resolved, That it is of the greatest import 
that members should vote Intelligently; he 
the members of this Brotherhood shall Btriv 
secure legislation in favor of those who pro* 
the wealth of the country, and all discussion* 
resolutions in that direction shall be in orde 
any regular meeting, but party politics mu- 
excluded. r 



IMMIGRATION. » 

Resolved, That while we welcome to our t 
all who come with the honest intention 
coming lawful citizens, we at the same tim 
demn the present system which allow; 
importation of destitute laborers, and w€ 
organized labor everywhere to endeavor 
cure the enactment of more stringeut inr * 
tion laws, *1 

FAITHFUL WORK. 

Resolved , That we hold it as a sacred prlr 
that Trade Union men, above all others, s’ 
set a good example as good and faithfal 
men, i>erfomiing their duties to their emi 
with honor to themselves and their organn 



SHORTER HOURS OP LABOR. 

We hold a reduction of hours for a day’_ 
'voreases the intelligence and happines? 



«Hentßalben eine Bettinaewttfl bei «rfeitt JZ T k ®uren stbetn rinnt, - 
Ibßne §anb in Sanb fo bS b« S I c ^ Öffnen unb “«äi„un. 

fcßnittSloßn im fl an 3 en Sanbe jeßt auS’ T §<Ufe Ieiften ! " 3le ^ ntic 5 

get «18 $1 per Sag gefatten ft il Z 8 1 ( garmern unb Sanb. 

fann 
lung 



n^i^aen i cut, auf ein ticfercö s JUueau 
rec^t au tuaßren. ' r 7 " ben geaniu.» b ^^«rh f^iec^tereö ©ffett unb 

I ytnabaufteigen, ‘ ^^öbnen, b. b. 

* * ÄJe ^ un 0 anau tt v^ av: v'ntcbetum 

mtUtxxoexle rotrb in D$io roieber einmal bem ^ u f tanb ^»SflauerefC^VvKn 

tücßtig geßungert. JE)ort ftnb nämlitß Sau J SnbVomfrTe^me ^b"*' JU r “ ut . Pnt8 * Ot v**, and h]“o increaaea the demand f 

EitrefÄ ä6etn unb ein , 

fur eßt barer fRolßftßret erftßaQt burtß baö | bußrien ergeßen. Unter bem jeßiqen ©n, Bnd 010 ' - - - 

gaoje Sanb. 3n einem ber «uftufe, bie fie 9 ‘l 6t eS ba 9 e 8 en *«•" 3Rittel unb bei. 

. . t e8 : „SBir ßnb natlt unb hnr* jfL I?tr Un L ere bie{e8 ®Vßem 

ßungrig „nb nießt im ©ianbe für ßteibung uÄßer®«g 9 ei* m 

« k ,0tfle "' SötÜber ' beI f‘ «ns ! «n?mer biefer ©egenßanb jur ©praeße lommt 
©8 tß ©ure »ßteßt, ju tßun, toa8 in ©urer i“ ie bet aIte ® at0 ' bem bie ©efaßr ber Äon«' 

SRatßt ßeßt. SBenn notß ein tropfen menfeß. f ,ü ^ et «>«-■ 

®? M ,n ' su "” “«» «»”). t. »2. 1 f.Ä^ 4SI." SS 1 ä" 



3r 



An Excellent Form of Indenture for Carpenter Apprentices. 



and thep.Aa fate or 0 f.. any MinfjOfpal 

1 reco Knlze that the intcrest 9 1 o° Penly 
^üonalUy ■) religion 

to one is a wrong done to all. a 

PUtothecHmfcaS , ? 80n contmct labor, bJS- 
fabor l? 1 n ^“I^tition with hrt 

for tlie purpose of cutting dow"“ e 
and a^o because it helps to ove£tg£ t O 

Resolved, That we most earnest!' 
the practice in vogue in man v eitle 
»specially in the West that « con " 
dctitlous building hoorns/as it has a tr*inal 
Jemorullzc the trade in such lo^SitW? 1 ^ 31 

*il to 
the 



jtion 

de- 



may ) 

duriDg the recognized hour 



Acte 

same 



e ' f i« Wie J ®i*fen Seutert I a6a^irnüß'k"tßatfräw7e ßüff^ rokbnJAf I ^»öenture, Witneseeth that hv . de ' 

rung ber «opitalißUn in bU gemSaZf! Ä SSi^Z ?T vol «»taril y and of and b / vmxing 

fenf(ßaftli(ße »robuftionätoeife 8 f ^ ,T‘I , 't 6etfieuetn - fön» . , wdl and accord . P ut himself «p v ddition 

biefem ©ebtet mdjtä me§ r auärtdjten, weil here ^uftänbe berbpiführptt »» !' en Unb an ‘ for and dnr ing, and to the full end and term of d micipal 

*T" oI " M ,e ” ,b ' 7 “ i ir t 

.«I.™.. ,am U,, r „ k ,„ „ “ !“oh SÄ£ Sil"* Th “ h ” ”“' »»* ”'>«»> f,«, .ort 

tern '' n -.r-'8f«nf°0/“u<ß oon ben Slrbeitem "' V 9 B tetma 'f en unh I »i.h«,,. . . 

in ißrem ©irne lontrottirt roerben unb oor. 
ßer, felbßoerßänblitß, oon ißnen erobert 

roerben muß. ©in fcßtagenbeS Beifpiel ßier. I nießt nur nießt roi0en8 ira«.h'.Jm»7« B l“” I ue ' VU1 UBe tbe utmost of his endeavors to teach or Mn .7*7v"“' 

• ßaben foeben bte Zroffeßbaßn.SlngeßeB. SlrbeiterKaffe ju tßun, fie finb fogar unfäßieT I ln * truc teU the said apprentice in the art, trade and mystery of ^ CanJ 
°^ n J ,e ,efert ' ® eI * e ' obn >°^ e«««"» 5C«eiI ber Äapi atißenHaffe £m J , Said apprentice shall not be required to work more than th« P 

& £!£?“ « ßrammßer SBeife Äteinbürgertßum, oon bm f tße Sf'e nZ ^ The 8aid fbrJ £ 2 ^ 

7 S: 3S&»?* «*4t im ©tanbe immer abßängen, roieber aufl ^7^ ~ * C * T ' 

'■ ° A THrr i i^ K: T aU o 9eäei ^ n,!t in f cenitten 1 3« fctf en i benn, alle Berfueße beS Son. Lf n J tr “® perfo . rma “ ce of a » and singular the covenants^ ^a n f^'’» Bburt!h, 

«J>- OTTAWA-john f am mtließe Baßnen bet greffeS, georbnete Sinanjjußänbe roieber n 168 7 ’ th6 8a ' d partieB bind themselves each unto the other finni ,ectfully 

St IKÄVX *f “i~. » Mi««wCn “,V.S £ I ^ 

V Sm-w! <5 ' ,|en ® et( ^ e SSort^eite biSßer getroffenen äRaßnaßmen ßaben nur bie 
W DiuwTn. * roerben ailffi in Qu. aahi ava&ou ßtafKAAtmoo Mmfli' i 



I m sr,r.«h . 9ne ' orts I behave himself as a faithful apprentice ought to during said term 

> Quirl . . ® * 



T bl ’ p*«"“ .... 



Quinoy— W m ’ -ounycuc wwvw gwuncucii ^lupuagmen bat 

P e V. v Rock Island* |tc aut^ in 3u* gana großen ©elbgauner profitirt. 

. Ro - OKE8 -n2.‘“ en -•'di.r jere Bei biefer ©elegenßeit fonnte man auiß 

\ >*mg I roieber einmal beobaeßten, ju roelißem ©rabe 

m * ct * AntitWIrt* 



parties 

presents. 

In W ITNB88 Whereof, the said Dartios h«™ ient,and 

seals hereunto. Dated ^i “ ‘. d a ^ 0 ! lnterchan ? ea hly set their , n re of 
thousand eight hundred and tt>e year of onr 



A A»u, ft red before 




Henrv OiSblon \ Sons 



PATENTS 



You should see 
The TAINTOR 



ENTIRELY 
OF STEEL 



POSITIVE 



SAW SET 



No. 93. 



k*UY PAYMENTS. 

toJfOranHrmiulmfS Mr«MH 
. acaw t it, I pennascet 
[•raijUt.lo. lUu* 3 ruled 

fcfoqc. itrtjlfar. 



■tcks' Ba Elders* 






oooo 



Wm. McNiece 4 Son, 

ete CHBRRY 8T.» 



u^ond Rip ßaus, 

^N«wn mi an? «na. 



Una 

JWlOICTCf 

Waj» 

Wkxjlloi 

You-/ 



jLLU. 



J. A. FAY & EGAN CO., 



188 to 208 West Front St., 



CINCINNATI, OHIO, U. S. A. 



ORIGINATORS, INTRODUCERS AND MAKERS OF 

WOOD WORKING MACHINERY 



~ FOR ALL PURPOSES. 

m vu* .f .. s Tui.i. Wood Wuku 7Ä. Largest Lint in the World d! the Latest and Best Approved Designs 

Send for ftp rail si Wood Worker Oet*lome. 

.. -hUh »UI *Sw7u ü.« TV1.U. kind, of wo!t 7» “ GRAND PRIX ” AT PARIS, *80. HIQHE8T AWARDS WORLD'S FAIR. CHICAGO, *93. 

«fw&lomk*. It 1» the mo« Wul m*ohlD« for • _ .... _ ^ . 

1 Ch rwiw or Baikw b«w in Outfit« or Single UtohloM Supplied. Send for Catalogue«. 



You €M set R at 1 

HARDWARE STf 

for we will send 
sny desler rou res *t 
or we will tend u 
sot addrsoe ob re • 
of |l. (1rw)sr«fr 

TAINTOR Mfg. i 0 

•6 Chamber* St, *• 



* latest deslgrns and 
ved new models of 
*: manufacturers. 

■ins^fc Schou, 

Mein Street, 
MMMUMIE, N.I. 



1NEST 

CARPENTERS’ 
TOOLS. 



■r. O. B J. of Amartoa Society Oood« 

■•tablishio i«ea 

CHAS. SVENDSON 



Regalia and Badges. 

Orer mi flesiety Plaii sad Baa ness Maaafcw 
lured. Over mfr Bo ei etios ft m i l e h ed 
with Badges or Regalia* 

No. 84 Coart et«, Cincinnati. 



ml Iik*m* 

mien, 



B. MAC 



At SENECA FALLS , NEH' YORK, 
ue are turning out a line of Machinery 
on the constant improvement 0/ which 
we focus our entire energies. In com • 

I nection with every mechanical resource 
afforded by a plant that it is our aim to 
keep constantly "at the front* 9 we\ 
hate an extensile experience , and a 
determination that our enviable reputa- 
tion shall continue to grow, and not 
shrivel under competition. 

Wood- Working Machinery 



for Pool and Hand Rower use is our 



specialty, and of this we make a very 
large assortment 

On r Catalogae ** A * * will demon- 
strate clearly what grounds we hate for 
the above claims, and this we would be 
pleased to mail you. Shall ue do to t 

Seneca Falls M’f’y Co., 
Seneca Falls, N. Y., 
w Water Street. U. S. A. 



















A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests. 



VOL. XV.— No. 4. 
Established 1881. 



PHILADELPHIA, APRIL, 1895. 



( Fifty Cents per Year. 
I Single Copies, 6 Cts. 



Stand Upright. 

There are those who, bending supple knees , 
Live for no end except to please ; 

Rising to fame by mean degrees. 

But creep not thou with these. 

They have their due reward ; they lend 
Their lives to an unworthy end — 

On empty aims the toll expend 
Which had secured a friend. 

But be not thou as these, whose mind 
Is to a passing hour confined ; 

Let no ignoble fetters bind 
Thy soul as free as wind. 

Stand upright, speak thy thought, declare 
The truth thou hast, that all may share ; 

Be bold, proclaim it ever' - ..ere, 

They only live who dare. 

— Rctiil Clerks * Advocate. 



Secretary Chandler of the Amalgamated. 



Several branches of the Amalgamated 
carpenters in England have sent in pro- 
tests to the Executive Council of that 
society against their General Secretary, 
F. Chandler, accepting the office of Poor 
Law Guardian and Justice of the Peace. 
The protests are on the grounds that to 
accept the office will commit the organi- 
zation to partisan politics and take up 
the time of the Secretary which should 
be given to the society. The Executive 
Council in their reply raises these points ; 

‘‘Oar G. S., desirous of seeing our 
Bociety abreast of other important or- 
ganizations, allowed himielf to be elected 
as a guardian on one of the largest Poor 
Law Unions in this country about to ex- 
pend thousands of pounds in building 
operations, in the arrangement of which 
he will now have a voice in regard to the 
contractors conforming to trade union 
conditions of labor. We are thoroughly 
agreed that to introduce party politics of 
any description into the aflairB of our 
society is a proceeding calculated to re- 
tard our progress as a trade union, and 
should therefore be discountenanced. 

We contend that the political views of 
our G. S. have no more to do with us 
than his religion, and therefore in com- 
mon fairness let us concede to him equal 
rights to those claimed for ourselves, as 
we are confident that whatever difference 
of opinion may exist as to the political 
sagacity of our G. S., his life-long career 
as a trade-unionist should he sufficient 
assurance to us that his efforts and sym- 
pathies will be on the side of labor and 
in the interest of his class. The ques- 
tion of time is raised in two of the reso- 
lutions, hut has it occurred to the 
supporters of same that our G. S. is not 
a clerk , whose hours can be regulated to 
a nicety, but an official of our society 
with the full responsibility of his posi- 
tion set forth in our rules, and that the 
only guarantee we have that he devotes 
hia time to our work is that notwith- 
standing our branches and membership 
have increased during his term of office, 
together with the introduction of new 
features involving increased work, never 
within six years, has he been absent 
from his post (holiday time or other- 
wise), nor has there been during that 
period one solitary complaint to reach 



us from any branch that he has neglected 
a single duty ; and the reasonable infer- 
ence is, that he has not spared his time 
when work was required to be done, nor 
strictly confined his working hours to 
even that of joiners in the Manchester 
district. We thiük, therefore, that hav- 
ing furnished such evidence of devotion 
to duty on behalf of our society in the 
past there need be no apprehension for 
the future, but rather ought we to rejoice 
that our efforts to secure the representa- 
tion of our class upon these public bodies 
have been so satisfactorily attained by 
one of our members, involving neither 
loss of wages nor employment, which we 
all know is one of the greatest hin- 
drances to a more general application of 
the principle we advocate, berause it too 
often relegates to private life working 
men aide and willing to serve us in these 
public capacities, hut who find the sacri- 
fice too great for them to bear.** 



Montreal Labor Organizations. 



Montreal iß very well organized in all 
branches of labor except among the 
carpenters. The latter trade, however, 
last May had a District Council and five 
unions— one English and four French — 
and a membership of 2,200 men, where 
in January previous there were only 350 
organized carpenters. 

The carpenters had organized very 
rapidly to inaugurate the nine-hour day, 
and entered into a precipitate strike May 
1, through the impetuousness of a few 
local leaders. The strike was in a fair way 
of success. But the great coal miners* 
strike that month, closed up the Grand 
Trunk railroad shops for want of coal. 
This threw hundreds of carpenters idle 
who went to work in place of the 
strikers. That finally resulted in the 
defeat of the men. 

The Building Trades* Council is a live 
body and is composed of 14 unions. The 
Local Trades and Labor Council has 33 
trades unions and K. of L. Assemblies 
represented therein. There are in all 41 
trade unions in Montreal. The K. of L. 
has 15 Assemblies divided in 2 District 
Assemblies, D. A. 18, French and D. A. 
19, English. 

Montreal has a Mechanics* Lien law, 
which in the past few years has been so 
amended as to give the workman a 
priority of lien. The Trades and Labor 
Congress of Canada is a powerful factor 
in influencing labor legislation and meets 
annually in September— usually at the 
Dominion capital in Ottawa. 




Geo. Drolingerfrom Union 779, MarioD, 
0., for misappropriating funds. 

Ed. Drolet from Union 21, Chicago, 
for working piece work and obtaining 
money fraudulently. 




William J. Shields. 



William J. Shields was General Presi- 
dent from 1886 to 1888. He was born at 
Milford, Mass., July 16, 1854. His first 
connection with any society dates back 
to May, 1882, when he became a charter 
member of Union 33, of Boston, Mass. 
He was the first corresponding secretary 
of that Local. After serving two terms 
he was elected president. In this posi- 
tion he served the Local three years. In 
the year 1885 he was again elected presi- 
dent, and held this position until after 
the memorable eight-hour strike of 1886. 
In this strike, also in the eight-hour 
strike of 1890, he was chairman of the 
strike commit tee. He was the first presi- 
dent of the Massachusetts District Coun- 
cil of Carpenters, and served two years 
in that position, and represented Union 
83 in that Council since its formation. 
He was treasurer of the Central Labor 
Union for over three years, and a dele- 
gate for about seven years. He has 
represented Union 33 at the conventions 
of the United Brotherhood in Cincinnati 
in 1886, at which place he was chosen 
second vice-president ; at Buffalo, in 
1886, and at this convention he was ele- 
vated to the presidency of the Brother- 
hood. 

He attended the Detroit convention in 
that capacity, and attended the Chicago 
convention as delegate and served on the 
committee on constitution, and has repre- 
sented the United Brotherhood aB dele- 
gate at various conventions of the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor and served on 
the conference committee with the 
United Order of Carpenters to secure 
consolidation in 1888. He has also been 
one of the board of vice-presidents of the 
United Brotherhood, and has held vari- 
ous other positions in the labor move- 
ment. 

As one of the delegates of the Massa- 
chusetts Carpenters* Council, he attended 
the Indianapolis convention last Sep- 
tember and there acted as chairman of 
the committee on constitution, and was 
subsequently elected a member of the 
General Executive Board, of which he is 
now chairman. Last October he was 
chosen business agent of Union 33, Bos- 
ton, Maes. 

W. J. Shields has been a zealous, ener- 
getic worker and organizer for years, 
and is very justly popular. 



An Act 

To regulate the hours of labor for me- 
chanics, workingmen and laborers 
in the employ of the State or Munici- 
pal corporations therein, or other- 
wise engaged in public works. 



Section 1 . On and after the passage 
of this Act, eight hours out of the twenty- 
four of each day shall make and consti- 
tute a legal day*s work for mechanics, 
workmen and laborers, while in the em- 
ploy of the State, or any Municipal Cor- 
poration therein, or otherwise engaged 
on Public Works. 

Sec. 2. This Act shall apply to all 
mechanics, workingmen and laborers, 
now, or hereafter employed by the State 
or said Corporation therein, through its 
agents or officers, or in the employ of 
persona contracting with the State, or 
said Corporation for the performance of 
Public Work, and all mechanics, work- 
ingmen and laborers so employed, shall 
receive not less than the prevailing rate 
of wages in the respective trades or call- 
ings, in which such mechanics, working- 
men and laborers are employed in said 
locality, and in all such employment, 
none but citizens of the United States 
shall be employed by the State or any 
Municipal Corporation therein, or by 
any person or persons contracting with 
the same, and every contract hereafter 
made for the performance of Public 
Work, must comply with the require- 
ments of this section. 

Sec. 3. Any officer or officers or 
agents of the State or of any Municipal 
Corporation therein, who shall openly 
violate or otherwise evade the provisions 
of this Act, shall be deemed guilty of 
malefeasance in office, and liable to sus- 
pension or removal accordingly, by the 
Governor or head of the department to 
which said office is attached. 

Sec. 4. Any person or persons con- 
tracting with the State or any Municipal 
Corporation therein, who shall fail to 
comply with or attempt to evade the 
provisions of this Act, shall on conviction 
thereof, „be deemed guilty of a misde- 
meanor and be punished by a fine of not 
less than two hundred nor exceeding 
one thousand dollars, and in addition 
thereto, shall forfeit such contract, at 
the option of the State or said Municipal 
Corporation therein. 

Sec. 5. All Acts or parts of Acts 
inconsistent herewith, be, and the Barne 
are hereby repealed. 

Approved by 



[seal.] 

The above form was approved by Car- 
penters’ District Council of Pittsburgh, 
on March 19, 1895, and is respectfully 
submitted to the various Trade Organi- 
zations of the State for endorsement, and 
to be presented to the Legislature of 
Pennsylvania for enactment. 







THE CARPENTER. 



-J 

I 



Craft problems. 



(7 hit Department it for crihcitm and 
corretpomicnae from our readert on mechani- 
cal tubjedi in Carfx-iytry, and idea * at to 
craft organitalion. 

Write on one tide of the paper only. All 
arkcJet thould be tiyned- 

Matter for thi* Dcfxirtmcnt mutt be in thit 
office by the t5th of the month.) 

Framing a Tower Roo r . 

Chicago, February 25, 1895. 

To THE K.OITOH OK THE CaRI'ENTER, 

Dear Sir: — 

Could I have the assistance of some 
of the brothers in framing this tower? 
There may be several ways to do the 
work, therefore 1 would ask some of our 
brothers to submit their methods to be 
published in Thk Carpentbr, so that we 
may all be benefited thereby. 




The base of tower is 4x4 ft., the frame 
of roof is made up of 4 posts 8x6 placed 
1 on each corner, as shown on plan, in- 
clined so that they meet at top as 4 ordi- 
nary hips, it will be notioed that if they 
were placed like ordinary hips, ss in Fig. 
2, there would be so much backing to come 
off that the post would be weakened con- 
siderably, hence we place them as in 
Fig. 1. 






in making the cute. How to set the 
bevel and how to place it on the^tick, h 
the answer 1 would be glad to receive. 
Yours fraternally, 

J. D. Mi K. 

Engltwood , Chicago # III. 

♦ • - 

How to Find The Radius of a Desired 
Segment of Circle. 

Ai ni’BN, N Y , January 28, 1895. 
Editoh ok Tiib Carpenter, 

Dear Sir 

In the December number of your 
valuable paper ia given a method of find- 
ing the radiua of a desired segment of a 
circle, of which the height and length of 
chord are given. I will give a method 
which I much prefer. 

j) 







To the square of one-half the chord, 
add the square of the height, and divide 
by twice the height. 

Thus: — A, B being the chord end C, 
D the height; the square of half the 
chord is 10 ; add to this tbs square of the 
height (9) and we have 25. Divide by 
twice the height (6), and we have 4 ft. 
8 in., which ia the radius of the desired 
segment. Yours respectfully, 

Union 4M. R. White. 

Why Not Answer queries In This 
Department f 

Chicago, III., March 19, 1895. 
Dear 8ir : — 

I believe that the articles on “ Craft 
Problems” most be very Interesting to 
the readers — at least they ere so to me. 

In the September issue last year, there 
appeared an article and a diagram on 
‘‘Roof Framing,” from.” Philo,” N. Y. 
After explaining bis method of doing the 
work he asked the brothers who had 
published diagrams (or I presume any 
others,) what they thought of his method. 

So far I have not seen any reply to bis 
request. Now I am sorry that this should 
be the case. I do not know who “ Philo” 
is. It may be he ia an expert or be may 
be a seeker after knowledge. If one of 
the latter class, he most have felt die- 
coo raged to find that his communication 
was treated with iodiflerence by the 
brothers. 

Ah IirrsasBTBo Reader. 

A Criticism of Mr. Maglnal»’ February 
Problem. 






/ Editor or The Car center 

— “7[ V- — All Union men, (and for that matter 

/ ] \ every craftsman whether anion or non- 

: 1 — -^1 anion,) oaght to be deeply interested in 

/ all matter published in the columns of 

/ Thr Carprhtrr, (and I believe all are,) 

especially that which pertains to dranght- 
2 / . log and laying out the work of roof ©on- 

Y strnctlon, as efficiency in that Una should 
y b# one of the requirements of every onion 

/ man admitted to fall membership. 

j I have been reading with a great deal 

NdO of interest the articles of Bro. Maginnis 

V on roof framing, and admire bis easy 

Mow what I would like to know, ia the simple manner of putting such problems 
beat way to lay out those posts so that and don’t wiah to bo considered a critic ; 
I hoy will At at top and on pinto, whoa but so hot* offering hlmaelfea a standard 
oat. It will ha noticed that placed as authority on auch work, ho should bo 
tuoy an, It trill bo neneaaary to have a Tory careful of diagram and explicit In 
Uae drawn screen two toes to bo tallowed detail, for by class serattay of diagrams 



of complicated roof Darning given in 
February issue, 1895, we may find some 
little error that is very trivial within 
itself, yet insy mislead some one. 

In comparing bay window in diagrams 
l and 2 of plan and projection, we find 
that base line and ridge line are of un- 
equal length, which would he altogether 
proper if the window was a true octagon, 
but as the plan, Fig. I, shows a twelic 
angled polygon instead of an eight angle, 
the point of centering is shifted so tiiat 
the hips as shown are of unequal length, 
and I believe it would be proper to state 
that the point of centering the hips ol a 
bay window of any angle, may be found 
by placing one point of dividers on the 
ridge line so that the other point will 
pass through the points K, F> O, H, in 
describing the circle of which the win- 
dow is a fractional part. 

1 also believe it woold be a very excel- 
lent practice, both in making diagrams 
of and referring to certain bevela, to 
designate what numbers to be need on 
both tongne and blade of square to lay 
off such bevel, as a great many readers 
would, in reading the articles and study- 
ing the diagrams, memorise them and 
thus be able to uae them often when cir- 
cumstances necessitated without the de- 
lay of draughting, and who never take 
the trouble to ascertain such things until 
it is compulsory, and still they may b« 
great readers. 

In laying out the roof under consider- 
ation (complicated roof), many foremen 
who boast of tbsir ability as framers, 
never use but two seta of figures, twelve 
and twelve and twelve and seventeen, 
asserting that the lay of the square twelve 
and seventeen, will cat not only the heel 
of a hip or valley rafter, and the bevel 
of jack rafters, hot the top bevel of hips 
and valleys se well. 

I trust that Bro. Maginnis will not take 
exceptions to the friendly criticism, re- 
membering that in teaching the public 
we must not only make oar lessons plain 
enough to be understood by those who 
are apt and diligent in research, bst 
bring them within the conception of the 
novice as well. 

it<iikri4n, Ind. Q. N. W. 

A Word of Praise for tke 17. II. 

Muhcir, Ind. 

How can any one be otherwise than 
pleaaed with the U. B., which fulfills 
all promises and requites every obliga- 
tion. If such magnificent benefits, trade 
benefits, during life and disability or 
death benefits, when activity or life is 
gone, could be understood by all car- 
pentere as ws see them, there would be 
no non-union carpenter, and no union 
carpenter would allow bis doss to become 
delinquent. 

The U. B. is so far superior to most 
benevolent associations, wherein the 
doss required are ss high end even 
higher that csrpsntsiii should prefer it 
above any other and stick to tbsir anion 
and anion principles to the last. 

Fraternally, J. D. Ci are. 

Out-of Work Benefit«. 

Ina report of the German- American 
Typography we find that In the latter 
half of 1898 that eociety paid out $8,981 
for out-of-work benefits on a member- 
ship ot 1,841. At that rats the benefit 
would cost over $18 per year or over $1 
per month. This was due to tbs vast 
number of compositors thrown idle by 
typesetting machines. 

What is understood to be the heaviest 
and the largest log of wood that has ever 
been shipped by sea was landed recently 
at Liverpool, England- It was brought 
from tbs West Coast of Africa, and 
weighed no leas than 15 tons. 



Hanging Outside Blind«. 

Dayton, Ky., February 28, 1895. 

1*. .1. Mctil'IRB, 

Dear Kir ; — 

1 herewith give an idea for the hang- 
ing ot outside blinds. It is a very speedy 
way ami one that I have never seen used 
by any one but myself, although other« 
rosy have used it. 






A. — Cut off for tlrirtniT on Him from* 

B. Bio« k Borrwnl on for »t<>|* to hook over 
top of blind 

0 .~Hb$r|ifnrd brkda for marking giini 

In the first place I fit all the blinds 
throughout the entire house. I then 
select a rod of proper length for a mark- 
ing stick, on the top of tills I screw a 
small block to book over the blind (sim- 
ilar to tiie enclosed sketch). Then drive 
small brads and sharpen them to mark 
the hinge gsins, by leylng this on the 
blind and striking with tbs band, the 
marks will be plainly seen, mark all the 
blinds in this manner. 

The neit move is to saw the rod oil at 
the block after allowing for the necessary 
clearance, proceed through the boose 
and by standing on the Moor, mark all 
the hanging stiles by striking the rod 
lightly with s hammer or piece of wood, 
now ws have no farther use for the rod 
and proceed to bedding the hinges on the 
blinds, After which we do the same with 
the hanging stiles, thus making a sepa- 
rate business of each part and doing 
away with the knife In marking, 

I would likeforsome ot the members 
to try the scheme and report or find a 
better one 

Ihtyton, Ky Chas. Roth 

— ' - 

The Value of Nall«. 

Ths cost of wire nails ia so little that 
it does not pay a carpenter to pick one 
np when dropped. Assuming that it 
takes a carpenter 10 seconds to pick op a 
nail which be has dropped, and that bis 
time is worth 30 cents an hour, the re- 
covery of the nail woold cost 0.083 cent. 
There are 200 six penny nails in s pound, 
which ia worth at 90 cents bass and 05 
cent arsrags per keg 1.96 cents per 
pound. This wonld make the money 
value of the individual nail 0.0077 cent. 
Or in other words it would not pay to 
pick op ten nails, if it took ten seconds 
of time worth 80 cents an hour In which 
to do it. Not more than four-fifths of 
ths nails mads are used, the other one- 
fifth being lost, allowed to rust end dls- 
appeas. 





Süd 




THE CARPENTER. 



3 






How to Frame a Conical Roof Intersected 
by a Pitched Roof. 



BY OWEN B. MAGINNI8. 



S this is a roof which 
occurs in many 
cases, especially in 
railroad work it will 
be found both inter- 
esting and useful by 
practical carpen- 
ters. 

Let A E F B V be 
the plan or wall 
plate of the conical dome, and A D B, 
the diameter, also D C, the rise or pitch. 
Join A C, to obtain the lengths of the 
common rafters which will radiate from 
£he centre C, round the circular plate 
A E F BY, with the top and bottom 
bevels as represented at C and A. 






On account of the pitched roof C H F, 
the gable end of which is G I H, with 
pitch J I, equal in height to D C ; inter- 
secting or cutting into the conical dome : 
there will be a valley rafter. The seat 
of this valley will be D F, because J I, 
being equal to C D, the ridge J E, will 
be the same height as the conical apex 
or peak D. 

To obtain the length of the valley 
rafter, square up from D, and with D, as 
centre and D C, as radius, cut off the 
length D K, equal to D C. Join F K. 
F K, will be the length of valley, and as 
IJB, is equal to D F, and the pitches D C, 
an\jfD K, are equal, therefore the valley 
will be the same length as common 
rafter. 



To find the lengths of jack rafters, pro- 
ceed to Fig. 2, and lay out the ridge and 
valley rafter as before. With F as centre, 
and F K, as radius, describe the curve 
K Z, cutting the ridge at Z. Join F Z. The 
lengths of the jacks will be as shown on 
the left Bide of the ridge. 

The final process is to determine the 
shape of the covering or roof boards 
which are laid horizontally. To do this 
take C, Fig. 1, as center, and with equal 
spaces up the common rafter as P Q R S, 
strike the parallel curves P T, Q U, R V, 
and S W. The exact length of the 
boards is found by dividing F B into five 
equal parts and setting them off on B X. 
Join (J X, to determine the length of all 
to the apex. A very successful card- 
board model can be made of this roof. 



The Uses of Tanite. 



While the grindstone still remains, and 
possibly always will remain a popular 
and useful tool in the manufacture ofiron 
and steel goods, the mechanical public 
were quick to see the value of an artificial 
wheel whose emery grains were harder 
and sharper than those of natural and 
sometimes rounded sand. Hence the 
solid emery wheel soon made its way into 
public favor. It seems strange that a 
similar material and process was not at 
the same time successfully applied to the 
production of honestones, oilstones and 
whetstones. Plarly attempts were made 
to introduce Buch articles, but, for vari- 
ous reasons, failed. The peculiar pro- 
perties of Tanite, which fit it for a base 
in emery wheel manufacture, have been 
applied by The Tanite Co., of Strouds- 
burg, Pa., U. S. A. to the production of 
Solid Emery Whetstones. The result 
has been a great practical success, 
though the prejudice of the trade and the 
novelty of the article have conspired to 
make the demand irregular and scatter- 
ing. That this state of the trade is not 
due to the quality of the artificial whet- 
stone is evidenced by the fact that in 
quarters where it has once been intro- 
duced the demand is regular. 

The Tanite Whetstone is adapted to 
the mill pick, the carpenter’s and stone 
cutter’s chisel, the bit of the moulding 
mill and the axe of the woodman. 



Valuable Woods. 



Many of the finest woods in existence 
are yet unknown, or only Blightly 
known, to the manufacturers of wood in 
the civilized world. The woods of Cen- 
tral and South America are, perhaps, the 
most remarkable as well as the least 
knowm. In the yet untouched forest of 
this continent are many woods far finer 
than any of those now in use. These 
woods range from pure white to jet black 
in color, and many of them are most 
beautifully marked and veined. Some 
of them are bo hard that they turn the 
edges of axes, chisels and other tools, 
while the band saw cuts them only slow- 
ly. In the Columbian Exposition there 
were many displays of little known 
woods, and the finest of them were those 
from the Argentine Republic, Brazil and 
other South American countries. Some 
oftheBe southern woods yielded to the 
teeth of the band saw, not the ordinary 
sawdust, but fine powder; fine as the 
finest flour, so hard were the woods. 
Some of them burnt but slowly. OtherB 
possess qualities that keep them free 
from insects. Some of them seem to be 
practically indestructible by air and 
water. All along the eastern slopes of 
the Andes, up to the snow line on those 
great elevations, throughout all the great 
river valleys, and in some of the wide 
areas of level country, in South America, 
are great forests of fine woods that are 
especially fit for the finest cabinet and 
furniture work, and also for shipbuilding, 
carpentry and other industrial arts in 
which wood is the “raw material.” 
These great forests are now an unknown 
quantity in the commercial world, but 
they will come rapidly into the knowl- 
edge of men and into industrial use 
when once the railroad has reached 
them. Before many years, it is safe to 
predict, the South American and Central 
American republics will be threaded by 
railroads, and then those wonderful 
woods will be drawn upon to supply the 
demand for new and fine woods in all the 
civilized countries . — r lhe Lumber World . 



The mistake of the best men through 
generation after generation has been the 
great one of thinking to help the poor by 
almsgiving, and by preaching of patience, 
or of hope, and by every other means, 
emollient or consolatory except the one 
through which God orders for them — 
justice . —John Buskin. 




FOR TAX, 8 PECIAL ASSESSMENTS, ETC., 
During the month ending February 28, 1895. 
Whoncrw any error* appear notify the G. 8 -T. without delay. 


Local 

Union. 


* i 
a 
a 
o 

4 




Local 

Union. 


Amount. 




Local 

Union. 


Amount. 




Local 

Union. 


Amoant. 




1— $423 


1 

50 


14« $1 


25 


306- 


-$16 


86 


501— 


— $4 


40 


2 36 


60 


147— 


-23 


20 


308— 


— 5 


20 


507— 


- 5 


00 


3— 


- 7 


60 


149 4 


40 


309 40 


40 


510— 


- 2 


80 


4— 


-140 


00 


151— 


-29 


20 


314— 


- 4 


20 


511— 


— 6 


20 


5 24 


40 


163— 


- 3 


00 


316— 


- 4 


20 


613— 


-32 


60 


ft— 


- 1 


80 


154- 


- 9 


60 


319 4 


60 


515- 


-20 


40 


7— 


- 2 


40 


155— 


-35 


25 


322- 


- 4 


40 


518— 


-18 


00 


8 18 


80 


167 — 


- 1 


60 


323 2 


20 


519— 


- 2 


60 


9 — 


-26 


00 


158— 


- 5 


65 


324— 


— 3 


80 


521— 


-12 


€0 


ll — 


-26 


00 


160 14 


10 


325— 


— 8 


20 


622— 


- 3 


60 


12 38 


50 


162— 


— 6 


00 


326 12 


20 


526— 


-106 


00 


14— 


o 


90 


164— 


- 3 


00 


327- 


-15 


10 


534— 


- 4 


ro 


16— 


-16 


20 


165 19 


60 


328- 


-19 


00 


619 10 


60 


1 ft — 


-61 


50 


166- 


- 6 


60 


3^2 — 


-39 


20 


560— 


- 2 


00 


18- 


-14 


70 


167— 


—18 


20 


334 — 


~ 6 


70 


651- 


— 2 


80 


20 15 


95 


168- 


-12 


30 


336 — 


- 4 


20 


653 1 


60 


21 — 


-26 


90 


169 17 


20 


336— 


— 9 


20 


664 — 


— 6 


25 


72 — 


-45 


40 


170— 


- 2 


20 


339- 


- 5 


40 


556— 


— 7 


00 


23 41 


40 


171— 


-12 


10 


340 2 


00 


557— 


— 4 


00 


24 — 


- 8 


00 


173 7 


50 


342- 


-12 


40 


560 5 


60 


26— 


-22 


10 


175- 


-24 


80 


343 7 


80 


563— 


-182 


25 


26- 


- 6 


20 


176— 


-30 


10 


344- 


- 9 


00 


604— 


— 6 


60 


27-. 


- 7 


40 


177— 


— 6 


60 


345— 


- 4 


20 


567— 


-14 


OO 


28- 


-U4 


40, 


179 36 


00 


346— 


- 6 


40 


668 — 


— 3 


40 


29 68 


00 


181- 


-250 


50 


348— 


-10 


00 


672— 


— 9 


00 


31— 


— 2 


1 " 


I Se- 


—16 


00 


349 5 


00 


574- 


— 2 


40 


33 77 


40 


n- 


— 2 


60 


352 3 


20 


675— 


— 4 


80 


35- 


- 6 


20 


ior— 


-20 


60 


355- 


-29 


40 


578— 


— 8 


55 


37— 


- 8 


00 


101 — 


-14 


60 


366 — ■ 


- 2 


00 


581— 


— 7 


00 


38-. 


- 5 


00 


192— 


—14 


80 


359— 


-12 


60 


686 — 


— 5 


20 


39 9 


95 


193- 


- 7 


60 


360 — 


- 5 


60 


591— 


- 4 


00 


40— 


- 6 


40 


194— 


— 2 


60 


367 — 




50 


593— 


— 6 


40 


42— 


- 9 


80 


195- 


— 8 


40 


368 2 


00 


596 — 


— 3 


20 


43— 


-80 


75 


198- 


- 11 


70 


3^9— 


- 6 


ro 


602— 


— 1 


40 


44— 


-13 


16 


199— 


— 9 


20 


370 15 


60 


603— 


- 9 


30 


45— 


- 1 


40 


201 — 


— 6 


50 


371— 


- 2 


80 


604— • 


-12 


96 


46 3 


80 


203- 


-63 


25 


374- • 


- 44 


80 


605 10 


60 


48— 


- 2 


60 


204— 


- 6 


10 


375 


-305 


90 


606— 


- 4 


20 


49 10 


00 


207— 


—14 


80 


376 7 


80 


617— 


— 3 


60 


50 4 


20 


208- 


-18 


60 


377- 


— 1 


80 


619- 


—16 


40 


51— 


-91 


80 


209 19 


20 


378 5 


60 


628 8 


80 


54- 


-36 


60 


211 - 


-23 


00 


380— 


— 5 


20 


629— 


- 3 


70 


56— 


- 8 


40 


215 13 


00 


381- 


-22 


20 


631- 


- 1 


60 


69- 


- 3 


00 


218- 


- 5 


20 


382— 


-56 


ro 


636 2 


90 


61- 


-59 


no 


221 — 


—25 


00 


986— 


-23 


00 


637— 


— 9 


60 


62 85 


00 


224- 


- 16 


40 


388 i 


80 


638— 


-13 


60 


63—23 


40 


225 6 


80 


390- 


-10 


25 


6°9 — 


-16 


25 


64— 


-26 


20 


226- 


- 3 


80 


391- 


- 7 


60 


640— 


-10 


30 


68 — 


— 3 


20 


227- 


— 8 


40 


393 3 


80 


641— 


— 1 


80 


70 — 


— 7 


60 


229— 


— 4 


60 


394- 


- 7 


00 


645— 


— 9 


10 


72— 


-75 


ro 


230- 


- 6 


60 


400- 


- 12 


50 


647— 


-11 


20 


73 50 


00 


231— 


— 2 


80 


402— 


— 2 


00 


649— 


— 5 


16 


74- 


- 6 


00 


232- 


— 2 


00 


403- 


- 1 


40 


661- 


- 3 


20 


76— 


- 4 


70 


233— 


— 1 


80 


407- 


-131 


40 


658 12 


90 


78- 


— 6 


on 


234- 


-10 


20 


409 3 


45 


659— 


-10 


80 


80— 


— 5 


20 


235 4 


80 


416 33 


80 


661— 


— 2 


30 


82- 


- 6 


60 


236- 


— 2 


60 


419— 


— 8 


20 


667- 


-10 


80 


83— 


—19 


00 


237— 


—16 


00 


421- 


— 6 


00 


676— 


—21 


00 


84- 


-10 


00 


238— 


—10 


40 


426 9 


30 


678- 


-12 


76 


87- 


- 13 


80 


239— 


—14 


20 


427— 


— 9 


20 


681- 


-12 


60 


8 P— 


—46 


70 


246— 


—14 


60 


428- 


-14 


50 


685 7 


40 


89- 


-20 


70 


•>42- 


— 10 


00 


429- 


- 8 


75 


687— 


— 6 


96 


90— 


—47 


30 


243- 


-21 


•0 


431- 


- 9 


25 


689- 


- 4 


60 


92- 


— 7 


60 


244- 


— 5 


60 


432— 


— 3 


40 


692— 


— 9 


20 


93 4 


00 


246— 


— 6 


20 


434— 


— 4 


60 


696- 


— 6 


00 


94- 


-16 


75 


247- 


- 76 


25 


487— 


- 2 


20 


699 6 


00 


97- 


- 3 


30 


249 6 


50 


438- 


— 6 


00 


701- 


— 2 


40 


99 3 


00 


250- 


— 4 


70 


440— 


- 10 


20 


703— 


— 7 


20 


101 - 


- 28 


no 


251 — 


— 7 


20 


442— 


- 5 


40 


704- 


- 8 


20 


102 — 


—23 


00 


253- 


- 22 


on 


445— 


- 3 


90 


707— 


— 6 


40 


108- 


— 2 


4" 


254— 


— 6 


20 


44«- 


-10 


80 


714— 


-10 


40 


104— 


—16 


40 


256— 


—19 


00 


449 9 


40 


715 25 


00 


107- 


- 3 


45 


257- 


-35 


20 


450- 


— 2 


80 


716— 


-19 


50 


109- 


- 67 


60 


258— 


- 39 


60 


451- 


—18 


40 


717— 


— 8 


30 


m— 


—14 


90 


260— 


- 9 


20 


453- 


—20 


00 


723 3 


40 


112 - 


-28 


00 


261- 


— 1 


40 


456 2 


00 


726 


40 


113— 


— 8 


60 


•>62- 


— 3 


60 


460- 


— 8 


00 


720- 


-10 


80 


114- 


- 12 


no 


265- 


- 1 


80 


461 — 


— 9 


25 


728 4 


50 


115 7 


40 


2*6 3 


15 


464- 


-SO 


35 


729 1 


80 


118- 


-14 


8 ° 


267- 


— 2 


80 


<«« 18 


00 


731- 


— 8 


95 


1 19- 


— 18 


no 


•>68 11 


20 


469 14 


60 


734— 


— 1 


80 


121 — 


—29 


00 


269- 


-38 


60 


470- 


— 4 


40 


736- 


- 3 


95 


122 - 


— 15 


no 


•>73- 


- 26 


00 


471 — 


—45 


20 


738— 


— 4 


00 


124— 


— 12 


09 


274— 


—56 


00 


473- 


-25 


90 


739— 


— 5 


80 


125 38 


PO 


975— 


-11 


50 


47P— 


— 8 


26 


740— 


— 1 


40 


126- 


— 3 


60 


276 1 


40 


470— 


- 5 


20 


750— 


—10 


80 


ISO— 


- 7 


30 


277- 


— 7 


95 


482- 


-10 


60 


752— 


-10 


80 


131- 


—11 


60 


281 — 


-17 


00 


483— 


-21 


20 


756— 


— 4 


60 


134— 


— 5 


90 


284— 


— 8 


P0 


484- 


- 8 


00 


758- 


— 3 


6 ft 


135— 


— 4 


on 


•>86 17 


00 


486— 


- 27 


00 


760 1 


80 


136— 


- 6 


60 


988- 


— 9 


40 


487- 


- 7 


40 


766 3 


80 


187— 


— 6 


on 


900 22 


50 


4QO— 


—20 


30 


779- 


— 8 


40 


138 — 


— 7 


70 


994— 


— 8 


on 


40R_ 


-14 


60 


783— 


— 4 


00 


142— 


-18 


on 


'’OP— 


— 5 


60 


40*— 


— 8 


60 


785- 


— 5 


50 


143— 


— 4 


00 


301- 


-23 


70 


497- 


-29 


PO 


786 6 


60 


144- 


-20 


50 


904— 


- 6 


40 


400 — 


— 7 


10 


799 10 


50 


145- 


— 1 


60 


306— 


— 4 


00 


600— 


- 2 


6 ft 


805 2 


20 


Total received. 














06 


Deducting 


Special 


Assessments 


in- 






eluded above, . . 














70 


Tota] 


l for 


Tax and Supplies . 










95 


Plenty of Wealth for All. 

Eminent economists have estimated 
that the capacity of mechanical and other 
scientific instrumentalities even now ex- 
isting is sufficient, if thoroughly utilized, 
to supply all mankind not only with the 
necessities of life, but also with reason- 
able luxuries. It may well be asked : Why, 
then, is this not done when all the facil- 
ities exist for doing it ? The answer iß : 
Because the instruments of production 
are chiefly monopolized by those whose 
primary aim is not the service of man- 
kind, but their ow T n selfish advantage, 
and who operate them only so long as 
they find it profitable to themselves to do 
so. — Labor. 



4 



THE CARPENTER 



THE CARPENTER 



PHILADELPHIA, APRIL, 1895. 




Directory of Carpenters’ Easiness 
Agents or Walking Delegates 



Boston, Mas«.— W. J. Shields, 724 Washington 
Street, (Room 3.) 

Brooklyn, N. Y.— R. Beatty, P. O. Box 18, 
Station W, or 353 Fulton Street.-J. J. 
Manning, 408 Bergen Street. 

Buffalo, N. Y.-Wm. Robertson, 888 Michigan 
Street. 

Chicago, III— A. Oattermull,49 La Salle Street. 

Cleveland, O.— Vincent Hlavlln, residence, 124 
Carran Street ; office, room 11, 158 Superior 
Street. 

College Point, N. Y.- John Heimrich, College 
Point, Long Island, N. Y. 

Hartford, Conn.— F. O. Walz, 32 Ashley Street 

Hopkinsvillh, Ky.— J ames Western. 

Indianapolis, Ind.— J. W. Pruitt. 

Milwaukee, Wib.— J. Bettendorf. 

New York.— Benj. B. Hart, 931 Columbus Ave., 
and Frank Schultz, 442 E. Ninth Street. 

Norwood, Mass,— J ames Hadden, P. O. Box 424 

Sharon, Pa.— B. F. Budd. 

St. Louis, Mo. — V. S. Lamb, 4218 Larpy Avenue. 

Springfield, O.— F. M. Poole 



A Fearless Clergyman. 



The Rev. Myron Reed, of Denver, is a 
man of stalwart principles and stern con- 
victions, and is out-and-out in line with 
Organized Labor. For the expression of 
his honest sentiments he has lost more 
than one pulpit, still he never winces or 
murmurs. In Indianapolis he had charge 
of a leading church and commanded a 
high salary, but was ousted for proclaim- 
ing himself on the side of the oppressed 
workers. Again, last year, in Denver he 
went through the same ordeal ; but it is 
now being arranged that he is to preach 
Sunday evenings in the leading theatre 
of that city. Men of the metal and stamp 
ot Myron Reed can not be crushed or 
brow-beaten into silence. 

At the Convention of the American 
Federation ot Labor, last December, in 
Denver, his address was a masterpiece, 
and this part of it, in particular, will be 
a treat to our readers : 

“ The question of poverty was a novel 
one until I was seventeen. I never heard 
of a tramp or a millionaire until I was 
nineteen years old. Horace Greeley 
would not say to-day : * Go West, young 
man.* The fact is there is no West ; our 
friends of to-day muBt either go up or go 
down. Thomas Carlyle says the saddest 
sight iB to see a man who wants work and 
can’t get it. The genuine tramp is a rare 
bird, he has been developed by this 
country. It only takes nine days for a 
man to starve to death, and he can’t 
learn a new trade in that time. Such 
transitions make men tramps. I want 
to see a nation here upon which George 
Washington, asleep by the Potomac, can 
gaze and say: ‘I am satisfied.’ No 
man who has suffered for the nation can 
yet say he is satisfied- If George Wash- 
ington is permitted to gaze upon the 
men, women and children who are suf- 
fering for food, clothing and shelter in 
the United States, he must think that he 
is once more at the head of a ragged, 
half starved and half-fed army at Valley 
Forge, while an army of plutocrats, more 
cruel than the British army, is after him. 
These plutocratic robbers are satisfied. 
When the Union was at stake, they rob- 
bed the Government and the soldiers; 
when the Union was saved, they began 
robbing workingmen, and are still doing 
business at the old stand.” 



Facts and Figures about Bonus Build- 
ing in 1894. 

« ' is stated on the authority 
of the Real Estate Record 
J and Buildert’ Guide , for 
r November, 1894, that the 
number of 2-atory houses 
that were built in Phila- 
delphia for the 1st ten 
^ months of 1894, was 3,452, 
or about 345 per month, at 
a cost of $6,904,000, and the number of 
3-story houses 1,849, or about 185 per 
month, or a total coBt of $13,940,000 for 
both 2 and 3 stories, exclusive of the 
value of the land. Assuming this then 
to be the cost of building them only, 
the value of each 2 story house is about 
$2,000, and the 3-stories, $3,800, taking the 
two together the average cost about $2,900 
each, and the total number built, 5,301 in 
ten months. My object on the present 
occasion is to show approximately what 
I consider to be the value of the carpen- 
ters’ work (labor only) under the ex- 
isting system of piece work, and the 
execution of the same work on the basis 
of the standard w’age with the same 
amount of labor. 

I think it may be regarded as a con- 
servative estimate when I say it would 
take two men 4 weeks to do all the labor 
in one of these houses from Btart to finish, 
this on a standard wage of $16.50 per 
week would be $132.00 per house. 

Now if we take the same house with 
the same men, at the price now offered 
and eagerly accepted, the labor can be 
and is done for about $72.00 or even less. 
This makes a difference of $60 00, or say 
$30.00 each man in 4 weeks. There are 
5,301 houses of both kinds, and the loss 
on the whole number would be $318,060, 
or in other words the men would place 
at the disposal of the bonus builders this 
enormous sum, because ot their folly in 
doing this on a piece work basis when 
it ought to be theirs by right on a stand- 
ard wage. This is a startling statement 
to produce but is true both in calculation 
and results. It is not the province of 
the writer to enquire who gets this 
money, the answer is too obvious. The 
men who earned it don’t get it, and I 
feel justified in saying that whoever 
does, gets it only by the medium of a 
system based on chicanery and fraud. 
When we look at these facts, think of 
them, reduce them to actual experience 
in connection with our homes, our living, 
our apparel, our pleasures and our enjoy- 
ments, we acquire a knowledge of what 
we are deprived of, we become conscious 
that we are the victims of a system that 
is to all intents and purposes nothing 
less than robbery. A system that will 
deprive us of such a sum aB $318,060 in 
10 monthB, would, if it could be abolished, 
bring that money into a proper channel 
and bestow untold benefits on the poorly 
paid mechanic who is now robbed of 
them. Every nail he has driven, every 
door, sash, blind or shutter he has hung, 
every foot of finish he has put up, every 
piece of hardware he has applied, every 
board, every joist, and all the labor ex 
pended on them would, if they could be 
imbued with the power of speech, pro- 
claim in trumpet tongued tones : This 
money is yours ! You are entitled to all 
the benefits accruing from its possession, 
it’s yours by right, yours by a legitimate 
and fixed principle of justice and no 
earthly power ought to deprive you of it. 
Public opinion would endorse that view 
if it was made known as widely as other 
evils are, but so long as he acquiesces and 
tacitly remains silent under its tyrannical 
and oppressive influence, the public 
labors under the impression he is as well 
paid as others. 

It is no disparagement to him who uses 
the trowel, nor him who coats the walls 
with plaster, nor the painter, nor the 



artisan in the building trade, to say, any 
carpenter needs tools of a superior kind, 
and skill of a superlatively higher order, 
and as a logical sequence ought to be as 
well remunerated. It is a clear and well 
defined idea both in morals and ethics, 
that superiority takes precedence over 
either crudeness or mediocrity. The in- 
telligent, liberal and broad platform of 
public opinion, recognises this as being 
essential to progress and advancement in 
all that pertains to civilization If this 
were not so we Bhould have been living 
in a primitive state of barbarism still. 
At any rate we should not be living under 
existing conditions ; of course I do not 
claim that any one department of in- 
dustry or skill has accomplished this, but 
the united action of all. Without wading 
through what has been done by superior 
methods, improved systems, scientific 
research and discovery, innumerable in- 
ventions, and social, moral and industrial 
reforms, it suffices to say these are the 
agencies that have emanated from super- 
iority in every walk of life, and all who 
have accepted their teachings have been 
improved thereby. Every decade organ- 
ization, federation and unionism have 
discovered something that was needed 
in this onward progressive industrial 
movement. It has been by their untir- 
ing effortB, inflexible purposes, that men 
have been educated and fitted for the 
work, until at last it reqaires astute 
statesmanship, almost, to administer 
their affairs. I am aware the necessi- 
ties of men affordB opportunities for 
aggression and attack, and that the want 
of unity is a patent factor in these mat- 
ters, and also that organization is not 
intended to be offensive but defensive, 
and its primary object to weld together 
all who embrace its principles into one 
common body to resist tyranny and op- 
pression and except under extraordinary 
circumstances, thiB is its objective point. 
I am not one of those who believe that 
capital is the only opponent of organiza- 
tion, but I am one of those who would 
labor to make capital respect organized 
bodies of men and concede them rights 
and privileges they are justly entitled to. 
I am not arguing for such an Utopian 
idea as an equal distribution of wealth, 
or communism but for the brotherhood 
of man. I am one of those who believe 
that if every man had an equal share of 
this world’s wealth, to-morrow some one 
would be wanting a loan from friend or 
collateral from usurer before the week 
ended, and that it would take quite a large 
corps of men to keep distributing the 
same. I am not vain enough to think 
even that I could advance any theory that 
would tend to create better conditions, 
but I hold the doctrine of unity will en- 
able us to live and let live and that man 
to his fellow man should ever be kind is 
one of its fundamental principles. 

Now I want to convey the idea if I 
can that if the men who willingly sub- 
mitted to subscribe this $318,060 for these 
bonus builders ever even reflected that 
unanimity of thought and action would 
have given it to those who did the 
work, and if any of them who may read 
this article who were amongst that num- 
ber do not think they acted very much 
against their own interests, when by be- 
coming members of a strong union they 
would have been prevented from becom- 
ing the victims of such rapacity and 
greed. It strikes the mind very forcibly 
that he who works under such an 
abominable system is trying to gather 
figs from thistles, or grapes from thorns, 
or to pursue the simile a little further, 
he is content with the crumbs that fall 
from the master’s table, when by recog- 
nizing and embracing the principle that 
union is strength, they would find sup- 
plies on their own. But there are other 
ideas in connection w ith this cheap labor 
system that are worth a thought, it is 



quite as important to the mechanic that 
he should possess more than he needs 
for present wants as it is that the capi- 
talist should keep adding to his barking 
account. This is the acquisition of 
something in both instances, but where 
very cheap labor is found the one 
flourishes at the expense of the other 
and makes it impossible. It is just here 
that united influence does what indi- 
vidual effort fails to accomplish. Indi- 
vidual effort manifests its weakness eo 
palpably as to convince the most scepti- 
cal that it is utterly incapable of defend- 
ing its position. United influence, on 
the contrary, inspires, strengthens, in- 
vigorates, aids and assists in creating, 
maintaining and exercising a power 
which commands respect. If we analyze 
this thought we find that each and every 
one of the united become participators 
through its agency ; it sheds its light, it re- 
flects its power on each, on all, but it is 
the on all idea that preponderates. One 
man may complain, remonstrate against a 
wrong and no notice be taken of it ; 
twenty may cause some attention, hut 
when a great organization speaks 
authoritatively, the public mind is at- 
tracted, it listens, it judges, it sympa- 
thizes, because of its representative 
character, its vitality, its scope, its force 
and its combined power to subject the 
grievance or wrong to a test. 

I may on some future occasion dilate 
more on this, but at this time I wish to 
quote again from the authority I named 
at the beginning, the Real Estate Record 
and Builder's Guide for November 7, 
1894. The grand total of expendi- 
ture for buildings, operations, altera- 
tions and additions in Philadelphia was 
$24,547,800 for ten months. This sum 
suggests the idea that house building, 
bonus building, has been in the ascend- 
ancy, that there has been more than 
one-half cheap labor employed com- 
pared with labor at the wages of the 
unions, which indicates that it is making 
rapid strides in opposition ; these figures 
pre-suppose a condition that iB by no 
means satisfactory to properly paid labor, 
they are the exponents of the fact that 
to throw up houses and buildings by 
means of cheap labor will never advance 
the cause of unionism, but undermine it 
to a great extent, because one of the 
cardinal points of unionism is to secure 
the best results for the greatest number, 
while in the instance before us it has 
been in inverse ratio. Doubtless much 
of this may be attributed to a want of 
employment of highly paid or skilled 
labor, but even on this assumption it still 
is conspicuous as a formidable com- 
petitor. 

The writer of this is not positive 
whether there is any organization 
amongst bonus builders, but concludes 
there is to some extent ; their ideas, their 
prices and their methods are so uniform 
as to warrant that conclusion, and I aleo 
think I have seen the title of it in the 
press, and the name of a very extensive 
bonus buildef aB its president. Anyhow 
these men assume to be respectable, 
doubtleFs some are religious, attend 
divine service, pass before the public as 
men of rectitude and honor and yet pay 
their men starvation prices. Of them it 
might very appropriately be said : 

Ye hypocrites are these your pranks, 
To murder men and then give thanks ? 
horbear with this, proceed no further 
* °r God delights in no such murder.” 
Yours respectfully, 

Philadelphia , Pa. Justitia. 



the corporations are great, the army 
its banners and guns is great, Coni 
with its millionaire lobby ib great • 
President with the defiant capitalie! 
the world behind him, all the c 
powers enumerated and unenumei 
are great; but greater than any 
greater than all banded together ig 
wrath of an aroused people.” 



THE CARPENTER. 



5 




RECEIPTS- FEBRUARY, 1895. 



From the Unions (Tax, etc.) $5,010 95 

44 Advertiser« 63 75 

44 Citizens Trust Co., (bal. returned) 2100 
44 Subscribers and Clearances ... 4 20 

44 Union 141, Debs Fund 5 00 

44 Rent 20 00 

44 Union 25, (strike money) .... 11 65 

4 4 44 168, 4 * “ .... 4 80 



Total 85,141 35 

DIVISION OF FEBRUARY RECEIPTS. 
(As per Section 68). 

♦General Fund, seven-tenths $3,598 96 

Protective Fund, two- tenths 1,028 26 

Organizing Fund, one-tenth 614 13 



Total 85.141 35 

SUMMARY OF GENERAL FUND. 

♦February Percentage $3,598 93 

♦Organizing Fund 514 13 



♦Special Assessments, (see page 3 this 

issue under head of moneys rec’d.) 1,544 70 
Cash Balance Feb. 1, 1895 121 79 



Total $5,779 58 



EXPENSES— FEBRUARY, 1895. 



For Printing 




86 


“ Office, etc 




07 


44 Organizing 




51 


44 Expressage and Olasp Envelopes 


. . 69 


06 


44 Tax to A. F. of L 


. . 50 


00 


44 Benefits Nos. 3,114 to 3,147 


.3,775 


00 


Cash on hand Marcli 1, 1895 




09 


Total 




58 



Detailed Expenses— February, 1895. 



Printing 750 extra copies Feb. Journal . . $8 25 

Comp, on new Const, and Electrotyping 66 36 
Printing 1,600 letter heads whh change 7 75 

“ 6,000 note heads 12 50 

44 6,000 membership cards . . . 12 50 

44 500 postal receipts; 150 

44 600 assessment and eight-hour 

circulars 12 75 

44 6 00 eight hour voting slips ... 4 00 

44 15,000 constitutions ....... 160 00 

44 17,250 copies March Journal . . 334 25 

Expressage on March Journal 1 00 

Postage on March Journal 18 04 

Special writers for March Journal .... 17 00 

Engravings for March Journal ...... 12 90 

Postage on supplies, etc. 23 82 

600 postals and 600 one cent stamps ... 10 00 

Seven telegrams . 3 05 

Expressage on supplies 37 20 

Office rent for February 26 00 

Salary and clerk hire 401 66 

Tax to A. F. of L., (January) 50 00 

D. L. Stoddard, prize in competitive 

drawings 10 00 

2000 clasp envelopes 21 85 

A. R. Wyatt, organizing Orange, N. J. . 33 51 

Janitor, cleaning office 3 75 

Coal 2 25 

Rubber stamps, seals, etc 11 00 

Twine and type-writer ribbon 1 60 

Benefits Nos. 3114 to 3147 3776 00 

Total $5,068 49 



Report of Protective Fund. 



STATEMENT OP PROTECTIVE FUND. 
PROM FEBRUARY 1 . 1896, TO MARCH 1, 1895. 



Cash on hand Feb. 1, 1895 $7,739 05 

February receipts 1,003 92 

Cash on hand March 1, 1895, total . . . $8,742 97 
Loaned General Fund 4,000 00 

Total Protective Fund .... $12,742 97 



From 1792 to 1893, the silver dollar, 
containing 371 J grains of fine silver, was 
the only lawful “ unit of value ” in the 
United States. But, during the whole 
of that long period, gold and silver had 
exact equal rights at the mints, enjoying 
together practically free coinage; and 
both, therefore, occupied the position of 
standard money, measuring and defining 
the values of all other things. 



Claims Approved in February, 1895. 



No. 


Name. 


Union. Amt. 


3114 


Mrs. M. Dun nett 


. 1 


8 50 00 


3115 


Mrs. F. Philipps . . , 




50 00 


3116 


W. O. Long 




200 00 


3117 


Mrs. C. Purser ....... 


. . 11 


60 00 


3118 


Mrs. A. Braunschweiger . 


. 26 


50 00 


3119 


Mrs. J. Bailey 




50 00 


3120 


O. Larson 


. 62 


200 00 


3121 


Mrs. M. Connell 


. 64 


50 00 


3122 


Michael Connell ... 


64 


200 00 


3123 


Mrs. S. E. Green 




26 00 


3124 


Mrs. S. E. Warner 




50 00 


3125 


Mrs. M. A Lennox . . . 


. 138 


50 00 


3126 


Mrs. D. Robert 


154 


50 00 


3127 


J. T. Fauglinan 


167 


200 00 


3128 


Mrs. O. Downie 




50 00 


3129 


O. A. Cole 




50 00 


3130 


Mrs. J. Neumeyer 




50 00 


3131 


R. E. Newill 


. 207 


2C0 00 


3132 


Wm. Rust 




200 00 


3133 


Geo. Sauders . . 




200 00 


3134 


Mrs. I. Munnings . . 


. 269 


50 00 


3135 


H J. Bailey 


274 


200 00 


3136 


D. W. Walters 




200 00 


3137 


M. Stanley 




200 00 


3138 


Mrs. M. E. Hutchinson . . 


.374 


50 00 


S1S9 


E. Cribbin 




50 00 


3110 


Mrs. M. Karbeck 




50 00 


8141 


Mrs. C. Fink 


. .501 


50 00 


3142 


Jos. Metzger 


618 


200 00 


3143 


F. Schmidt 




200 00 


3114 


Mrs. M. Mahon 




60 00 


3145 


Aug. Seiler 


678 


200 CO 


3146 


H. Hendfield 




200 00 


3147 


Mrs. H. Laffitte 


. 739 


50 00 


3148 


Rob’t. Killonde 




400 00 




Total 







Socialism in Great Britain. 

Last summer the Socialists in England 
were enchanted with the progress they 
were making. They boasted that they 
had shunted half the trade unions of the 
country on to Collectivist lines, and it 
was confidently asserted, says llie Spec- 
tator, that it was almost impossible to 
find a workingman of light and leading 
who was not a Socialist. At any rate it 
was difficult to find one who did not talk 
Socialism and lightheartedly splash about 
in the jargon of the new economical phil- 
osophers. At the Trade Union Congress 
in Norwich, Socialism carried ail before 
it. The Individualists could hardly get 
a word in edgeways, and the Congress, 
when it was asked to commit itself to the 
nationalization of the lands and mines, 
replied with the utmost eagerness, 44 Not 
only land and minerals, but all the 
means of production and transit. 0 They 
adopted, in fact, the Socialists' creed in 
its entirety and without any reservation. 
44 The working classes, through their 
accredited representatives, have gone 
over to ua bag and baggage," cried the 
Socialists, and began to appoint sub com- 
mitteesfor theimmediate and peremptory 
introduction of the labor millennium. Yet 
the tremendous change in public opinion 
indicated by the resolutions seemed, 
somehow or other, to have little effect. 
Something or other stayed the wheels of 
the chariot of liberty. Alas I that com- 
pletely delusive person, the British work- 
man, had not been so quickly converted 
as at first appeared. He had allowed a 
good deal of shouting ; but he had had 
no intention of acting on that shouting, 
and the gates of his heart were found to 
be as fast shut against Collectivism as 
ever. The Socialists, when they come to 
look round on their achievement of the 
summer, find that the net result of their 
so-called successes has been the maim- 
ing, if not the destruction of the Trade 
Union Congress— a body which, in the 
past, has been of infinite service to the 
cause of labor, and which might have 
continued that service in the future if it 
had not been warped from its proper 
functions. 



Geo. II. Chandlee. H. C. Chandlee 

n lijiiN 

Trade-Marks, Caveats, Etc. 

CHANDLEE & CHANDLEE, 

PATENTS AND PATENT CAUSES 

Electrical and Mechanical Experts. 
POLACK BUILDING, ATLANTIC BUILDING, 
York, Pa. Washington, D. C. 




Something: New in Framing. 



Much has been written on the subject 
of roof framing and numerous works 
have been published from time to time 
each claiming superiority over all other 
so called easy systems. As a rule they 
resort to diagrams drawn to a scale from 
which they obtain their lengths and 
bevels. Many of them are accompanied 
by long and tedious descriptions refer- 
ring to the various parts by letters and 



1*3 0-1 18 O'- 3'0-)| 




T 

I 



:i 

O 



! 



figures, so much so that the average 
mechanic finds himBelf in the midst of a 
problem that he has neither time or 
patience to solve and gives up the job in 
disgust. 

While in the main their theories ad- 
vanced are correct they leave the student 
to ferret it out and eay nothing of his 
ability as a practical draughtsman, of 
which he must understand the princi- 
ples. 

The latest work on the subject that 




given in plain figures, with all their 
bevels and the figures on the square to 
obtain the same. It is to the framer 
what the interest table is to the banker. 
No matter as to his ability to find cor- 
rect results— he has in this work a 
ready reckoner together with much 
other invaluable information. In short 
it is a complete key to the wonderful 
mathematical capabilities of the steel 
square. 

It is an ingenious piece of work and 
has required much 
work in its prepara- 
tion; to be appreciated 
it must be seen. The 
illustrations here pre- 
sented represent a roof 
with a 7-12 pitch or a 
14 inch rise to the foot 
and an octagon roof 
with a 1 pitch or a 24 
inch rise to the foot. 
The lengths are as 
given per the Delin- 
eator. The professor 
has proceeded on the 
principle that a rafter 
with its run and rise 
constitute a right angle 
triangle, the length of 
the rafter being the 
square root of the run 
and rise, hence its 
name. 

The square root has 
been extracted for each 
foot in runs up to 12 
feet for each pitch and 
placed at its respective 
run. These figures also 
answer for inches 
when the run ends in 
the fraction of a foot. 
No computation is nec- 
essary except in frac- 
tions or when the run 
exceeds 12 feet, which requires the addi- 
tion of two numbers. To the casual ob- 
server at first glance the chart seems 
complicated, as it contains many figures, 
but anyone that knows the meaning of 
the terms run and rise, can instantly 
find the lengths with all their bevels, 
degrees, etc. 

A little pamphlet fully illustrates the 
terms used in roofs, with much other 
valuable instruction is given with each 
chart. We have made arrangements 
for their sale in our 
association. See adver- 
tisement on page 16 of 
this journal. 



i 

i 

* • 
o 



$ 

Cl 



DaNIE LSONVILLEj 

Conn., April 15. — The 
Quinnebaug Com- 
pany to-day posted no- 
tices in their mills of 
an advance in wages, to 
take effect on the 22d. 
Notices were also 
posted in the Daniel- 
Bonville and WilliamB- 
ville mills. Two 
thousand hands are 
benefitted. 



has our attention is in the form of a chart 
18x28 in size, mounted on rollers, carry- 
ing a diagram of the full sized carpen- 
ter’s square, called “The Square Root 
Delineator in the Art of Framing,” by Prof. 
A. W. Woods, formerly of the Haish 
Mechanical Institute, *nd is, in our 
opinion as simple as it is possible to be. 
W ith it in the possession of the mechanic, 
all draughting is swept away and the 
lengths of braces, common rafters, jacks 
and corresponding hips and valleys are 



The Act of February 12, 1873, threw 
down the silver dollar as the lawful 
44 unit of value," and, for the first time 
in American history, made the gold 
dollar the lawful unit. While that Act 
continued to gold itB old privilege of free 
coinage, it denied to silver the right to 
be coined upon any terms or in any 
quantity. This was revolutionary action, 
overthrowing the uniform practice and 
completely reversing the ancient prece- 
dents. 







ij 






I 

m 

l 

I • I 



1 



The Cry of the Unemployed. 

Do you hear the wall Inf and weeping. 

And the moans of the weak and unfed ? 

Do you see the pale llpe of the children 
That cry for a morsel of hr*ad ? 

And the babe as it nurses ? a starveling 
And yet in the cradle of life ! 

Do you note the thin cheek of the mother 
And the faltering step of the wife? 

“ *Tts the home of the Idler,” you mutter, 

And the bitterness tinges your voice. 

Ah, yes, 'tis the home of the idler, 

But not of the Idler through choice. 

You shudder onoe more at the moaning, 

And you look on the squalor again ; 

And you turn as you listen to curse me 
And brand me accursed of men. 

Nay, rail not In language so bitter ; 

Tho* the ohlldren are hungry and weak, 

And worn Is the mother and haggard. 

With the flush of dieeaee on her cheek— 

More bitter my anguish and famine. 

For they aap and they gnaw at my life ; 

Tis the hunger of father and husband 
For the comfort of children and wife. 

This hand— * tis the hand of the toller, 

And willing as aught 'neath the sun, 

And sklUAil and strong are its sinews— 

But it toils not, for toil there is none. 

I have sought and I seek through the city 
But a chanoe for this hand onoe again, 

And I Journey the highways and byways. 

But I seek and I journey in vain. 

Ay, elr, there is cold and there’e hunger 
B'en down to the child et the breast ; 

And the cries that you hear, and the moaning, 
Are the cries of the weak and oppressed 

But this hand- It Is willing and sklllfül, 

And If toll, honest toll, you bestow, 

There shall echo the anthems of gladness 
Where now sound the wailings of woe. 

— Oeerg# Harrison Conrgrd, in the Eight H ur 
Her mid 



Practical Plana and Estimates. 







$189 10 

* LDMBtl BILL. 

Feet 

4, 6x0 20 ft. sills 82C 

2, 6x6 14 " “ 112 

1,6x6 16“ " 75 



If, 6x016 ft. floor JoiaU . . . . 

06, tx8 24 “ " “ ... 

^10,6x6 60“ “ " . . . . 

40 6x4 16 “ plates and oeiling . 

86, tx4 14 “ ceiling Joiata . . . 
16,6x416° 44 . 

616,6x4*16“ aide and partition 



16,6x416 “ 
14,6x616“ 



rattan tor kitchen 



24, 2x0 12 ft. raftere 6 288 

10, 2x6 12 “ “ 120 

6, 2x(5 12 “ porch joists 00 

3, 2x6 14 “ “ “ 42 

12, 2«4 16 " " ceilings and 

raftere 132 



0,5*08 ft. in frame, $10.60 per m $113 (Hi 
4,400 “ sheeting walla and roof, 

$18 per m 75* 20 

2,700 “ 5-inch aiding, $25perni., 67 50 
9 000 ahinglee $3.60 per m ... 31 50 

2,000 ft. 0-inch flooring $25 per m. 60 00 
(500 " beaded ceiling, $30 ... 18 00 

800 “ l finish, cornice, etc., $40 82 00 
600" It flnieb, casing« , steps 
and outside finish, $40 

per in 20 00 

100“ It hard pine finish, $30 

per m 3 00 

350 " 1 hard pine finish, $30 



Mill work on porch and bays . $ 18 02 
Front atalra 20 00 



$607 00 



BT I. r. HICKS. 



UK plan for this month 
will be that of a iwo- 
e’.ory five-room cot- 
tage with large balla, 
pantry, bay windo*a, 
“ cloaeta, etc. 

Sire of floor plan ia 
27x40-6. 

The cellar ia esti- 
mated under the front hall, sitting-room 
and parlor, and to flniah 7 feet in the 



Foundation and cellar walls to be an 
B-Lnch brick wall. 

Length of cellar wall, 110 feet. 

Length of foundation wall 47 feet. 
Haight of first atory, 6 feet. 

Height of second atory, 8 feet 6 inches. 
Main cornice, 120 feet. 

Porch, bay-window and back cornices, 
0 feet. 

Number of window frames, 17. 
Number of door frames, 15. 

Flniah to be bard pine. 

excavating and masonry 

116 yards excavating, 80c . . 9 $6 40 
16,000 brick laid in cellar and 

foundation wall, 68.60 . . 116 60 
64 lineal feet chimneys, 80c . 48 20 






CARPENTER WORK. 

21 aqn. framing and laying 
floors 91-30 

27 eqrs. framing, sheeting and 
aiding $2 50 

12 sqrs. framing ceilings 50c. . . 

9 sqrs. framing, sheeting and 
shingling roofs 60 00 . . . 
120 ft. lineal main cornice 16c. . 

92 lineal feet gutter tie 

350 " " of base 4c . . 

14 door frames complete 92.60 . 

1 sliding door and frame com- 
plete 



Work on front porch 9 15 00 

Work on back porch 12 00 

Gable finish 5 00 

Work on (»ays 30 00 

Oataide corner casings 6 Oo 

Outside hose 110 lineal feet 4c . 4 4o 



$2(5 00 

(57 50 

(5 00 

27 00 
18 00 
6 fit 
14 00 
36 00 



$304 42 



HARDWABB. 



00 Ibe. 20,1 nails 



8-inch base, $2 per h 



20 00 


17 window frames complete 








$2 50 


42 


50 


3 00 


3 cellar frames $1.25 


a 


75 




Wainscoting kitchen 


a 


50 


10 50 


Finishing sink 


•$ 


00 


7 00 


Fiuiahing bath room 


8 


00 


12 00 


Finishing 8 closets $1.25 .... 


a 


75 


4 00 


Front stairs 


14 00 


4 10 


Cellar stain 


O 

a* 


60 



20 


«1 


12d 


44 






150 


I« 


lOd 


14 


3 


1MI 


200 


II 


8d 


44 

• • a a e • • 


A 


10 


i\0 


II 


6d 


44 


1 


71 


40 


<6 


3d coarse 


1 


32 


50 


44 


lOd finish 


1 


60 


60 


<• 


8d 


14 


1 


80 


20 


<4 


6d 


II 

e e e e • e • 




«4 


3 


II 


Sd 


II 




12 



400 lba. sash weights, 1 $c. 
4 skeins sash cord, 60c. . 
68 sash pnlleys 4c ... . 

17 sash locks 15c 

13 pair butts 3<x3j 35c. • 

1 net double eliding 
bangen 








fcuaJ o 

Ml 



Hull 

IU*U 



«E hh 



~?i 



VjC.tLjQaj 



III 

IDEE 



11 



Hath 

•»a I«» t> r^r 



[so] 



FRONT 

3 windows, 20x82, 2 It., $1 80 

2 “ 10x32, 2 It., $1.60 

5 “ 24x3$, 2 It., 92 00 

8 •• 20x30, 2 It., 9170 

8 “ 24x80, 2 It., 91-80 

1 “ 24x36, marginal 

light for bath room .... 

1 transom, 12»84, 1 It. ... 

8 cellar sash, 12x26, 1 It., 91. 

1 front doer, 3x7, 1 1 .... 

2 sliding doors, 2 0x7 6, If. $6 

6 doors 2-8x7, 1|, 98 60 . 

8 “ 2 6x7, 1|, $8 26 . . . 

8 “ 2-0x8 6, 11.82 . . . 

2 “ 2x6 8,11,61.80 . . . 

180 ft. 8) inch crown mold, 91 -76 

per h . 

90 " 3-inch crown mold, 91.50 

per h 

220 “ 2- Inch bad mold, 9L60 
perh ......... 

600“ I quarter round, 60c per h 
800 !* parting stops, 50c par h . 
800 “ 1-inch window stops, 60c 

per b 

270 " 2 inch door stops, 91-25 

perh 

80 “ Wai mooting cap, 91-50 

perh 

60 “ 81-inch water-table, 92 

ptf h eeeeeeese 

49 “ 6-inch oak thresholds, 94 

P«* 

4 corner bands, tte 



ELEVATION 

5 40 | E3 

8 20 r ' — 1 



L. 

XKCO.VI) KI.OOH PLAN. 




I' r«-h Jill 



2 00 
1 00 
8 00 
10 00 
12 00 
17 50 
9 76 
0 00 
3 60 



Kit<-hi 11 
WxU-A 



r 

l.._ 




Sidiiit* Kootu 



V 



ia»i5 



1 sliding door lock and 

trimmings 2 26 

1 front door lock and 

trimmings 2 00 

18 mortise locks and trim- 
mings 91 00 .... 13 00 

6 dosen wardrobe hooks 

15c 80 

12 door at pe2J<' .... 80 

92 lineal feet of gutter lPc 9 20 
76 “ " of condnctor 

10c 7 50 

450 feet tin roofing 8c . . . 36 00 

32 “ valley tin 10c .. . 3 20 

Flashing, chimneys and 

tins for window cape 3 00 

9116 51 

BWAPITIXATION. 

Excavating and masonry 9180 10 
Lumber and mill work . «07 00 

Oarpenter work .... 364 42 

Hardware and tin work . 116 51 

Painting 7 1 97 

Plastering 640 yards 25c . 160 00 

Gaa fitting 20 Oo 

Plumbing 70 00 



kibmt floor plan. 




91602 00 

Every room in this house has 
bean carefully studied and ar- 
ranged for convenience, any one 








THE CARPENTER, 






of which can be entered from the hall 
in either story. The design is sym- 
metrical and presents a neat and at- 
tractive appearance. The parlor and 
sitting room are connected with slid- 
ing doors and these two rooms can 
be made as one when desired. All 
rooms are large, well lighted and sup- 
plied with large and convenient closets. 
The stairway in the front hall is large 
and straight, a very desirable feature for 
any house. Winding stairs and stairs 
with middle landings while pleasing to 
the eye in the appearance of a plan, pos- 
sess no real merits in the way of con- 
venience and comfort in the way of 
ascending to the floor above. The esti- 
mated cost of the above design is about 
$ 1600 . 




Things to be Remembered. 



HAMM AC HER 
SCHLEMMER 
Zl CO. 

2,0 9 BOWERY 
JVBW YORK 



Practical Hints to Carpenters. 



BY OWHN B. MAGINNIS. 



Having recently received an inquiry from a practical mechanic, asking if I 
would illustrate the constructive parts of a balloon frame, I herein publish a 
sketch, Fig. 1, which will convey to him all he desires to know. 




Three months In arrears subjects a member tc 
loss of benefits. 

Steady attendance at the meetings gives life 
and Interest to the Union. 

Members going off to another city should be 
provided with a clearance card. 

Alt. local treasurers should be under bonds and 
the bonds filed with the president of the L. U. 

Trustees’ reports should be prepared semi- 
annually and forwarded to the G. 8. Blanks are 
furnished free for that purpose. 

All changes in Secretaries should be promptly 
reported to the G. S., and name and address ol 
the new Secretary should bo forwarded. 

Organize the Carpenters in the unorganized 
towns in your vicinity, or wherever j r ou may gol 
Hold public meetings or social festivals at stated 
occasions ; they will add to the strength of your 
Union, 

Letters for the General Office should be 
written on offical note paper and bear the seal 
of the Local Union. Don’t write letters to the 
G S. on monthly report blanks, as such commu- 
nications are not in proper shape 

All Moneys received by the G. S. one month 
are published in the next month’s journal. 
Moneys received can not be published in this 
journal the same month they are received. It 
takes some time to make up the report and put 
it into type. 

The only safe way to send money is by Post 
Office Money Order or by Blank Check or Draft 
as required by the Constitution. The G. S. is 
not reponsible for money sent in any other way. 
Don’t send loose cash or postage stamps in pay- 
ment of tax or for any bill due the G. S 



Eight Hour Cities. 

Below is a list of the cities and towns where 
carpenters make it a rule to work only eight 
hours a day : 




Alameda, Cal. 
Ashland, Wis. 
Austin, 111. 

Berkeley, Cal. 
Bessemer, Col. 
Brighton Park, III. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Carondelet, Mo. 
Chicago, 111. 

Chicago Heights, 111. 
Denver, Col. 

East St. Louis, 111. 
Englewood, 111. 
Evanston, 111. 
Fremont, Ool. 

Grand Crossing, 111. 
Highland Park, 111. 
Hyde Park, 111. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Kensington, 111. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 
Manor Station, Pa. 
Vlay wood, 111. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Vernon, Ind._ 
Moreland, 111. 

Lynn, Mass. 

Total 52 



Murphysboro, 111. 
New York, N. Y. 
Oakland, Cal. 

Oak Park, 111. 
Pasadena, Cal. 
Pueblo, Colo. 

Rogers Park, 111. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Sacramento, Cal. 
Santa Barbara, Cal. 
San Frau cisco, Cal. ' 
San Jose, Cal. 

San Rafael, Cal. 
Sheboygan, Wis. 
South Chicago, 111, 
South Denver, Col. 
South Evanston, 111, 
Stockton, Cal. 

Town of Lake, 111. 
Verona, Pa. 

Venice, 111. 
Washington, D. O. 
Whatcom, Wash. 
West Troy, N. Y. 



St. Joseph, Mo. 
cities. 



Chelsea, Mass. 

Charleroi, Pa. 
Charleston, W. Va, 
Charlestown, W. Va. 
Chester, Pa. 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Corona. N. Y. 
Covington, Ky. 
Columbus, Ga. 
Columbus, Ind. 
Camden. N. J. 
Concordia, Kan. 
Columbia. S C. 
Collinsville. 111. 
Cohoes, N. Y. 
Corsicana, Tex. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Coraopolis, Pa. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Colorado City, Ool. 
Colorado Springs, Col 
Cornwall, N. Y. 
Corryville, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ky. 

Dos Moines, Iowa. 
DavenportjJowa. 
Dover, N. H. 

Decatur, 111. 

Detroit, Mich. 
Denison, Tex. 
Dedham, Mass. 
Dorohester, Mass. 
Duquesne, Pa. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
Dallas, Tex. 

El Paso, Tex. 

East Liverpool, Ohio. 
East Saginaw, Mich. 
East Orange, N. J. 
East Portland, Oreg. 
East Boston, Mass. 
Easton, Pa, 

Elizabeth, N. J. 
Elwood, Ind. 

Elwood, Pa. 

Erie, Pa. 

Englewood, N. J. 
Evansville, Ind. 
Everett, Mass. 

Exeter, N. H. 

Eureka, Cal. 

Fair Haven, Wash. 
Fall Rivsr. Mass. 
Findlay, Ohio. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Fresno. Cal. 
Frankford. Pa. 
Franklin, Pa. 

Fort Worth, Tex. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fostoria, Ohio. 
Franklin, Mass. 
Galesburg, HI. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Great Falls, Mont. 
Greensburg, Pa. 
Greenfield, Ind. 
Gloucester, Mass. 
Greenville, Pa. 
Germantown, Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn. 
Grove City, Pa. 

Glen Cove, N, Y. 

Hot Springs, Ark. 
Homestead, Pa. 
Hamilton Can. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Halifax, N. S. 
Hampton, Va. 
Hanford, Cal. 
Haverhill, Mass. 
Hackensaok, N. J. 
Harriman.Tonn. 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
Henderson, Ky. 
Hudson, Mass. 
Herkimer. N. Y. 
Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 
Hyd Park. Mass. 
Hoboken, N. J. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Houston, Tex. 



BUNK-HOUR O IT IBS. 



Below is a list of the cities and towns where 
carpenters make it a rule to work only nine 
hours a day. 



It illustrates the frame of a small framed cottage of one story with the 
ceiling beams and rafters raised, and one side partly sheeted or rough boarded. 
Upper headers are doubled in windows. 



Save $50 When you Build. 



Hicks 9 Builders 9 Guide 

comprising an easy and practical system of esti 
mating material and labor for Carpenters, Con- 
tractors and Builders. A comprehensive guide to 
those engaged in the various branches of the 
building trade. It saves time, money and mis- 
takes. 160 pages, 114 illustrations, cloth bound 
Price, $1.00. 

The Building: Budget and 
Bverybody 9 s Assistant 

contains the practical experience of over 60 build- 
ers right to the point on all subjects relating to 
calculations on materials, labor and proper con- 
struction, Price 50 cents. 

Hicks 9 Vest Pocket Guide, 

A memorandum, time book, price current, and 
bandy reference, It Tickles. Sent free for the 
asking. Don’t miss it. 

I. P. HICKS, Box 37, Station A, Omaha, Neb. 
Send order at once. 



I. P. HICKS, 

Uox 37, Station A, Omaha, Neb. 



Albina, Oreg. 

Allston, Mass. 
Amesbury, Mass. 
Atlantio City N. J. 
Arlington, Mass. 
Arransas Harbor, Tex. 
Anacortes, Wash. 
Asbury Park, N. J. 
Astoria, Oreg. 
Asheville, N. C. 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Auburn, Mo. 

Akron, O. 

Altoona, Pa. 

Apollo, Pa. 

Anderson, Ind. 
Allegheny City, Pa. 
Albany, N. Y. 

Austin, Tex. 
Bakersfield, Cal. 

Bay City, Mich. 

Bar Harbor, Me. 
Baltimore, Md 
Belle Vernon, Pa. 

Bath Beach, N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y 
Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Butler, Pa. 

Bayonne, N. J. 

Boise City, Idaho. 
Bridgeton, N. J 
Burlington, Iowa 
Blaine, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Ohio. 
Bradford Mass. 
Brunswick. Me. 
Braddock, Pa. 

Bellaire, Ohio. 
Belleville, 111. 
Belleville, Can. 
Bellevue, Pa. 

Boston, Mass. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Brockton, Mass. 
Beaver Falls. Pa. 
Brookline, Maas. 
Butte, Mout. 
Carrollton, Ga. 

Cairo, 111. 

Calgary, Can. 

Canton 9 Ohio. 



Meriden, Conn. 

Moline, 111. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Muncie, T nd. 
Moundsville. W. Va. 
Muskegon, Mich. 
McKeesport, Pa. 

Mt Pleasant, Pa. 

New Britain, Conn. 
Nelsonville, O. 

North Easton, Mass. 
New Kensington, Pa. 
Norfolk, Va. 

New Orleans, La. 
Newport, R. I. 

Newport, Ky 
Newport News. Va< 
Newtown, N. Y. 
Newbury port, Mass. 
Nanaimo. Brit. Col. 
Nyack, N. Y. 

Norwood, Mass. 

N. La Crosse, Wis. 
Natchez, Miss. 

New Cumberland, W.V 
New Castle, Pa. 

New Haven, Conn. 

New Haven, ,Pa. 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 
New Westminster, B. C. 
Nyaek N. Y. 

Newark. N. J. 

Natick, Mass. 

Newton, Mass. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
New Albany, Ind. 

New Brighton, N. Y. 
Now Brunswick, N. J. 
Northampton, Mass. 
Norwich, Conn. 
Norwalk, Conn. 
Oceanic, N. J. 

Oswego, N. Y. 

Ogden Utah. 

Olean, N. Y. 

Ottawa, Can. 

Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Ottawa, 111. 

Ontario, Cal. 



Omaha, Neb. 

Orange, N. J. 

Olympia, Wash. 
Pawtucket, R. I. 

Port Chester, N. Y. 
Punxsutawney, Pa. 
Pensacola, Fla. 
Peterborough, Can. 
Portland, Oreg. 

Port Townsend, Wash. 
Passaic, N. J. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Pomeroy, O. 

Portland, Me. 

Port Angeles, Wash. 
Portsmouth, N. H. 
Portsmouth, Va. 
Portsmouth, O. 
Pocatello, Idaho. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Paterson, N. J. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Plainfield, N. J. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Pierre, 9. Dakota. 
Parkersburgh, W. Va. 
Paris, Texas, 
Porterville, Cal. 

Peoria, 111. 

Providence, R. I. 
Quincy, Mass. 

Racine, Wis. 

Rochester, Pa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Richmond, Ky. 
Richmond, Ind. 

Rock Island, 111. 
Rondout, N. Y. 
Roxbury, Mass. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rosedale, Ind. 

Revere, Mass. 
Riverside. Cal. 

Red Bank, N. J. 
Redlands, Cal. 
Rockford, 111. 
Rutherford, N. J. 

B. Framingham, Mass. 
Springfield, Mass. 

St. Augustine, Fla. 
South Omaha, Neb. 
South Norwalk, Conn. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Salem, Mass. 
Stonebam, Mass. 
Somerville, Mass, 
Somerville, N. J. 
Saltsburg, Pa. 

Salt Lake City. 

San Angelo. Tex. 
Sandusky, Ohio. 
Shreveport, La. 
Stamford, Conn. 

Sea Cliff, N. Y. 
Springfield, 111. 
Springfield, Mo. 
Springfield, Ohio. 

San Leandro, Cal. 
Steubenville, Ohio. 
Santa Anna. Cal. 

Santa Rosa, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash. 

St. John’s, N. B. 
Saxonville, Mass. 
Schenectady. N. Y„ 

Scottdale, Pa. 
Spokane, Wash. 
Sharon, Pa. 

Sheffield. Ala. 

Staten Island, N. Y. 
Streator, HI. 
Stoughton, Mass. 

S. Abingdon, Mass. 

St Catherine, Ont. 

San Antonio, Tex. 

San Bernardino, Cal. 
Scranton, Pa. 
Sharpaville, Pa. 
Sharpeburar, Pa. 

St Paul, Minn. 

Santa Cruz Cal. 
Saginaw City, Mich. 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
Sbeepshead Bay. N. Y 
Seymour, Tex. 
Seymour, Ind. 



Houston Heirbte, Tax. Summit. W. J. 



Hlngham, Mass. 
Irvington, N. Y, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jacksonville, HI. 
Jackson. Mich. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Jeannette, Pa. 
Jersey City, N. J. 
Kearney, Neb. 
Knoxville. Tenn. 

Kingston, N. Y. 
Lanslngburg, N. Y. 
Lawrence, Mass. 
La Crosse, Wis. 

La Junta, Col. 
Logansport Ind. 
Lowell, Mass. 
Lynn, Mass. 

Leech burg, Pa. 
Leominster, Mass. 
Lafayette, Ind, 
Lancaster, Pa. 
I^ewiston, Me. 
Lincoln, Neb. 
London, Canada. 
Lockland, O. 



Tampa, Fla. 
Taunton, Mass. 

Taw as City, Mich. 
Tarry town, N. Y. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
The Dalles, Oreg. 
Tiffin, Ohio. 

Toronto, Ohio. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Toronto, Ont., 10 hra. 
Trenton, N. J. 
Trinidad, Col. 

Troy, N. Y. 
Tarentum, Pa. 

Turtle Creek, Pa. 
Union Hill, N. J. 
Utica. N. Y. 
Uniontown, Pa. 
Vancouver, B. C. 
Victoria, B. C. 
Vincennes, Ind. 
Visalia, Cal. 
Waxahatchle, Tex. 
Wellsburg, W. Va. 
West Hoboken, N. J. 
West Duluth, Minn. 
Warren, Ohio. 



Long Island City, N. Y. Winchester, Ky. 
Long Branch, N. * 
i/oulsville, Ky. 



Manchester, N. H. 
Marlboro, Mass. 
Marion, Ind. 
Morristown, N. J. 
Manayunk, Pa. 
Malden, Mass. 
Millville, N. J. 
Media, Pa. 

Meadville, Pa. 
Medford, Mass. 
Marblehead, Mass. 
Mayfield, Ky. 
Monongahela, Pa. 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
Martin’s Ferry, O. 
Maspeth, N. Y. 
Milford, O. 
Mamaroneck, N. Y. 
Mercer, Pa. 
Middlesborough, Ky. 
Southampton, N. Y. 

Conshohocken, Pa. 
Cortland, N. Y. 
Ottumwa, la. 
Hillsboro, Tex. 
Bangor, Pa. 
HaughvlUe, Ind. 
Madlsonville, O. 
Mansfield Valley, Pa. 



Winthrop, Mass. 
Windsor, Can. (Ont.) 
Weymouth, Mass. 
Wabash, Ind. 
Waltham, Mass. 

Waco, Tex. 

W. Newton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Washington, Pa. 
Wilmington, Del. 
Whitman. Maas. 
Woburn, Mass. 
Winchester, Maes. 
Wheeling, W. Va. 
Wilkiasburg, Pa. 
Winnipeg, Man. 
Woodside. N.Y. 
Winfield, N. Y. 
Yoakum, Tex. 
Yonkers, N Y. 
Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio. . 
College Point, N. Y. 
Williamebridge, N. Y. 
La Salle, 111. 
Rockland, Me. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 
Flushing, N. Y. 

Dover, N. J. 

Mllburn, N. J. 

Mt. Washington, O. 
Peru, 111. 

Rockville, Conn. 



y . ± m. iwvavii 

Total, 428 oltlee. 



















8 



THE CARPENTER. 



THE CARPENTER 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

PubHifud Monthly , on the Fifteenth of each Month. 
AT 

1*4 N. Ninth St., Phil«., Pa. 

P. J. McGuirk, Editor and Publisher. 

Entered at the Post-Office at Philadelphia, Pa., 
as second-class matter. 

Subscription Prick Fifty cents a year, in 
advance, postpaid. 

Address all letters and money to 

P. J. McGuirk, 

Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PHILADELPHIA, APRIL, 1895. 



The Leadership That Will Win. 

44 The money of the Constitution shall 
be gold and silver.” To disregard that 
fundamental provision is high treason to 
the nation, so says the Philadelphia 
American . To trample upon it, at the 
mercenary behest of the foreign enemies 
of the Republic is a criminal betrayal of 
national interests. To listen to the selfish 
sophistries of unscrupulous money- 
changers, who seek to still further 
plunder the people, is a shameless con- 
fession of political mendacity. To re- 
fuse to manfully declare for the prompt 
and complete restoration ot a true Ameri- 
can policy is to invite open repudiation 
and condemnation on the part of every 
enlightened and patriotic American citi- 
zen, and which will as surely be visited 
upon these false leaders aB the night fol- 
lows the day. 

Wanted —leadership in this crusade for 
an honest and just financial and indus- 
trial policy in the United States which 
shall be inspiring, commanding and 
triumphant. It can only be based upon 
immovable conviction, recognized ability, 
unquestioned integrity and the loftiest 
fidelity to the people. It can only secure 
recognition and successful following 
through unselfishly grappling with the 
enemy now, before his lines are again 
formed and his plans matured for the 
coming contest. It cannot hope to win 
unless it appeals to the minds and hearts 
of the people and relies with confidence 
upon their support, and not upon the 
brazen schemes of their would-be task- 
masters. The standard may be placed 
in experienced hands and it may be 
given to one fresh from the people them- 
selves— one who is in full sympathy with 
them, who understands their wrongs, 
who has felt the burden and borne his 
share and whose spirit is in touch with 
theirs. He may again come up from the 
soil, like the mighty leader who broke 
the shackles of the bondmen and saved 
the Union and free government thirty 
or more years agu. The one thing cer- 
tain is, that in 1896 the spirit of 1776, 
1812 and 1861 will wrest the control of 
the Federal Government from the hands 
of the enemies of the American people. 
The present crisis is of far-reaching im- 
portance, in all essential respects more 
serious and dangerous than any which 
ever confronted this great nation. It 
must and will be met in the most cour- 
ageous way, and all who fail to do their 
duty as opportunity offers will be cast 
aside as faithless to the highest trust of 
American citizenship. 



The Amalgamated Carpenters. 



The February report of the Amalga- 
mated, published in Manchester, Eng- 
land, deals with many momentous sub- 
jects of craft interest. 

The question of members going from 
low paid towns into high wage cities is 
thoroughly discussed. London and a 
few large cities complain that country 



contractors take city jobs cheap and 
bring in union men at low wages to do 
the work. The decision of the Execu- 
tive Council on this point is not satis- 
factory to the large cities, and is con- 
sidered favorable to the small towns. 

Consolidation of branches in the 
American and Australian districts is 
urged to retrench expenditures. 

A Belfast branch writes in regard to 
Socialism in the trade union congress at 
Norwich, and these views are shared by 
a number of others : 

“ That we suggest to the E. C., the 
desirability of taking the votes of our 
members in regard to severing our con- 
nection with the trades union congress, 
as we believe, instead of furthering the 
interests of trades unionism, it has be- 
come a school for dieeeminating Social- 
ism by a few leading spirits who, by 
their fluency of speech, are earning a 
good living out of the working men. If, 
instead of going about agitating the 
mind of the workman, setting claBs 
against class, and capital against labor, 
they would try and bring about more 
friendly relations between employers and 
employed, they would earn the lasting 
gratitude and esteem of all honest work- 
men. . . . We consider it a needless 

waste of money to support the congress 
as at present constituted. 



The Industrial Depression 



All through the present industrial de- 
pression and before, for that matter, 
some said, 44 settle the tariff question, ” 
others said, 44 settle the financial ques- 
tion”— and prosperity will return on 
the wings of the wind. Congress settled 
the tariff. They repealed the purchas- 
ing clause of the Sherman act ; they 
struggled with the money question and 
kept at it, but the promised land is 
not with us as yet, although all signs 
indicate that it or better conditions are in 
sight. We find the same old story in 
free trade and protective tariff countries, 
in the single gold standard and the 
double standard, or the free silver coin- 
age countries, of the unemployed, the 
want, privation and oppression of the 
masses. This state of affairs will con- 
tinue here, elsewhere and everywhere, 
until the masses organize into trades 
unions, there learn to control their 
economic condition, and through it 
finally completely master the science of 
self-government. To evolve any Btate of 
society that would be a success and in 
which the contentment and happiness of 
the mass of the people will be perma- 
nent and lasting in its nature, requires 
thought, study and the enlightened 
united co-operation of a majority of the 
people. The surest way to reach that 
stage is to unite in the trades union 
movement, make it first, foremost, and 
above all other issues. Out of a perfect 
economic movement man’s condition will 
change for the better and an ideal state 
of society will surely evolve.— C^ar- 
makers' Journal. 



Who Form the Nation ? 



■ HE historians of the future 
may now and then derive 
considerable amusement 
from a certain discussion 
that took place toward 
the middle of March, of 
the present year, 1895, before our 
Supreme Court of Justice. It was a 
species of battle of giants, fought, as it 
were, among pigmies in moral percep- 
tions, and giants in intellectual brass, or 
self-conceit. Brass is always a mixture 
of impudence and low morality. The 
men in question could hardly be anything 
but lawyers on the pinnacles of wealth 



and influence, and so considering them- 
selves vastly above the, rabble, the work- 
ing masses, even if patting their backs 
now and then, while keeping them as low 
as possible in hidden forms and under- 
hand processes. 

The object of that gigantic intellectual 
battle was in regard to the constitution- 
ality or not, of that income tax recently 
enacted into law. Before we enter the 
task of analyzing that discussion, perhaps 
it is due to our readers that we should 
give our own opinion about any kind of 
income tax. We repudiate the idea of 
God having granted any intellectual in- 
fallibility to any set of judges. We claim 
the natural right of being able to read 
and understand plain English, besides 
other languages, and hence that of under- 
standing our Constitution, particularly 
where it happens to be as explicit as any 
human language can be formulated. Be- 
sides, we like to have an eye on what is 
constitutional according to God’s laws. 
After a careful and long study on the ques- 
tion of taxation, our conclusion is that all 
taxes are wrong which rest on production 
and commerce. An income tax on large 
incomes is of course less unjust than thoee 
specifically legalized by our Constitution. 
Yet, it presents the following dilemma ; 
Either such incomes are the product of 
honest labor, or they are not. If the 
former, why to tax them ? If the latter, 
why not suppress the laws that make 
such dishonest incomes possible? 

What was most amusing, in that dis- 
cussion among our wealthy lawyers, was 
the stress laid by some upon the fact 
that if our income tax was declared tobe 
constitutional, by our Supreme Court, 
that then the life of the nation would be 
in great peril, and our institutions could 
easily go to pieces at any moment. Ab 
if such calamities were not dreadful 
enough to contemplate, it was also em- 
phatically asserted that our civilization 
resting, like all others, on the rights ot 
private property, chaos was apt to replace 
order, it such rights were at all infringed 
through an income tax. Such lawyers 
did not seem to care a rap about our 
Constitution. They were simply pre- 
occupied about the rights of private prop- 
erty. The rights of man, by God granted 
to men , the lawyers in question had 
nothing to do with them. They seemed 
to be just as indifferent to the Constitu- 
tion of God as to our own, although their 
business was simply to argue pro or con, 
about the constitutionality of a certain 
law. So much for the logic of judges. 

The rights of private property and not 
those of manhood was what kept our 
precious chöps, the above specified law- 
yers, in hot water all the time. They 
were so excited, the poor old fellows, 
that they even called our income tax 
clas$ legislation , and so, pregnant with 
dire dangers to our national existence. 
Link that with the fact, by them 
accepted, that such tax would mostly fall 
on but 2 per cent, of the nation, and the 
very ones possessing 80 per cent, of our 
wealth. Just as if any powerful social 
compact had ever existed that did not 
rest on class legislation. Just as if the 
mere existence of 2 per cent, in our 
young nation, with the bagatelle of 
80 per cent, of our wealth, just as if 
that alone did not prove that our 
class legislation had already been of 
the most criminal kind 1 Because, in the 
order of God, or that of nature, if you 
prefer, wealth is only promised to the 
workers, in proportion to their honest 
labor. Is it possible that we have only 
had about 2 per cent, of workers, in this 
nation of ours, since most of our wealth 
has been piled up with them, leaving 98 
per cent, in absolute or relative poverty ? 

Apparently that income tax of oujb is 
about the only class legislation ever 
established by our innocent legislators 
in the last century or so. And the crime 



w T as colossal, because that income tax 
attempts to draw from the wealthy, from 
2 per cent, of the nation, in the neigh- 
borhood of 10 per cent, of our national 
taxes, the 90 per cent, coming yet from 
indirect taxation, which fallB exclusively 
on the poor. Can that be disproved? 
Let us see how that works. 

The poor are poor, as a grand totality, 
totally or partially poor, because more 
or less under tribute to the few for 
the privilege of living and working 
on earth. 

The wealthy are wealthy, also aB a 
grand totality, because directly or in- 
directly they collect tribute from the 
bulk of the workers, because they pos- 
sess most of the land and land values, or 
hold a mortgage on them through pri- 
vate, corporate or public Fecurities. 

Now please remember that we don’t 
blame any specific individual for that. 
Each one of us must try to float, if he 
does not prefer to sink. We simply 
attack a social Bystem that forces all men 
to float at the expense of somebody else, 
instead of seeing that we all float, as 
God means we all should, as we would if 
laws of equal justice took the place of 
monopolistic ones. 

It stands to reason that all taxes shall 
rest on the poor, on the working masses, 
under any industrial status that piles the 
wealth, most of it, in the hands of the 
few, by giving to the latter opportunities 
that are denied to the rest, the power to 
tax the rest, and thence that of shifting 
all public taxes on the many. It cannot 
be any other way. It lies in the logic 
and essence of things. Do you want us 
to more radically prove that ? We shall 
resort to mathematics, the exact science, 
as it is called, even if all sciences are 
exact. 

Kill to-morrow everybody on earth 
except those you may consider the most 
wealthy and smartest chaps, each w ith 
ten millions or over, to make sure, and 
what becomes of them ? Well, they 
may be able to make a good living 
through hard, honest work. We even 
doubt that, because wealth has spoiled 
them ; but that old wealth of theirs, 
which enabled them to live like Persian 
satraps, that wealth shall all have melted 
away, because — because the workers 
have left for parts unknown— gone to 
mansions in the skies, we hope. 

And those are the fellows who form 
the nation, it seems to us, not the 2 per 
cent, to whom our income tax may 
apply, and thus destroy our institutions 
and that dear people of ours, according 
to our precious lawyers of high degree ! 

Jos£ Gros. 



The Financial Problem and Its Effect 
on the People, 



« IE confused and perplex- 
ing situation of our money 
matters, and the uncer- 
tainty as to whether our 
standard of measure of 
T$ values shall be finally 
one exclusively of gold, 
or whether silver is to be 
co-equal with gold as to 
legal tender function in 
the settlement of debts, is a matter of 
vital importance, and concerns all classes 
of citizens, and the welfare and prosper- 
ity of the country depends on its satis- 
factory solution. Workingmen in their 
endeavors to improve their condition 
would gain much by a thorough investi- 
gation of this subject, yet how much it 
is to be regretted that there are so many 
intelligent people in the industrial walks, 
not having the privilege of handling any 
more money than their daily or monthly 
wages, that is only sufficient to furmsh 
scanty provender to support life and pay 
house rent, who give but little attention 



0 



THE CARPENTER. 



General Officers 

op THE 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



General President.— Chas E. Owens, Westches- 
ter, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

General Secretarv-Treasurer— P. J. McGuire, 
Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 

General Vice-Presidents. 

First Vice-President— Henry Gale, 830 W. Ver- 
mont st., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Second Vice-President— Louis E. Tossey, 601 
Lamed st., East,— Detroit, Mich. 

General Executive Board. 

(All correspondence for the G. E. B. must be 
mailed to the General Secretary.) 

W. J. Shields, 10 Cheshire st., Jamaica Plain, 
Mass. 

S. J. Kent, 2016 9. st., Lincoln, Neb. 

J. Williams, 31 Spring st., Utica, N. Y. 

A. Cattermull, 8944 S. Halstead st., Chicago, 111. 

Jos. C. Gernet, 161 Foot Ave., Bellevue, Ky. 






to the management of public pecuniary 
concerns, and all they think about the 
value of money is so it pays the grocery 
bill and the landlord for the use of his 
tenement, that is sufficient. 

The astonishing and stupendously large 
transactions of this day, involving sums 
of money of immense amounts, entirely 
precludes the idea of employing gold and 
silver coins as the medium of exchange. 
The age of transactions of the commer- 
cial class, when prices can be paid in 
cash, has gone into the past, and a paper 
or credit money has been substituted. 
Indeed both gold and silver have been 
almost entirely abolished from circula- 
tion, save the minor coins, and the small 
amouut that is coined is hoarded in the 
vaults of banks and the national treasury 
for international uses, or as a reserve for 
emergencies such as war furnishes. 

The late internecine war involved our 
country in a stupendous debt, that was 
created in a period of inflation, and 
made payable in the standard currency 
of the country, that was in use when the 
bonds became due. This debt is held, 
in a large extent, by foreign capitalists, 
in interest bearing bonds, for which they 
paid as low as thirty-five cents on a 
dollar. Our government in its unbounded 
liberality to its foreign creditors haB 
changed the terms of the agreement 
and made the bonds payable in standard 
coin. And now since the debt has been 
paid thrice over, they claim that the 
balance of principle must be paid in gold, 
according to the standard of European 
countries. Our administration is more 
disposed, and some Congressmen, too, 
to be more generous with foreign credi- 
tors, and the moneyed classes at home, 
than just to our own industrial in- 
habitants, many of whom are striving to 
extricate themselves from debt for their 
little homes. 

To insure the repayment of these bonds 
to foreign creditors and enhance the 
credit, as alleged, of this country, the 
Secretary of the Treasury, by direction 
of the President, has caused four per 
cent, bonds in the sum of $100,000,000 
to be disposed of, and increased our in- 
terest bearing debt in time of profound 
peace, and imposed a burden of interest 
on the weaker classes, for all these bonds 
are exempt from taxation. The money 
realized on the sale of these bonds has 
not paid one dollar of our debt, but has 
been used in redemption of treasury 
notes, issued for silver bullion, bat was 
non interest-bearing, and supplied apart 
of our currency. 

This increasing of our debt to foreign 
capitalists may go on till the money 
brokers of Europe will control the 
finances of this country, and we will be- 
come dependent upon the aristocracy of 
Earope for the regulation of our trade 
and industries, and we must become 



creatures at their mercy and subject to 
their extortions. The Rothschild of 
Europe will eventually control the elec- 
tions and policy of this country, and we 
become his servile creatures, and pay him 
usury for the money we use in our com- 
mercial transactions. 

The innovation that is attempted in 
our money standard is inexpedient, as it 
remedies no evil. It ha9 provoked a war 
between the money giants, where the 
masses have to suffer all the casualties. 
The accumulators of money want a gold 
standard, it would make the quantity of 
money smaller, and appreciate their 
wealth and power. The stockholders in 
mines want a market for their products, 
one furnished by the government, that 
they may be able to exchange their 
bulky and less transportable metal for 
the finer one of more intrinsic value. 
The ordinary people, who own no stocks 
and carry on no foreign commerce, are 
willing to move along, paying no regard 
to the parity of gold and silver, and 
would be content with good greenbacks 
for currency, without the aid of even 
national bank notes. 

The financial legislation of the country, 
especially since 1873, when the resump- 
tion act was passed, has been vicious and 
detrimental to the moral and material 
prosperity of the country. It has not 
been with an honest intention to main- 
tain the parity between gold and Bilver, 
or to give us a currency with a fixed and 
stable purchasing power, and to promote 
the general welfare of the people, but 
rather to augment our debt, and furnish 
opportunities for good-pay iDg invest- 
ments for the advantage of the very rich. 

We hear a great deal and read about 
debasing our currency ; it is all clap-trap, 
a device to incite the prejudice of the 
simple minded. The question of wild- 
cat banking on a paper fiat basis is a 
thing of the past, buried with the debris 
of old indiscretions. The question now 
isthat of restoring silver to its former 
status as money, which for eighty years 
has been in absolute use in the United 
States, during a period of its greatest 
material prosperity, and during this 
time we never had any serious trouble in 
arranging the matter of foreign ex- 
change. It is always to be kept in mind 
that gold is the rarer and more valuable 
of the two metals, and will be the one 
preferred in payment of large sums, but 
there is too little of the precious metals to 
destroy one for a trifling inconvenience. 
But it is not a question now as to debased 
currency, for gold is not now used in 
ordinary transactions, it is whether or 
no, the gold standard shall be continued 
indefinitely by the United States to the 
exclusion of Bilver from absolute money 
functions. The fact is, there is not 
enough gold to pay the interest on 
national indebtedness of the world for 
one year. Then it is better and more 
creditable to legislate to Berve the inter- 
est of our own people than try to con- 
ciliate our foreign creditors. 

The single gold standard advocates 
assume that gold somehow possesses an 
absolute, unchanging value quality ; that 
a given quantity of gold, sav the amount 
of a gold dollar, 25.8 grains, is like a 
yard-stick, containing always without 
deviation or change a fixed number of 
inches or a certain total content, which 
makes it absolutely fair as the measure 
of value of other products. No more 
incorrect and fallacious idea could pos- 
sibly be conceived. Then look at the 
direfal consequences of this pernicious 
notion, together with that of the intro- 
duction of machinery and the employ- 
ment of females and children. But for 
the correcting influences of trade unions 
the disaster might have been greater. 
Wages have fallen. In eome trades as 
the matter stands the number of em- 
ployees has been reduced, and hundreds 



of thousands of wage earners have been 
reduced to a subsistence rate at email 
jobB; the wage rate of some kept em- 
ployed, in consequence of aptitude and 
skill have barely been maintained. 

Since the demonetization of Bilver has 
been going on, culminating in its most 
direful effects with the destruction of 
silver in this country, market prices for 
every kind of product, as measured by 
the gold dollar the values have all been 
steadily falling, or in what is the same 
thing differently stated, the price of the 
gold dollar has been steadily increasing 
as measured by the price of other prod- 
ucts. It is impossible for it to be other- 
wise, the quantity of gold annually pro- 
duced, or that may possibly be produced, 
being small, out of all proportion to the 
increasing demands of trade. The as- 
sumption that gold has a fixed, absolute, 
unchanging value is absurd, for it is well 
understood by every business man, every 
house owner, every producer from the 
soil, and many workers at days’ wages, 
that for a given quantity of gold or paper 
currency redeemable in gold, which is 
practically gold, he must give anywhere 
from twenty-five to fifty per cent, more 
product or labor than he would have 
been asked to give twenty or two years 
ago for the same quantity of gold or its 
representative. All prices for things, 
unless it be interest and rents, which 
maintain their high standards to-day. 
And so they muBt continue to fall until 
the downward movement is stopped by 
bringing into the money equation some 
factor that shall prevent gold from con- 
tinuing its rise. 

There is no demand in morals or in 
common sense why a nation should pay 
its debts thrice over, or offener, which is 
what the United States is doing in the 
matter of its foreign liabilities. The 
mortgaged farmer and other debtor 
classes are not able to endure much 
longer in the way of double payment of 
debts, and the reactionary effects will 
prove most disastrous to labor, as it has 
been doing for the past two yeqrs. 

Not regarding, however, the baneful 
influences and effects already attendant 
upon the suspension of silver coinage, 
this administration has asserted its firm 
determination, in the face of the declara- 
tions of the platform upon which it was 
placed in power, the maintenance of both 
gold and silver as the standard money 
of the country, to pay the national debt 
in gold, though it was agreed and made 
payable in the legal currency of the 
country. It is now polishing up the old 
plates to issue interest bearing bonds, 
piling up the national debt in time of 
profound peace, to maintain the reserve 
in the treasury and strengthen the credit 
of the country, but it is only treasuring 
up money to accommodate money specu- 
lators. However, foreign capitalists are 
discovering that the constant ruin on the 
treasury will soon force us into bank- 
ruptcy or a silver standard exclusively, 
and endanger their funds, and they are 
becoming lesa disposed to make heavy 
withdrawals at present. 

James E. Mahn. 

Syracuse , New York. 



CUSTOM TAILORS’ LABEL. 




All Trades Unionists are requested to ask for 
the label of the Journeymen Tailors’ Union, and 
insist on having it when they order any clothing 
from a merchant tailor. It is to be found in the 
inside breast pocket of the coat, on the under 
side of the buckle strap of the vest, and on the 
waistband lining of the pants. It is printed la 
black ink on white linen, with the words “ Jour- 
neymen Tailors’ Union of America” in red ink 
in the eentre. It means a fair prioe for g Mi 
work. 




( Insertions under this head cost ten cents a line.) 



Mill Hands Union No. 327, 1 

Cincinnati, March 27, 1895. 1 

In Memoriam 

of the death of our Financial Secretary, Bro. 
Geo. T. Marshall, who died on the Cth inst. 

Whereas, no men or class of men can deplore 
with a greater sense of regard than those who 
have in time pas* associated with one now gone 
to that home where the weary toiler finds rest, 
and 

Whereas, Local Union 327, C. & J. of A., 
through death has lost a most active member, a 
devoted and efficient officer, thereforo be it 
Resolved, that in the de*tli of Bro. G. T. Mar- 
shall the oause of human justice has lost an 
ardent worker, and whilst we do not murmur at 
the divine decree, yet we deplore the loss. 

Resolved , that we extend to the bereaved widow 
and family of the deceased our heartfelt sym- 
pathy in this the Lour of afiliction. 

Resolved , that a copy of these resolutions be 
sent to the widow of the deceased brother, also 
spread upon the minutes of this organization 
and a copy be sent to headquarters to be pub- 
lished in our official journal, The Carpenter. 

Respectfully submitted 

Wm. J. Quinn, ] 

Wm. Westerkamp, r Committee. 

Michael Meehan* 

J. O. Dunker, Rec. Sec'y. 



GENERAL LAWS. 



Weekly Pay— Weekly payments are the moat 
convenient for members of this Brotherhood, 
and where practicable should be adopted. 

Convict Labor,— We will not use any mill or 
other work manufactured in a penal institution, 
or brought from any town or city where cheap 
tabor prevails. 

Labor’s Holiday.— We favor the adoption of 
the first Monday in September as Labor’s Holi- 
day, and we recommend that our 1». U.’s shall 
endeavor to observe the same. 

Eight Hours.— Our L. U.’s shall do all in their 
power to make the Eight hour rule universal, 
and to sustain those unions that have now estab- 
lished the Eight hour system. 

AMICABLE U NDERSTANDING— The G. E. B. should 
do all in its power to discourage strikes, and 
adopt such means as will tend to bring about an 
amicable understanding between Local Unions 
and employers^ 

Lien Laws.— We desire uniform lien law* 
throughout the United States and Canadas, mak- 
ing a mechanic’s lien the first mortgage on real 
estate to secure the wages of labor first, and 
material second. Such liens should be granted 
without long stays of execution or other un- 
necessary delays. 

Building Trades Leagues.— Each L. U. shall 
strive to form a League composed of delegates 
from the various unions of the building trades in 
its respective city, and by this means an employ- 
ment bureau lor these trades can be created 

Grading Wages.- We are opposed to any sys- 
tem of grading wages in the Local Unions, as we 
deem the same demoralizing to the trad© and a 
further incentive to reckless competition, haring 
the ultimate tendency when vrork is scarce, to 
allow first-class men to offer their labor at third- 
class prices. We hold that the plan of fixing a 
minimum price for a day s work to bo the safest 
and best, and let the employers grade the wag«« 
above that minimum. 



Something' for Carpenters to Read! 



The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America was founded in Convention 
at Chicago, August 12, J8S1. At first it had only 
12 Local Unions and 2042 members. Now, in ten 
years, it has grown to number over 716 Local 
Unions in over 640 cities, and 84,377 enrolled 
members. It is organized to protect the Carpen- 
ter Trade from the evils of low prices and botch 
work* its aim is to encourage a higher standard 
of skill and better wages; to re-establish an 
Apprentice System, and to aid and assist the 
members by mutual protection and benevolent 
means. It pays a Wife Funeral Benefit of from 
825 to $50; Member’s Funeral Benefit, $ 00 to 
8200; and Disability Benefit 8100 to 8<00. In 
these General Benefits 864. 534 have been ex- 
pended the past year, and $293 518 the past ten 
years, while $571, C00 more was spent for Sick 
Benefits by the Local Unions. Such an organi- 
zation is worthy the attention of every Carpenter. 
The Brotherhood is also a Protective Trade 
Union as well as a Benevolent Society. It lias 
raised the wages in 668 cities, and placed Five 
and a Half Million Dollars more wage9 annually 
in the pockets of the Carpenters in those cities. 
It reduced the hours of labor to 8 hours a day in 
SIcltleB, and 9 hours a day in 416 cities, not to 
speak of 457 cities which have established the 8 
or 9-liour system on Saturdays. By this means 
12,150 more men have gained employment This 
is the result of thorough organization. A nd yet 
very few strikes have occurred, and very little 
money has been spent on strikes by this society. 
It is not a secret oath bound organization. All 
competent Carpenters are eligible to join, and 
this is an invitation to you as an intelligent 
mechanic to send in your application for mem- 
bership in the Carpenters’ Union <>f your city. It 
is a branch of the Brotherhood ; the dues are but 
small in comparison wCh the benefits, and it is 
to your interest to join this growing and power- 
fill body. 






10 



THE CARPENTER. 



A Plea for Shorter Hours. 



In Ibc world there*» need for labor, 
Useful efforts, fair and true, 

Work is good, so let all share it, 

Mine for me and your» for you, 

Rich and poor, let’s have no shirkers, 
Make a world of fellow-worker». 



Through the world there’s need for leisure, 
Time to think in, time to pray. 

Time for winning health and pleasure, 

Time for wiping grief» away. 

Share the »pare time, nor abuse it, 

Teach each other how to use it. 



You who »lave make others idle ; 

Thus you work a double ill — 

You are sweated, they are starving, 

They bind you upon the mill. 

Share the work ! Rich idlers ride you, 
Whipless, soon they’ll work beside you. 



Rich nor poor there'll be no shirkers, 

But a world of happy workers, 

^•Railway Review. 



A ROUGH 



SKETCH OF 
STRUGGLE. 



A ROUGH 



TUB CROWNING CRIME. 



BY HUGH MCGREGOR. 




AVING devoted 
considerable at- 
tention to the 
important 
changes made 
in the actual 
constitution of 
the trade union 
during the four- 
teenth century, 



we now proceed to rapidly trace its evo- 
lution until the middle of the sixteenth 
century, the period of the distinct and 
final separation of the trade union into 
two opposing organizations of employers 
and employed. 

Oppressive as the reorganization of the 
trade union in the special interest of its 
richer members eventually became, it 
would be a mistake to infer that the ex- 
clusion of the journeymen from the trade 
union franchise was immediately fol- 
lowed by their economic degradation; 
because we have ample proof that the 
interval between that exclusion and the 
first permanent fall of wages lasted for 
more than one and halt centuries. It is 
an undisputed fact- that with the rise of 
the special classes there was a corre- 
sponding rise of the real wages of labor, 
continuing from the first quarter of the 
fourteenth century until after the open- 
ing of the sixteenth century. That there 
was nothing accidental in this long con 
tinned improvement, or in the subae 
quent rapid decline, of the economic 
condition of the workers we are prepared 
to show. 

Character of the Period.— The general ten- 
dency of this period was, primarily, 
toward liberty ; and, secondarily, toward 
specialty of employments. The result 
of this tendency was, primarily, an in 
creased production of wealth, consider- 
ably assisted by the use of mechanical 
inventions ; and, secondarily, a progres 
sive increase in the real wages of labor. 

tendency to Liberty. — It is the habit of 
historians to ascribe the whole credit 
of this great industrial revival to the 
efforts of the civic populations ; we, how 
ever, must beware of taking this one- 
sided view, the more especially because 
it fails to reveal how the great change 
from a military to an industrial civiliza 
tion was achieved. 

When, having neither rational object 
or adequate reward, the intense military 
activity of early times began to decay, 
the energy of the military chiefs, who 
were all resident landholders, was more 
or less strongly directed to the improve 
ment of their possessions. To this end 
or to acquire ready money to indulge in 
luxuries, the landholders gave to many 



of the more intelligent and industrious 
of their serfs inducements to more dili- 
gently cultivate portions of the land and 
stock, which had previously been culti- 
vated, with unsatisfactory results, on the 
communal system. These inducements 
were in the nature of leases of separate 
individual holdings at fixed rentals ; pay- 
able partly in produce and partly in labor 
on the reserved portion of the lord’s 
domain, or in money in lieu of such 
labor. The impetus given to agriculture 
—the production of food — by this exten- 
sion of liberty, was indirectly communi- 
cated to manufactures, to commerce, and 
finally to public credit or banking. That 
a long continued preparation had been 
made for this great extension of liberty 
and industry is certain, seeing that the 
trade union had already effected its free 
craft and municipal organization in the 
more populous centres, and, in the most 
favorable localities, the mercantile and 
financial classes had been more or less 
clearly differentiated from the manu- 
facturing class. Yet no great impulse 
was given to industry until, about the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, 
practical liberty had been acquired by 
the masses engaged in agriculture. 

This important period, is known aB 
41 the renaissance,” or the new birth. It 
was at this period that industry began 
to be more attractive to free and intelli- 
gent men than war ; and that the work 
man, the agent of construction, began to 
assume greater social importance than 
the soldier, the agent of destruction. 

7 endency to Specialty . — Having already 
dealt with the tendency to specialty of 
employments in our previous remarks 
on the evolution of the professional and 
the four great industrial classes, it is not 
neceseary to trace the progress further, 
because to trace this tendency in the 
several crafts would be to multiply in- 
stances of the working of one general 
rule which each person may verify for 
himself. This rule may be roughly 
stated as follows. The tendency to spe- 
cialty of employments is from the least 
numerous to the most numerous class or 
group, and from the class or group exer- 
cising the most special ability in some 
direction (though perhaps extremely in- 
capable in every other direction) to the 
class or group exercising the least special 
ability; or to the mass engaged in the 
most general and least specialized, the 
so-called unskilled, kinds of labor. 

Mechanical Inventions — The best proof 
that the great revival of industry was 
the result of the general extension of 
liberty is to be found in the important 
mechanical inventions that were adopted 
at the beginning or were called into ex 
istence during this period ; and the proof 
suggested will be the most conclusive to 
those who best recognize that serfdom, 
like slavery, is unfavorable to the use of 
mechanical expedients to dispense with 
manual labor. Prominent among these 
inventions were the compass and print- 
ing. The first named of these had long 
been known, but was only now adapted 
to practical use. In regard to the latter 
we must not fall into the error of credit 
ing the whole invention of printing to 
the time of Guttenberg, and thereby 
ignore the much earlier invention of 
printing from engraved wooden plates. 
The UBe of the compass, the chief im- 
provement in the means of transporta- 
tion, by assisting the uniform distribu- 
tion of products, was equivalent to a 
considerable increase of production, and 
powerfully contributed to the increase of 
real wages. There were, undoubtedly, 
cases of hardship arising from the intro- 
duction of inventions, as in the case of 
the copyists thrown out of employment 
by the use of the printing press ; but the 
then existing bountiful institutions for 
the relief of distress were fully adequate 
to meet Buch emergencies, and succeeded 



in doing so without degrading the unem- 
ployed. 

Incr eating Wages. — The dominant fact 
of this period was the progressively high 
average rate of real wages. Not only did 
the money wages received by the laborer 
continue to increase, but the cost of the 
necessaries of life relatively decreased. 

As an illustration of this general eco- 
nomic progress we will take a fairly 
representative trade for example. In 
the first quarter of the fourteenth ’cen- 
tury, a skilled carpenter, residing in a 
large city, by working three hundred 
days in the year, earned a wage equal in 
purchasing power to about five hundred 
dollars oi our present money. WageB 
progressively increasing from that time, 
by the middle of the fifteenth century, a 
skilled carpenter, working three hundred 
days, earned a wages equal in our money 
to more than nine hundred dollars. 

In arriving at this conclusion we have 
relied on the data given by Thorold 
Rogers in his colossal work on ‘‘Agri- 
culture and Prices,” the fruit of twenty 
years’ diligent study, based on a mass of 
recently discovered original financial 
records. Without departing from this 
data, we have taken three hundred 
working days at seven and a half pence 
a day, giving an annual wage of nine 
pounds seven shillings and six pence; 
this sum multiplied by twenty, for the 
difference between the cost of the 
necessaries of life there at the time 
stated and here at the present day, gives 
us one hundred and eighty- seven pounds 
ten shillings ; this sum multiplied by 
five, to reduce the pounds sterling to our 
money, gives us nine hundred and forty- 
seven dollars and fifty cents as the 
present equivalent of a carpenter’s an 
nual wages in the middle of the fifteenth 
century (300 days at 7}d = £9 .07 .06 x 
20= <£ 187 .10 .00 x 5 = $947.50). 

During the course of the century wages 
rose yet higher, but we wish to keep 
well within the limit of the facts and 
guard against exaggeration. It is true 
lhat the rate of wages here givenj 7J 
pence, is that of a large city, where the 
rate was higher than that established by 
saw-and-hatchet men in agricultural dis- 
tricts, but we have not taken into our 
calculation the joiners who had a sepa- 
rate union in the same city with a ten 
per cent, higher rate. Three hundred 
working days in the year will not be 
thought excessive when we consider that 
the carpenters did not necessarily lose 
time during stormy weather, that the 
short workday enabled extra hours to be 
worked when work was pressing, and 
that neither journeyman nor master 
were in the habit of chasing all over the 
city day alter day without being able to 
find each other. A multiplier of twenty 
(20) for the difference between the cost 
of the necesBariea of life then and now 
may at first sight seem excessive, but it 
would require a multiplier of twenty- 
five (25) to meet the difference between 
half a cent a pound for beef at that time 
and the price the workman has to pay 
for beef to-day ; and a multiplier of 
thirty (30) would entirely fail to cover 
the difference of rent. Before quitting 
this subject one thing has to be ex- 
plained ; during the months of Decem- 
ber and January twenty five per cent, 
less time and wages was made; deduct- 
ing, then, nine Sundays and three Christ- 
mas holidays from these montbB, fifty 
workdays with three-quarter time and 
pay remain, involving a reduction equal 
to forty dollars, nearly ; yet leaving an 
annual wage, as previously stated, equal 
to more than nine hundred dollars. 

Eight hour workday— There are good 
grounds for affirming that the customary 
workday at this period was one of eight 
hours’ duration. Eight hours constituted 
a day’s work and was the standard by 
which wages were computed ; the mem- 



: 



orable statute of laborers and all subse- 
quent legislation to the contrary not- 
withstanding. Therefore, during the 
tw T o months when the sun was nearest 
the winter solstice, and darkness cut off 
an hour from the morning and an hour 
from the afternoon work spells, a three- 
quarter workday of six hours was the 
result. For the remaining ten months 
of the year each work spell was of four 
hours’ duration, work commencing at 
seven and ending at five o’clock. Thus 
during the entire year there was between 
the two daily spells an interval of two 
hours, from one hour before to one hour 
after noon, devoted to eating and rest ; 
this interval was called “ noon6cbene, ,, J 
in the old and “ diner ” in the new f 
English speech. Short interruptions of 
work were allowed at nine and three 
o’clock for a bite and sup, called 
bevers.” When, however, the pres- 
sure of work demanded overtime the 
invariable custom was one hour for 
breakfast and one hour for supper ; 
since no higher rate was paid for over- , 
time, it iB probable that these intervale 1 
were counted as time and added to the | 
overtime actually worked. 

The eight-hour workday is not, as 
many people believe, a modern innova- 
tion ; it was a pre- existing normal labor 
condition, which we have lost during a 
long period of degradation. Like other 
important features we have referred to, 
the eight-hour workday was a natural 
development of the trade union, and 
with the modern revival of the trade 
union comes also the necessity of the 
trade union normal workday. 

Causes of Decline . — It being sufficiently i 
evident that the progressive increase of | 
wages during the fourteenth and fifteenth | 
centurieB was the result of the grand 
revival of industry, and that this revival 
was the sequence of the important exten- 
sion of personal liberty prepared by the 
growth of the trade union and a corres- 
ponding decay of the military spirit ; 
therefore, it iB now in order to point out 
the causes of the decline in wages which 
commenced with the sixteenth century 
and became permanent for centuries \ 

tViorooffov TVlia rlAS.1I-n.ft ’ 






thereafter. This decline in the economic 
condition of the workers is distinctly] 
traceable to two primary causes; first tol 
the spirit of egoism, or selfishnees, tbatf 
commenced and continued the revolution f 
in the ancient constitution of the trade! 
union ; and, finally, to a series of sense-1 
less and criminal acts committed by the! 
State. 

Lack of Solidarity . — In all previous ageB 
we have seen the trade union serving as 
the bulwark of industrial and municipal 
liberty ; but now, when the historic or- 
ganization of the workers had fallen into! 
the hands of men swayed mainly by the ■ 
instinct of self aggrandisement, we havö 
to regard the union as the violator of its! 
own basic principle — all for each and 
each for all ; and are confronted with the- 
sad spectacle^ of the trade union iij 
alliance with the State as the oppressor 
of industry and the betrayer of liberty. 

As the undisguised object of the re- 
organization of the trade union, com- 
menced in 1327, was the substitution of 
the principle of wealth for lhat of merit 
as the qualification for the direction of 
industry, the revolutionary process once 
begun was destined to proceed to its 
shameful end. Let us mark this progress 
After the re-organization referred to, the 
three original degrees of apprentice, 
journeyman and master continued to 
exist ; but a fourth degree known as 
‘‘the livery ;” consisting, as per charter, 
of the richer masters and claiming the 
sole power of craft government, now 
came into existence. Admission to thisf 
degree, which at first could only b« 
gained by apprenticeship, was in th< 
course of time granted to relatives an 
favorites who, if ignorant from a tecbni 



THE CARPENTER 



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cal point of view, were able to pay hand- 
somely for a share in the craft monopoly. 
In farther pursuit of this degradirg plu- 
tocratic policy, a fifth degree, that of 
“the wardens,” was eventually consti- 
tuted. This degree, self- perpetuated by 
a system of secret election, finally con- 
centrated in the hands of a “court of 
assistants,” composed of some dozen of 
its members, all the executive, legislative 
and judicial powers of the union. In 
addition to wielding this enormous 
power in craft affairs, the courts of assist- 
ants of the wealthier unions arrogated to 
themselves the power to elect the mayor 
and all other municipal officers , anda ] so 
to elect the members of parliament repre- 
senting their city. 

That the journeymen keenly felt the 
social degradation entailed upon them 
by this revolution is apparent by their 
sympathetic participation in the revolt 
of 1381, and their hanging of the Belgians 
who had been imported by the King to 
break down the un-reorganized weavers’ 
union ; and that the poorer masters were 
also deeply affected as they saw the ave- 
nues to industrial and civic distinction 
closed against them is no less certain. 
But though bereft of voice and vote in 
business and political affairs by being 
thrust out of the corporations , the journey- 
men and small masters still retained 
membership in the brotherhoods of their 
crafts ; and consequently, still controlled 
the most important part of the union 
funds; the lands, buildings, and other 
property devoted to benevolent purposes. 
We shall hereafter see what became of 
this property. We have seen how the 
grocers took advantage of the re-organ- 
ization to engross and enhance the prices 
of all wares possible, and how the legis- 
lation enacted to restrain them was only 
used as a weapon againBt the poorer 
craftsman. We have seen how the richer 
tailors, spurning the shopboard in their 
ambition to become “merchant tailors,” 
or cloth monopolists, first violated the 
trade union rule of apprenticeship by 
admitting kirgs and lords to union mem- 
bership. We have also seen the mercers, 
drapers, and tailors combine to rob the 
weaver’s union of the right to the free 
disposal in open market of their handi- 
work . Similar cases might be adduced in- 
definitely; but one characteristic, though 
grotesque, instance of this monopolistic 
spirit in the house painters’ union will 
be sufficient. This union memorialized 
that an amendment be made to their 
charter giving them power to u restrain 
all persons not of their corporation from 
painting portraits of noblemen and 
others, as well as all other manner of 
paintings;” for the reason that such 
paintings “ showed fair to the sight but 
were not substantially wrought.” In fact, 
the rage for chartered monopolies grew 
with what it fed upon ; until as the cele- 
brated Bacon has truly said, “ the com- 
panies,” or monopolized unions, “ were as 
full of abuses as a homeless dog is full of 
fleas.” 

Debased Money. — The first great crime, 
the first step toward the robbery of the 
workers was effected by collusion be- 
tween the richer members of the trade 
union and the State; but the crime, 
or the long series of crimes, to which 
we now refer was committed by the State 
alone. 

Until the year 1344 there was but little 
temptation to debase the currency, be- 
cause previous to that time all large sums 
were paid in bullion, in pounds weight 
of silver cut into blank, unstamped 
pieces of twenty to the pound. The 
standard of fineness being twenty-two 
and one -fifth carats ; and the ratio be- 
tween silver and gold being ten to 
one. Small sums only, before 1344, 
were paid in coin of silver pennies, 
deeply quartered by a cross so that 
they might be easily broken into halves 



and fourths when smaller change was 
needed. 

At this time, as long previously, the 
pound weight of silver was coined into 
240 pennies. The firBt attempt at de- 
basement of weight was made in 1347, 
the year after the battle of Crecy and the 
year before the Black Death, when the 
pound of silver was made to produce as 
many as 265 pennies. The sharp in- 
crease of wages following that dreadful 
pestilence diverted attention from this 
Bwindle. Anyhow, the experiment was 
repeated in 1354, when the pound was 
coined into three hundred pennies ; and 
any complaints must have been drowned 
in the shouts that hailed the criminal as 
the victor of Poitiers. In 1422 the pound 
was struck into 360 pieces, but the fame 
of the victor of Agincourt stilled every 
tongue. The civil wars gave opportuni- 
ties to the partisans of the white and the 
red roses to further debase the weight 
of the currency, and the number of 
pennies was first increased to 445, in 
1461, and then in 1465 to 480 pennies to 
the pound. Dearly enough did the 
workers pay for each of these barbaric 
relapses into militarism ; for by this 
time the depreciation of the currency 
amounted to exactly fifty per cent. 

Hitherto, the grand impetus of in- 
dustry, the improved productive capacity 
of labor had enabled the laborers to in- 
creasingly indulge in more and better 
food, clothing, furniture, tools and 
houses despite each of these successive 
filchiDgs from their wages. But with 
the beginning of the sixteenth century 
the long series of crimes committed by 
the State began to have visible effects ; 
the cost of the necessaries of life began 
to rise faster than money wages. The 
laborer might earn three pennies where 
before he only earned two ; but these 
three State pennies, in spite of his harder 
and better labor, would only procure him 
two and a half pennies’ worth of bread. 
No opportunity was given for recovery, 
for whereas in 1509 the pound was mafle 
to produce 540 pennies, in 1543 that 
arch- thief, Henry VIII., conceived the 
diabolical idea of betraying the commer- 
cial honor of the people and a further 
robbery of the workers by debasing the 
standard of fineness ; of lowering the 
quality of the currency to twenty carats, 
and he furthermore coined a pound of 
this inferior silver into 576 pennies. 

Two years thereafter, in 1445, this 
worthy representative of the State re- 
duced the standard to twelve carats, the 
money was now half silver and half 
brass. The very next year, 1546, this 
bloated and ulcerated ruffian debased 
the coinage to eight carats, one third 
silver and two thirds brass. His son and 
successor in State policy carried on the 
work of forgery and seemed to cap the 
climax of villany ; for, in 1551, be coined 
a pound of nameless dross, composed of 
one quarter silver and three-quarters 
braes, into 864 pennies. The penny was 
now almost as thin as tinsel and as black 
as the ace of spades ; and the workman’s 
penny loaf was fast approaching the one- 
spot in size and color. 

Confiscation of Brotherhood funds . — This 
crowning crime against the trade union 
has not hitherto received the attention 
it demands, because, being inextricably 
interwoven with a more general and ex 
tensive crime committed by the State, 
two otherwise opposing prejudices, so- 
called religious and anti-religious, have 
conspired to prevent the subject being 
regarded from a purely trade union 
standpoint. 

The mediaoval trade union was superior 
to the Roman trade union in two re- 
spects first, it substituted apprentice- 
ship in place of slavery ; and, secondly it 
substituted a system of mutual insurance 
in place of State endowments. Thus, in 
the middle ages the trade union had two 



centres : one of these was known in the 
new English speech as the “ corpora- 
tion,” and the other as the “fraternity ” 
or “brotherhood.” The former was 
special and practical, being devoted to 
the protection of industrial and muni- 
cipal liberty ; the latter was general and 
social, being devoted to the cultivation 
of the bond of sympathy or benevolence. 
The former centred in the craft-hall, the 
latter centred in the craft-chapel. We 
have seen the richer masters assume ex- 
clusive possession of the corporation, the 
protective centre of the trade union in 
the craft-hall ; we have now to see the 
State, two centuries thereafter, stretch 
forth its blood and crime stained hand to 
rob and strangle the brotherhood, the 
benevolent centre of the trade union in 
the craft-chapel. 

We are not able to form any estimate 
of the money value of the lands, build- 
ings, furniture, vestments, plate and 
money, the property of the brotherhood, 
the patrimony of the widow and the 
orphan, the sick, distressed and aged 
craftsmen, that was confiscated by the 
State during the fifteen evil years be- 
tween 1536 and 1551 ; because the greater 
part of thiB property was indiscrimi- 
nately seized with that of the conven- 
tual institutions. We have, however, 
already seen that in 1839 returns were 
made to the Court of Chancery of the 
number of corporations and brother- 
hoods then existing. Nothing is known 
of the returns from the corporations; 
but there are still extant returns from 
more than five hundred of the brother- 
hoods. That the total amount of the 
plunder realized from the brotherhoods 
was very great is an assumption sup- 
ported by all the known facts in connec- 
tion therewith. We have poeitive ev4 
dence to this effect in the case of twelve 
corporations in London who made a 
profitable speculation by buying from 
the State the confiscated lands of their 
craft brotherhoods. The assessed an- 
nual value of the lands so bought 
amounted to nme hundred and thirty- 
five pounds fourteen shillings, for which 
they paid, at the rate of twenty years 
purchase, the sum of eighteen thousand 
seven hundred and fourteen pounds, 
or a sum equal to $1,871,400 of our 
money. A fact pregnant with thought 
is that a plot of land bought by the 
grocers in 1433 for somewhat less than 
thirty-two pounds was sold by that 
corporation in the year 1800 to the 
Bank of England for twenty thousand 
pounds. 

Study this crowning crime as we will 
our minds cannot fully grasp its enor- 
mity. If we take the number of colleges, 
schools, hospitals and asylums of every 
kind, large and small, that were thus 
plundered and suppressed, and then take 
the area of England, Wales and Ireland, 
we shall find that there waB one such 
institution in England and Wales to every 
piece of land 5x6 miles square, and in 
Ireland one to every 6 miles square. The 
occupants of these institutions were 
turned adrift to beg, starve or steal. The 
lands were given to fawning favorites, and 
these turned the land over to rack-rented 
farmers who discharged laborers and 
evicted small tenants to make room for 
sheep. From the plenty and joyousnees 
of the previous century the great mass of 
the workers were reduced to grinding 
poverty and actual beggary, and then 
the most ferocious laws were passed to 
prevent the starving wretches from ask 
ing bread. 

If history has any meaning or use, if 
one generation is able to profit from the 
experience of a former generation, there 
is a solemn warning to avoid a repe- 
tition of past errors in the story of 
the great decline of wages and the 
evil results springing from the crowning 
crime. 



CONSTITUTION FOR BUILDING 
TRADES COUNCIL. 



ARTICLE I. 

Section 1 . This organization shall be known 
as the Amalgamated Council of the Building 
Trades. 

Seo. 2. This council shall be composed of dele- 
gates duly chosen from all societies in the build- 
ing trades, who shall, before being admitted, 
produce credentials signed by the president and 
recording secretary of their society, and shall 
have the seal of their union attached. 

Seo. 8. In case of a secret society, the seal of 
their lodge attached shall be a sufficient guaran- 
tee of their genuineness. 

Seo. 4. The officers of this society shall consist 
of a chairman, vice-chairman aud recording sec- 
retary, corresponding secretary, financial secre- 
tary, treasurer and sergeant-at-arms. 

Seo. 5. The chairman and vice-chairman shall 
be elected at each meeting, and shall be nomi- 
nated from delegates of different societies, not 
shall any chairman sit in judgment on any case 
affecting the union he belongs to. 

Seo. 6. The recording secretary, corresponding 
secretary, financial secretary, treasurer and ser- 
geant-at-arms shall be elected quarterly; the re- 
cording secretary shall receive such salary as 
this council shall deem advisable. 

ARTICLE II. 

Section 1. The executive functions of this 
council shall be vested in the officers and dele- 
gates while in session, and in such committees as 
this council may find necessary to conduct its 
business under this constitution. 

Seo. 2. The objects of this council shall be to 
centralize the united efforts aud experience ol 
the various societies engaged in the erection and 
alteration of buildings, and that they may form 
one common council, and with common interest 
to prevent that which may be injurious, and 
properly perfect and carry into effect that which 
they may deem advantageous to themselves, and 
for the common good of all. 

Sec. 3. All trade and labor societies represented 
in this council, when desirous of making a de. 
mand for either an advance of wages or an 
abridgement in the hours of labor, sbnll, through 
their delegates, report the same to this council, 
prior to the demand being made, when, if con- 
eurred in by a two-thirds vote of all the societies 
present, at any stated meeting, the action shall be 
binding. This section shall not prevent any 
society from acting on its own responsibility* 

ARTICLE ill. 

Section 1. No trade shall be entitled to mors 
than three votes on any question that directly 
affects the material interests of any trade society. 

8 ec. 2. All trades or societies represented shall 
be entitled to three delegates. 

Sec. 8. Anv society having three or more 
branches shall be entitled to one delegate for 
each branch. 

article IV, 

Section 1 , Any trade society represented in 
this council that may desire material aid, shall 
state their case to this council, and, if approved 
by the delegates, shall bring the matter before 
their respective organizations for immediate 
action. 

article v. 

Section 1. It shall be the special duty of this 
council to use the united strength of all the 
societies represented therein, to compel all non- 
union men and “scabs ’’ to conform to, and obey 
the laws of, the society that they should properly 
belong to. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of any trade or 
labor society to use ev« ry lawful means to in- 
duce all non-union men or scabs to become 
members of their respective unions and any 
trade society failing In their Just efl’orts, shall 
bring the matter before this council through 
their delegates, with all the facts in the case, 
with the names of the men. if possible, where 
employed, and the name or the employer, the 
same to be presented in writing with the signa- 
ture of the president of the society affected, 
when this council shall take immediate action in 
the matter, and. if deemed advisable, this council 
may, by a two-thirds vote of the delegates then 
present, forming a quorum, order a withdrawal 
of any or all trades or societies who may be on 
any building where said uon-union men or 
scabs may be employed. This order shall be 
carried into effect through the agency of the 
walking delegates of the various societies. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Section 1. All societies represented in this 
council shall pay the sum of two dollars each per 
month. 

ARTICLE VII. 

Section I. On demand of a union represented, 
a general strike shall be ordered to reinstate a 
member or members who have struck and are 
refused employment on that job that was struck. 

Sec. 2. Any walking delegate or delegates of 
any society ordering a strike without the con- 
sent of this council, the trade he represents shall 
be held responsible for the wages of the men on 
strike. This shall not prevent a delegate from 
ordering a strike of the members of the society 
he represents to adjust its own internal affairs 
without the assistance of this council. 

Seo. 3. Members of a union seceding from a 
parent organization and forming a separate union 
shall be excluded from this council. 

Sec. 4. All branches of a union shall demand 
the same wages and the same hours of labor. 

article vm. 

Section 1. ‘When tire members of two unions 
represented in this council work at the same 
trade, it shall bo unlawful for one to take the 
place of the other when on strike. 

article ix. 

Section 1. No society or branch of a society 
shall be allowed to strike more than one em- 
ployer at a time, unless there are two or more 
employers on the same job. 

ARTICLE X. 

Section 1. Two-thirds of all the trades repre- 
sented in this council shall form a quorum. 

Sec. 2. It shall take two weeks’ notloe of mo- 
tion and two-thirds majority to alter or amend 
any article of this constitution. 



12 



THE CARPENTER 



: 



U. 8. PATENTS GRANTED RECENTLY. 

AS REPORTED ESPECIALLY FOR THIS 
PUBLICATION BY 

MESSRS. CHANDLEE & CHANDLEE, 

SOLICITORS OF PATENTS, 

ATLANTIC BUILDING, WASHINGTON, D. C., 

from whom copies of these patents may be had at 
fifteen cents each. 



535,288. Alarm -Lock. Charles T. Hol- 
man, Atlantic, Pa. Filed Dec. 29, 
1894. Serial No. 533,333. (No 
Model.) 




Claim, — 1. The combination with a 
Bpring latch, of a hollow shaft for oper- 
ating the same, a knob spindle passing 
through said hollow shaft and having 
rigidly secured thereon a toothed wheel, 
an escutcheon provided with a slotted 
boss, and a sliding bolt mounted on said 
hollow shaft and adapted to be alternately 
engaged with said Blotted boss and 
toothed wheel, whereby said knob ppin- 
dle and latch are thrown into and out of 
operative engagement, substantially as 
described. 

2. The combination with a spring latch, 
of a hollow shaft for operating the same, 
a knob spindle passing through said hol- 
low shaft and having rigidly secured 
thereon a toothed wheel, an escutcheon 
provided with a slotted boss, projecting 
ears carried by said hollow shaft, a slid- 
ing bolt seated between said ears and 
provided with an elongated slot, and a 
pin passing through saidtlot and secured 
in said ears, whereby said bolt may be 
caused to alternately engage said Blotted 
bo c s and toothed wheel, to throw said 
latch and spindle into and out of opera- 
tive engagement, substantially as de- 
scribed. 

S. Tne combination with a spring 
latch, of a hollow shaft for operating the 
same, a knob Bpindle passing through 
said hollow shaft and having muunted 
thereon a longitudinally adjustable Bleeve 
carrying a toothed wheel, an escutcheon 
provided with a slotted boss, and a slid 
ing bolt mounted on said hollow shaft 
and adapted to be alternately engeged 
with said slotted boss and toothed wheel, 
whereby said knob spindle and latch are 
thrown into and out of operative engage- 
ment, substantially as described. 

4. The combination with a spring 
latch, of a hollow shaft for operating the 
same and carrying bell striking mechan- 
ism, a knob spindle passing through said 
hollow shaft and carrying a bell and a 
toothed wheel for actuating the bell 
striking mechanism, and means for 
throwing said hollow shaft and knob 
Bpindle into and out of operative engage- 
ment, substantially as described. 



2. A threshold having a longitudinal 
groove 12, and a ledge 13, a strip located 
on said ledge and in said groove, pins 15, 
fixed to and projecting from the ends of 
said strip, which pins are seated for 
oscillation in grooves formed in the 
threshold at the ends of the groove 12, 
and a lug fixed to and projecting out- 
ward from one corner of the Baid strip 
and adapted for engagement with the 
door to oscillate said strip, which lug 
rests in the groove 12, and supports the 
strip from tilting when said strip is in- 
verted as set forth. 

534,987. Fastener for Meeting-Rails 
of Sashes. John J. Alsdorf, Albany, 
N. Y. Filed Nov. 1. 1894. Serial 
No. 527,673. (No Model.) 




Claim . — 1. A fastener for window 
sashes and the like, consisting of a bar- 
rel or casing adapted to fit a recess in the 
inner rail and be secured to the rail, a 
sliding bolt mounted in said barrel, an 
open-ended recess in the barrel, a head 
detachably secured to the inner end of 
the bolt and playiüg in said recess, a 
spring encircling the bolt and reacting 
between its head and the bottom of the 
recess, and a detachable handle or key 
for operating the bolt ; substantially as 
described. 

2. A fastener for window sashes and 
the like, consisting of a barrel or casing 
adapted to fit a recess in the inner rail 
and be secured to the rail, a slidmg and 
turning bolt mounted in said barrel, a nut 
screwing on the inner end of the bolt, a 
spring encircling the bolt and acting to 
keep its outer end withdrawn within the 
barrel, a right-angular slot in the barrel, 
a pin on the bolt playing in said slot, 
means for adjusting the nut on the bolt 
to vary the tension of the spring, and 
a detachable handle or key for operating 
the bolt ; substantially as described. 

3. A fastener for window sashes and 
the like, consisting of a barrel or casing 
adapted to fit a recess in the inner rail 
and be secured to the rail, a sliding and 
turning bolt mounted in said barrel, a 
head on the inner end of the bolt, a 
spring encircling said bolt and acting to 
keep itB outer end withdrawn within the 
barrel, a slot in said barrel having longi- 
tudinal and transverse portions, a pin on 
the bolt play iß g in said slot, a screw- 
threaded recess in the inner end of the 
bolt, a forward prolongation g' of the 
transverse portion of the slot in the bar- 
rel, and a detachable handle or key for 
operating the bolt having a threaded end 
adapted to be screwed into the said 
threaded recess; substantially as de- 
scribed. 



ating post loosely connected to the oppo- 
site end of the latch and extending 
upwardly beneath the lower rail of the 
window sash ; substantially as described. 

2. A fastener for shutter and the like, 
consisting of a pivoted latch, a recess in 
the window frame within which the 
latch is arranged, said latch having at 
its forward end a catch adapted to fit 
into a recess in the bottom edge of the 
shutter, means for normally holding the 
catch within the shutter recess, and a 
vertically arranged operating post loosely 
connected to the opposite end of the 
latch and extending upwardly beneath 
the lower rail of the window ; sash sub- 
stantially as described. 

3. A fastener for shutters and the like, 
consisting of a pivoted latch having a 
catch at one end and an operating pro- 
jection at the other, a recessed housing 
in the window frame within which the 
latch is pivoted, and a spring for nor- 
mally projecting the catch above the 
housing, said spring consisting of apiece 
of wire having coils on opposite sides of 
the latch, the free ends of the spring 
rigidly secured within the recessed hous- 
ing, and the bend of the spring engaging 
within a notch in the top of the operat- 
ing end of the latch ; substantially as 
described. 

4. In a fastener for shutters and the 
like, the combination with a pivoted 
latch and its housing, constituticg one 
port of the fastener, of a keeper consti- 
tuting the other part of the fastener, and 
consisting of the plates m m r , the former 
of said plates extending below the top 
surface of the housing, and the latter of 
said plates being opposite a solid portion 
of the top of the housing, whereby the 
catch cannot be tampered with by the 
insertion of a knife blade or the like; 
substantially as described. 

534,766. Tapering Attachment for 
Lathes. Jackson Richards, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., assignor of one-half to 
John T. Johnson and Edward D. 
Schulder, same place. Filed May 1, 
1894. Serial No. 509,691. (No 
Model.) 




Claim . — A taper attachment having a 
boss designed to be secured to the spindle 
of the tailstock of a lathe, a body pro- 
vided with a longitudinal slot, a movable 
center working in said slot, capable of 
adjustment at any desired point therein, 
an extension at the rear thereof, and 
8 uitable means for attaching and detach- 
ing said extension to and from the body 
of the tailstock ; substantially as de- 
scribed. 

535,050. Knob. Sherman P. Cooley, 
New Britain, Conn. Filed Sept. 25, 
1894. Serial No. 524,062. (No 



534,806. Weather Strip. Noah W. 
Stover, Lucas, Iowa. Filed Oct 24, 
1894. Serial No. 526,890. (No 
Model.) 




Claim. — 1. A threshold haviDg a longi- 
tudinal groove, a strip removably and 
replaceably mounted for oscillation in 
said groove, which Btrip is adapted for 
reversion or inversion, and so shaped as 
to rest in the groove immovably when 
reversed for rigid positioning, and a lug 
on said Btrip adapted for engagement by 
a door to oscillate said strip when in 
normal position, as described. 



535,056. Fastener for Shutters. Leroy 
J. Ellis, Fanwood, N. J. Filed 
March 26, 1894. Serial No. 505,- 
078. (No Model.) 




Claim.— 1. A fastener for shutters and 
the like, consisting of a pivoted latch, a 
recess in the window frame within which 
the latch is arranged, Baid latch having 
at its forward end a catch adapted to fit 
into a rcess in the bottom edge of the 
shutter, and a vertically arranged oper- 



Model.) 



Claim. — 1. The combination with a 
two-part shank, comprising an outer 
tubular shell, a core loosely mounted 
within said shell relatively thereto and 
extending beyond the same, and loosely 
engaging locking-members formed upon 
said shell and core respectively and 
adapted to prevent lateral movement of 
the same relatively to each other and also 
adapted to prevent longitudinal move- 
ment of said shell and core in one direc- 
tion relatively to each other ; of a knob 
having a socket adapted to receive and 
inclose the free end of said core ; and 





means substantially as described for 
securing said core to said socket and 
thereby preventing longitudinal move- 
ment of sa ; d shell and core in the oppo- 
site direction relatively to each other, as 
set forth. 

534,705. Combined Latch and Check. 
Rufus Wright, Chicago, 111. Filed 
Nov. 19, 1892. Serial No. 452,513. 
(No Model.) 




Claim — 1. A combined catch or latch 
and check for doors and the like, com- 
prising a casing, an air-cushion seated 
therein having a vent, a latch or catch 
having one end beveled to engage with i 
the door or the like and the other end 
provided with a surface for contacting 
with the cushion to close the vent and 
thereby prevent the compression of the 
cushion, and a retractor arranged adja- 
cent to the latch and adapted to be pro- 
jected to compress the cushion and per- 
mit of the manual retraction of the latch, 
2. A combined catch or latch and 
check for doors and the like, comprising 
a casing, an air-cushion seated therein 
and having a normally open vent, a latch 
or catch having one end beveled to en- 
gage with the door or the like, the other 
end provided with a surface for contact- 
ing with the cushion to close the vent, 
and its intermediate portion provided 
with a slot, a retractor provided with an 
extension for engaging the cushion and 
having on one side a lug for engaging the 
slot in the latch and on the opposite side 
a notch, and a spindle having a projec 
tion engaging the notch to project the 
retractor and compress the cushion and 
thereby permit the manual retraction of' 
the latch. 

534,707. Combined Latch aud Cheek* 
Rufus Wright, Chicago, 111. Orig 
Inal application tiled Jan. 8, 1894*1 
Serial No. 496,099. Divided an4 j 
this application tiled Jan. 8, 1894* J 
Serial No. 496,100. (No Model.) 




Claim. — 1. A combined latch and check 
comprising a latch, a spring resistance 
a movable abutment normally interposec| 
between the latch and the spring resist 
ance whereby the automatic retraction of j 
the latch shall force the abutment against 
the spring resistance and thereby cause ; 
the latter to oppose such retraction on the 
part of the latch, said abutment being 
also adapted and arranged for disengage- 
ment from the latch, and means whereby ! 
the said abutment may be disengaged! 
from the latch and the latter retractedj; 
independently of the movable abutment 
and without opposition on the part of 
the spring resistance, substantially as set: 
forth. 

2. A combined latch and check com- 
prising a latch, *n elastic air-cushion, a 
movable abutment constituting a power 
transmitting device normally interposed 
between the two and arranged for alter- 
nate connection with and disconnection 
from the latch as a power trar, emitting 
medium, and a key for temporarily dia-^ 
connecting said device from the latch, ^ 
substantially as Bet forth. 

3. A combined latch and check com- 
prising a latch, an elastic air cushion, a 
movable abutment constituting a power 
transmitting device normally interposed 
between the two and arranged for alter- 
nate connection with and disconnection 
from the latch, and a key adapted and 
arranged for both disconnecting said 

( Continued on page 14.) 



S S & £§»»§ Sjp'jr 









488. 

816. 



226. 



ALABAMA 



Mobile— O. Hutchinson, 1022 Government st. 

(Ool.) W. G. Lewis, 761 8t. Louis st. 

ARKANSAS 

* S? 1 SraNöS— ^ Walter Moore, 318 Market st 
l Pine Bluff— J. E. Walker, 676 8. State st. 

CALIFORNIA 

Los Angeles— S. Gray, Box 224. 

. Pasadena-Goo. W, Recd, Box 205. 

• BTVEäöide — (J has. Hamilton, 4th and Euca 

lypius ave. 

8af FaANopKX>-8ecretary of Bist Council 
J. K Neis wender, 116 Turk st. 

N-L. Wandeil, 23 Ninth st. Sta. B. 
iS eT 'i J11 « e ’ *231* Mission street. 

Guy Lathrop, 115 Turk st. 

»AN Jose-E. E. Crews, 596 8. 8d st. 

8cott » Box 673. 

ÖAHTA Barbara— E. A. Smith, 1429 Costello 



g 



CANADA 

m N * T 8 -r A - Northup, 169 Morris st 

J - Frid - 26 Nelson st. 
lai N ~ E * J Auöt « 706 Dundas st. 

184. Montreal— (F r.) 8. Leveille, 240 Logan st 

07« «. 8d Fla ^. 

H. T. Holland, 86 Kent st 
27* To«St»^^ NE8_Henry Louisa st. 
617* D * McNeill, 288 Hamburg ave 

8 « W^SSS“^ 3 * ° - L * ö - Boidge, Box 200. 
548. Winnipeg, Man.— R. Bell, 76 Schultz st. 

COLORADO 

860. Colorado OlTY — G. F. Hamil. 

M Geiler. S3 Franklin si 

410* S^D äL W 0 ^ 2253 Logftn aye 

4« B. Harmor, 626 W. 14th st. 

46. Trinidad E. o. Pierce. 631 N. Commercial 

CONNECTICUT 

m^ 3BPOET ^; 0harle8 Watkins, 50 Alice si 
A. Neilson. 32 Wooster st. 

iS P^7 Q00 T J V 8tÄnley ’ 258 East Main si 
£££ f T EI J^ 1N - John Hiltpold, P O. Box 901 

N ^nrtT BÄ ~~ CK E ' 0hl P man > 406 Washing 

I/ ° wlfl t 94 Asylum st. 

Wm. A. Kellogg, Box 391. 
Bockville Geo. Diederin g. 
WATEBBUBY— Joseph Sandiford, Box 680 



11B. 

43. 

49. 

97. 

799. 

187. 

746. 

HO. 

260. 



Ü4. 

«5. 

74. 

127. 

«98. 

254. 



186. 

144. 



DELAWARE 

< 40. Wilmington- W. P. Crawford, 1310 W. ! 

, DIST. OF COLUMBIA 

J 1Ä0, Wa »hington-L. F. Bumer. 1001 R st., N. 

FLORIDA 

^^^^»-(Col.) M. E. Dunlap, o 
T .^ ttaw k and Union sts. 

hS^T. LE S' G J Hood. 825 W. Church 

l'aktaAOOL.—Qeo Marble, Box 71. 

T iMP . Ki A « Hettlway.SISB Chase 
WwÄ““. Box 44. Ft. Brook. 
wkst Palm Beach— W . V. Bushing. 

GEORGIA 

P. Lewis, 1309 Philip 
AlAOON— J. w. Waterhouse, 1411 Third st!; 

ILLINOIS 

; ISaH^H I ?-T LO D , ? 1 Go38 ' 622 Bristow st. 

. 0r^T?N H„ P ..P L ouUot ' 2106 Joseph st 
OmSPaZS?“ 6 : Wha ‘eo. 3« W.Oass Pia. 
wT&Ä?' Bist riet Council, 

• Adolph Stamm tao W hakest 

‘ P Hnd °n, 54 Vernon Park PI. 

:w^;äeÄ?;?Pr born “‘- 

IHnhAm i t 7 1# * *• Chicago ave. 

. (öer T \ P , UI1<1 ' 53 «> w - »>th st. 

. (Ger \ iSio • i 3i0 Van Horn st. 

83d s?reet SUC raU ’ 3263 ° akley ave " ne 

(Salral E oLy w 8teenberK * 147 U8tb st. sta. 

• 2f * 8 Auslin ave. 

• (Bohem lL 1 1 5 W Black hawk at. 

• W H PViTin’ 8v oboda, 4816 Cook st. 

• Q^tmeyi 

L Wendflng.'sia ilUnols . 

• EvAMmiN ^T o 5' Hugent, 643 Chestnut 
. Ä7*™. U25 Emerson . 
I. GALmLmSlp S. ubmR '>. Jefferson, cor. I« 

• ÖEDo2SLw P ‘n-^'r?’* 80n ' 731 E- North 

;. HABV^?™ C~Mor.t mer8, 7720 Dobson a 
:• s. Baker. 7015 Oglesby a, 

] H Carter, 742 B.Charobei 

■»AHN8INGYON (Fr.)— E. Lapolice, 211 116th s 

‘ hiaÄ. F t 0 ^!^ R - wC1 D^n°Box Si 

: toÄ/ °° ur ' 

■ OAK S pinIT~n T 'o Hum61 2329 Kill sie st. 
(Han“]!®- BoeUcher , 138 Marengo ■ 

! Fe£e?1 A- r 0 w Pv G f» r y. 316 DeLeon st. 

W. Bhuch, 206X Hancock st. 






THE CARPENTER. 



195. Pebü— David George. pUTÜ 

189. Quincy— Wm. Benner, 220 N. Front st. 

166. Rock Island— Jos. Neufeld, 427 7th st. 

199. South Chicago— J. O. Grantham, 8023 
Edwards ave.. Sta S., Chicago. 

708. 8. Englewood— I. Thompson, 8631 Morgan 
Street. Chicago. 

16. Spbingfield— J.H. Freund, 1613 S.Grand av. 



INDIANA 

378. Alexandria— 8. W. Richman. 

352. Andebson— A. M. Cooper, 69 E. Butler st. 
Evansville— 

90. Jos. F. Wurth, 902 E. Columbia st. 

470. (Ger ) P. F. Nau. 1601 Fulton ave. 

742 (PI. Mill. Mach, and B. H.) G. V. Mann, 
1424 E Missouri st. 

153. Fobt Wayne— a. 8. Haag. 201 Taylor st 
728. Frankfort— Frank 8 troth man, 1st Si South 
streets 

157. BLaughville— I. H. White. 

60. Indianapolis^ — (Ger) F Stahlhut, 229 N. 
Pine st. 

281. ** H. E. Travis, 272 Brook side ave. 

446. “ J. M. Pruitt, 228 Prospect st. 

215. Lafayette— H. G. Cole, 387 South st. 

783. “ (Ger.) Jacob Eberle. 133 Union st. 

744. Logansport— J. L. Schröck, 720 Eleventh st. 
365. Marion— J. M. Simons, 609 8herman st. 

592. Muncib— J. D. Clark. 715 Kirby av. 

19. New Albany— A. T. Smith, 160 W. 8th st. 
756. Richmond— Jefferson Cox, 527 N. 19th street. 
629. South Bend— Geo. Lesher, Box 658. 

48. Terbe Haute— S. Hutten. 312 8. 14th st. 

658. Vincennes— A. O. Pennington, 818 N. 8th st. 
631. Wabash— R. P.Macy, Box 812. 



IOWA 

534. Burlington— Wm. Ruff, 1115 Elizabeth st. 
554. Davenport— W. O. Meyers, 924 Harrison st. 
68. Des Moines— A. Y. Swayne, 753 Oak st . 

678. Dubuque— M. R. Hogan, 299 7th st. 

348. 08KALOC8A— J. H. Parker, S. 1st et. 

767. Ottumwa— A. Mellis, 223 N. Davis st., 8. 8. 



KANSAS 

499. LHAYENWOBTH-G.McCaullv.6th <k Sonecasts. 
158. Topeka— O. R. Gardner, 307 Hancock st. 



KENTUCKY 

712. Covington— A. Cherrington, 36 E. Thomas 
785. “ (Ger.) Joe. Kampson, 216 W. 12th st. 

641. Dayton— James Hosking. 

442. Hopkinsville— W. O. Hall. 

7. Louisville— 8. W. Downard, 1712 Port- 
land ave. 

108. “ H. 8. Huffman. 618 Twenty-fourth st 

214. “ (Ger.) J. Schneider, 1538 Hrent st. 

729. 44 (Car) Butler Leebolt, 1715 Hancock st. 

098. Newport— M. McCann, Gen. Delivery. 

201. Paducah— W. B. Williams. 707 8. 10th st. 
701. Winchester— Jas. M. Powell. 



LOUISIANA 

New Orleans— Secretary of District Coun- 
cil. F. G. Wetter, 518 Josephine st, 

76. D. C. Kesler. 2818 Constance st. 

249. F. D. Rons. 3t 09 Oonstanoo at. 

704. T, Dulirkop, 4535 Annunciation st. 

789. John Salzer, 612 Villere st. 

45. Shbhvhpobt— Peter Garson, Box 889. 



MAINE 

407. Lewiston— A. M. Flagg, 94 Spring st. Auburn 
344. Pobtland-N. C. McDonald. 161 York st. 
339. Rockland— A. W. Smith, 6 Willow st. 

595. Watebvillb— E. 8. Hutchins, 13 Perdval ct 



MARYLAND 

29. Baltimore — W.H . Keenan, 1137 E. Fayette st. 
44. 44 (Ger.) H. B. Schroeder, 505 N. Wolf st. 



MASSACHUSETTS 

8 tat« District Council— Secretary W. C. 
Deagle 237 Central Park av., H.> de Park. 
83. Bostoh— W. J. Shields. 10 Cheshire st., 
Jamaica Plain. 

56. “ (Jewish.) L. Richter, 6 SheafT st. 

549. 44 (Shop Hands) W. & Jardine,6 Burn- 

side ave., Somerville. 

138. Cambridge— D. Maloney, 24 Huron ave. 

204. 44 A. 8. McLeod, 68 Mt. Auburn st. 

218. East Boston— J E. Potts 226 London st 

408. Fall River— J as. Walton, 6 Branch st. 

390. Fitchburg — V. Weatherbee, 96 Green st. 

880. Gloucester— H.W.Davis, Box 443. 

82. Ha verhüll — P. D. Oass. 100 Locke st. 

424. Hing ham —Colin Campbell, Box 113. 

400. Hudson— Geo. E. Bryant. Box 125. 

196. Hyde Park— B. Daly. 41 Garffeld st. 

111. Lawrence— James McLaren, 160 Water st. 
870. Lenox- Jne. P. Kirby, Box 148. 

696. Lowell— Frank Kappler, 291 Lincoln st 
108. Lynn— M. L. Delano. 103 Lewis st. 

221. Marblehead— F. Hammond. Box 100. 

154. Marlboro— J. O. Donohue, 21 School st. 

192. Natick — 8. P. Annls, 18 Oakland st. 

409. New Bedford — O. G Francis, 14 Spruce st. 
375. Newton— C. Conners. Box 71. 

124. Newton Centre — Fred. Bolsner, Box 739. 

193. North Adams— Jos Dary. 64% Prospect st. 
308. North Easton— C. W. Mason, Box 448. 

67. RoxburY— H. M. Taylor, Fenton st., Dor- 
chester. 

140. Salem— F. A. Evitts, 1 Smith ave. 

24. Somerville— Ira Doughty. 6 Carlton st. 

220, So. Framingham- Irwine Mank. 

96. 8PRING field — ( French) I. Bassette. Box 766. 
654 “ Geo. Elmer, 414 Central st. 

574. Taunton- D. O JOng. 10 Gen. Cobb. 

216. Waltham — John Veno. 

426. West Newton— B. F. Ryan, Box 566. 

420. Weymouth — E. J. Pratt, Weymouth Heights 
93. Worcester— O. D. Fiske. 720 Main st 



MICHIGAN 



421. Detroit— T. S. Jordan, 427 Beaufalt ave. 

689. 44 O. H. Gibbings, 677 Beaublen st. 

760. Grand Rapids— Aug. Nel«on, 16Mailonst 
26. Jackson— H. Behan, 208 Deyo st 
331. Kalamazoo- H. Grecndyk. 1003 N. Park st 
502. Ludington— A. R. Dibblo, P O Bor 596. 

450 Manistee— W m. Plod get, 808 Maple at 
100. Muskegon - F. E. Ridout, care 102 Hus' on av 
Saginaw— S ec. of D. O., O. B. Oralgan, 121 
N. Jefferson ave.. E. 8. 

168. O. C. Boynton, 216 N. 4th st. E. 8, 



248. (Mill) L. Maler, 131 Barnard st.. W. S. 

834. J. B. Charlebois, 923 N. Fayette st, W. S. 
466. (Ger.) Wm. Teckentien, 231 S. 11th st, E. S. 



MINNESOTA 

86L Duluth— J. L. Heasley, 415 6th ave. W. 
87. St. Paud— Aug. J. Metzger, 423 Rondo st 



MISSISSIPPI 

496. Vicksburg — Frank Curtis, 509 Jackson st. 



MISSOURI 



519 Benton Station— O. E. Nicholson, 6976 
Arthur ave., St. Louis. 

160. Kansas City— W. A. Loch man, 709 Moody av 
877. Springfield— J. W. Patrick, 20*7 N. Boone- 
ville st. 

St. Louis— Secretary of District Council, 

V. S. Lamb, 6348 Odell ave. 

4. Geo. J. 8wank. 2124 Alice ave. 

5. (Ger.) Rudolph Gloor, 409 Sidney st. 

12. (Ger.) Edw. Kiessling, 2218 N. Market st. 

118. James Shine. 4254 Blaine ave. 

240. (Ger.) D. Fluegel. 1417 Benton st. 

267. S. G. Ferguson. 617 W. Jefferson ave. 

270. A. N. Wolff, 5325 Theodosia av. 

423. (Ger.) G. Jablonsky, 2630 Clara ave. 

518. (Ger.) Henry Thiele. Loughborough and 
Gravois ave. 

578. (Stair Bldrs.) E. Foolsh, 4211 Linton av. 

604. (Millwrights)— J. S. Miller, 2920 Eadsav. 

699. O. H, Guipe, 1529 Olive st. 

784. (Ger. Mill) P. A. Laux, 2207 Gravois ave. 



MONTANA 

88. Anaconda— C. W. Starr, Box 606. 
136. Basin — A. I. Woodbury. 

266. Belt— Wm. E. Riley. 

112. Butte City— H. F. Lapier, Box 623. 
186. Great Falls — A. J. Emmerton. 
280. Helena— O has. Cain. 810 5th ave. 
330. Kalispell— P. R. Nelson. 



NEBRASKA 

427. Omaha— Thos. McKay, 2623 Frauklin st. 

651. “ (Ger.) R. Ruppert, 2016 Martha st. 

686. 44 (Dan ) J. Tolstrup, 1873 S. 16th st. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

288. Concord— Hans Larsen, P.O. Box 553. 
118. Manchester— S. Thornes, 65 Douglass st. 
585. Portsmouth— E. O. Frye, 13 School st. 



NEW JERSEY 

750. Asbuby Park — Henry P. Gant, Box 897. 
486. Bayonne— Stephen Hussy, 743 Avenue E. 
121. Bridgeton— J. H. Reeves, 145 Fayette st. 

20. Camden— T. E. Peterson, 337 Mechanic st. 
388. Dover— L. G. Pott. 

167. Elizabeth— H. Zimmerman, 347 Fay av. 
So. Elizabeth. 

687. Elizabeth— (Ger.) Jnhn Kuhn, 827 Martin st 
647. Englewood— S. L. Westervelt, Box 326. 

391. Hoboken— F. Steigleiter. 109 Garden st. 

265. Hackensack— T. Heath, 250 State st. 

482. Jbri/ey City— G. Williamson, 220% 3d st. 

564. (J. C Heights) John Mandorf, North st. and 
Boulevard. 

151. Long Branch— Ch as. E Brown, Box 241, 
Long Branch City. 

232. Milburn — J. H. White, Short Hills. 

306. Millville — Jas. MoNeal. 

429. Montclair -Thos. Kehoe, 9 Fulton st., P.O. 
Box 24. 

638. Morristown— O. V. Deats, Lock Box 163. 
119. Newark— H. G. Long, 2i0 Norfolk st. 

306 “ A. L. Beegle, 311% Orange st. 

723. 44 (Ger.) G. Arendt. 698 S. 14th st. 

602. Oceanic— Zach. T. Alas, Box 70. 

349. Orange - 

1.8 Paterson- (Holl ) Al. Meenen, 35 N Main 
325. 44 P. E. Van Houten, 713 E. 27th 

490. Passaic— Frank Wentink, Box 122. 

399. Phillipsbürg — Wm. Hodgn, cor. Mulberry 
and Spring Garden sts., Easton, Pa. 

155. Plainfield— Wm. H. Lunger, 94 Woetorvelt 
665. Somerville— W. W. Pittenger. 

438. 8. Orange Ed. Walsh, Maplewood. 

456. Summit — Edward Mart n, box 618. 

548. Town of Union— Jos. Wohlfarth, Weehaw. 

ken P O . 

81. Trenton— L. T. Reed, 153 Rose st. 



NEW YORK 

Albany.— Secretary of District Council, 
D P. Kirwin, 43 Myrtle av. 

274. James Finn, 837 Orange st. 

659. (Ger.) Alex. Rickert. 416 Elk st 

6. Amsterdam— Herbert Clark, Perkins st. 

453. Auburn— W. W. Gillespie, 119 E. Genesee. 
131. Binghamton— O. H. Torrey, Box 993. 

Brooklyn— Secretary of District Council. 
T, B. Lineburgh, 890 Gates ave. 

109. M. A. Maher 61 lrvtng PI. 

147. W. F. Gregory, 1615 Atlantic av. 

175. R. V. Ellison, 1103 Putnam av 
247. Chas. Monroe. 51 St. Mark’s ave. 

‘258. M. Spence, 36 Van Buren st. 

291. (Ger.) C Thiemsen, 3i Ditfmars st. 

381. S E. Elliott 89 Roekaway ave. 

451. Wm. Carroll, 792 Bergen st 
471. Fred. Brandt, 466 6th ave. 

657. (Millwrights) W. E. Kelk, 12 Butler st. 

639. Jas. Black. 269 53d st. 

Buffalo — Secretary of District Oounoil, 

W. H. Wreggitt. 56 Trinity st. 

9. W. H Wroggiu. 66 Trinity st. 

355. (Ger.)R. Luense, 127 Ro»e st. 

374. E. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguson ave. 

440. J C. Weigel, 26 Waverly st 
99. Oohokh — A. Van A mam. 22 Geortre »I 

640. College Point.— G. A. Pickel, 5th ave. and 

11th st. 

581. Oobnwall-ow-Hudson— E. Decker, Box 282. 
806. Cortland— E W. Crandall, 8 Maple ave. 
815. Elmira— E. M. Snyder, 761 K. Market 
323. Fishkill-on-Hudson— Jaa. Hayes, Mat- 
tnawan. N. Y. 

714. Flushing — F.8. Field, 154 New Looust st. 
500. Glen Cove. L. I., John Martin. 

229. Glens Falls — Ira Van Dusen, 36 Sanford si 
149. Irvington— Alex H. Smith. Box 187. 

603. Ithaca— E. A. Whiting, S8 Lake ave. 

361. Kingston— J. Deyo Ohlpp, Box 100. 

691. Little Falls — T. R. Mangan. 529 Garden st. 
493. Mt. Vernon— J. Beardsley. 181 N. 7th ave. 
801. Newburgh— D. C. Healy, 46 Johnson st. 

42. New Rochelle— T. Quinlan, 45 Drake av. 
#17. Newtown, L.I.— J. B. Way, Corona P.O., LI, 



13 



New York — S ecretary of Distort Cioe^oii 
Ohas. Speyer. 916 Wa-h. st. Hoboken, N.J 
51. E. A. Rood 13^6 Chiskoun st. 

63. Jas J. Kane, 837 E. 36th st 

64. J. U. Lounsbury, Hudson Bldg., 301 W. 87th 
200. (Jewish) John Goldfarb, 212Madtson st. 

309. (Ger. Cab. Makers) Louis Becker, 225 E. 
76th st. 

340. A. Watt, Jr., 103 W. 106th st. 

376. (Ger) C. Kaeckele, 2187 2d ave. 

382. M. Seymour, 1300 2d ave. 

407. (Scan.) J. Lowander, 28 E. 114th st. 

464. (Ger.) H Maiberger, 622 E. 156th st- 
468. J G. Doyle, 232 Hi 26ih st. 

478. Wm. Trotter, 918 9th ave. 

478. W. Chamberlain, 637 E 138th st. 

497. (Ger.) H. Baumann, 38 1st av. 

509. Patrick Eavanairh. 346 W. 49th at. 

513. (Ger.) Richard Kueknel, 51 Ave- A. 

707. (Fr. Canadian) L. Bellmare, 228 E. 75th st. 
715. J. P. Spatne, 2462 8th ave. 

736. (Ger. Millwrights and Millers) Henry Maak, 
339 17tb «t. Ro Brooklvn 
575. Niagara Falls— E E. Cornell, 446 Elmwood 
ave. 

474. JNyack— Robt. F. Wool. Box 493, 

101. Oneonta— A J. Ryan, E E. 

404. Portchester— W. H. K. Jones, Rye, N. Y. 
203. Poughkeepsie— G. E. Baker. Box 82. 

72. Rochester — H . M. Fletcher, 31 Bartlett st. 
179. 44 (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 Mav Place. 

479, Seneca Falls— C. E. Do‘y, 79 C happle st. 
146. Schenectady— H enry Bain, 326 Craig st. 

8taten Island— Secretary of List. Council, 
O T. Shav, 19 6th ave. New Brighton. 

606. Port Richmond— J. Keenan, 238 Jersey st. 
New Brighton. 

567. Stapleton— P. J. Klee, Box 497. 

10. Syracuse— (Ger.) E. Kretech, 724 Buttemutt. 
314. Tarrytown— D. Page, North Tarrytowi*. 

78. Troy— Robt. Laurie. Box 65. 

125. Utica— G. W. Griffiths, 240 Dudley ave. 

580. Watertown— P. J. Doocey, 2 Union Block, 
Arsanel st. 

233. Waverly— I. M. Terry, Box 175. 

West Chester County— Secretary of Dls* 
trict Council, James Gagan, 22 LawtOB 
st , New Rochelle, N. Y. 

252. West Troy — Charles Angus, 121 8d st. 

593. Williams Bridge— John Edgley. Box 8 
273. Yonkers— Chas. Gordon, 142 Ashburton ave. 
726. 44 H. W. Mallinson, 2id Elm street. 



OHIO 

84. Akron— J. Glass, 111 E. Thornton at. 

17. Bellairb— Geo. W. Curtis, Box 20. 

170. Bridgeport— John A. Fawcett. 

501. Bücyrüs— J. A- Fink. 

143. Canton— Keller Huff. 91 Charles st. 

38«. Chilli cot he — E. F. Thompson, 167 W.Main 
Cincinnati — Secretary or District Council, 
D P. Rowland, 102 Symmes st , Walnut 
Hills. 

2. W. A. Kenyon, 116 Symmes st. W. H. 

209. (Ger.) August Weiss, 369 Freeman ave. 

324. (Ship Carp.) J. A. Hamilton, 6*JU E. Front. 

327. (Mill.) H. Brinkwonh, 86 Woodward st. 

481. (Stairs) H. Hogg 427 Miiton si. 

628. A. Berger, 227 Fergus st., Station A. 

664. A. J. Haines. 392 Delta ave. Station C. 

667. M. A. Harlow, 284 Eastern ave. 

676. L. A. Groll, 213 Jefferson ave., Sta, E. 

681. F. A. Wagner. 729 Freeman ave. 

683. Wm. Ethel, 1344 W. 6th st. 

692. J. P. Luckey, 7 Bloom st. 

Cleveland— Secretary ot District Council, 
Vincent Hlavln. 158 Superior st., Room 11 
11. A M. Blair, 26 Sayles st. 

39. (Bohem.) V. Hlavln. 124 Carran st. 

393. (Ger.) Theo Welhricb. 16 Parker ave. 

449. (Gor.) W. H. S.hnltz, 35 Conrad st. 

461. H. J. Riggs, 84 Sayles si. 

231. College Hill— M. Bimons. 

Columbus— Secretary of District Council, 
J. W. Metz, 218 E Spring st. 

«1. A- O. Welch, 762 W Broad si. 

826. John Gahan. 958 Leonard ave. 

104. Dayton— W. O. Smith. 628 E. Huffman ave. 
846. 44 (Ger.) Joe. Wirtb, 311 Clover st. 

775. Delhi— James Slattery, Home Citv 

328. E. Liverpool— R B hi ev< n son. Pleasant st. 
188. Findlay— W- Alspach 828 Adams at, 

637. Hamilton— W C Musch, 1141 Heaton st. 

636. Ironton.- A. D. Neumeyer. 125 R. R. sireet. 
367. Lima— J. Vanswerlngen, 7128. Main st. 

703. Lockland— Chas. E. Hertel. Box 182 
369. M adisonville— E L. Beiden, Box 202. 

356. Marietta— J. W. Fores’er, 800 4th st. 

779. Mabion— J R. Smith, 9 ON Stalest. 

14. Martin’s Fkrby — Thos. V. Salisbury, Box 116 
725. Middletown— Wm. Hill. 45 Vandevcrest. 
746. **t Washinton— W. H. Nicholson. 

786. Nelson vi lle— A. H. Miller. 

705. Norwood— A.E.Best.Ivanhoeav., 

Norwood Cincinnati. Ohio. 

660. Pomeroy— J. M. Fowler, Mason City, W. Va. 
437. Portsmouth— J. F. Wanless. Hox 326. 

107. Sandusky— J. H. Brown, 923 Hancock st. 

284. 8PRINGFIELD — W. B. Knisley,216 Linden avo. 
18«. Steubenville— D. H. Virden, 310 S. 6th st. 
243. Tiffin— A. Welgle, 151 Sycamore st. 

25. Toledo— J. W Mitchell. 49 Var ce et. 

168. 44 (Ger.) A. v opper, 824 Moore st. 

171. Youngstown— C. N. Crozier, 124 Baldwin st. 
716. Zanesville— Fred. Kappes, Central ave., 

10th Ward. 



OREGON 

50. Portland— David Henderson, Box 548. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

Allegheny City— 
ilL O. L. Mohney, 70 Wilson ave. 

187. (Ger.) Robert Gramherg 21 iHn st. 

487. Altoona— H. L. Smith, 7005 4th avenue. 

551. Bangor John Alben. Box 150. 

146. Braver Falls — A. Burry, Box 611, Now 
Brighton. 

350. Bradford — G. Cummings. 1 Cheptnnt st. 
788. Oabbondaijj— Theo. E ( rain, 66 Terrace st 
i07. Chester— Eher 8. Rigby, 240 E Fifth it. 

139. Easton— Frank P. Horn. 914 Butler st. 

422. Frank ford — J. R. Nace, 6410 Keystone st. 
Tacony. 

122. Germantown— J. E. Martin. S3 W. Duval 
462. Grkknsbubg— J. II . Rowe, 233 Concord st. 
i87. Harrisburg— O W. Diehl. Ben st. 

»8. Homestead— T. H. Wilson, Box 527. 

253. Jeannette— J G. Baker Penn Station. 

J08. Lancaster— O. Hcnsell,304 New Holland av. 
177. McKeesport— 8 G Gilbert, 1010 Rrick alley. 
481. Mansfield— R. H. McConkey, Carnegie, Pa. 
Box 106. 

383. New Kensington— O W. Shafer. Box 168. 
106. New Castle— W. W. McCleary, 238 Harbor. 
Philadelphia— 

8. Matthias Mo^re. 412 N. 6th st. 

227. (Kensington) Chas. L.Span gier, 2164 Sergeant 
2S8. (Ger.) Jos Oyen, 1029 N. 4th st. 

859. (Mill) J. Duerlnger, Jr., 2831 Sergeant st 



Pn imi Qi -flec r etary of DistrlM Council 
W. P. Wlllock, Box 915. Ml Oliver. 

141 H. O. Bchomaker, 190 Webster sk, Aiieg. 

1$4. (Ger.) Adolph R*ts. 181 49th ek, 8. 8. 

1«. (B. Rnd) P A. Kinoey, <381 Shakes poor« at 
990. P. B. Robinson, Juliet 8k, 14th Waitft. 

409. (Ger.) Ludwig Pauker, 1810 Breed! at, 0. a 
149. PrrwxjsrrTA wmrr — W m Brans. Box Iff. 

998. Raadiwüf — T. Kissinger. 1118 Greenwich at 
998. lU 'Niwu ' ire — A. If Onftmmsntb Rav i%2. 
Scbahtob Secr e tary District Council, 
Robert Gould, 819 Marlon at 
998. Goo. 8 teen back. 906 Oxford at. 

484. 8. 8c*ARYO!t-(Ger.) G RotMch.725 Palm at. 
97. Bkamokir— H. A. L. Hmlnfc. 619 R. Ckunero 

998. Smarow— J. P Smith, 36 A st 
979. Tabkwtfii — T. O. Miller, Box 907. 

797 Taylob— G eorge Wicke, Box 48. 

409. Umoirrows- W. 8. Koonta. 18 Morgantown 
199. Wiljlws-Babbb— M Malloy, 8 9 N Wash at. 

999. W n.i.i a mstobt — L. P. Irwin. 514 Hepburn at. 
191. Yob*— » d. Mick ley, 19 N. Penn at 

RHODE ISLAND 

179. NiwroBT-P. B. Da wie v. 993 Thamea st 
948. Pawtucut-J. J. Locdham, Box 22. Valley 
FaUe. 

ft Pbovxdbmcb — T. Dolan, 32 Grand View at 

80UTH CAROLINA 

91 Ob a «i.tob— (O ol.) R. A. Washington, 18 
Mount at 

91 Columbia— (OoL) O. A. Thompaon, 109 Baal 
Tailor at 

TENNESSEE 



| UNION PRINTERJ 



Bitfci £oM M 881 
oQfit 3 dtung 9 s Bat tw< 
, kmn Tnitfarftcitm Nf< 
tDtntft. toilet in bmt» 
f<f tn Unton • $nriTcrti «9 
IcrgcflcQt tocrbtn. 



(For Our Herman Member«.) 
Wonatfi Runbfchsn. 



M 



Son 3of*Phu«. 

.iftrenb bie bürgerliche ©efellfchaft 
in allen SAnbern Banferott macht, 
rüften ft<h bie otganiftrten Sr* 



unb bet 18. ln$icfg©tr., mo auf ffrauen 
unb Äinbern gefeuert unb ein armer X«4* 
btefer bei bet Xrbeit ermorbet rourbe, ftallen 
im ganzen Sonbe mieber unb bringen hunbert» 
taufenb Refruten in unfer Sager. Statt 
unt einjufchüchtern, macht bie Äapiialiften* 
Haffe mit ihrem Blutoergieften entfchloffene 
Siebellen unb rüdftchttlofe Berthcibiger ber 
Freiheit aut hither lammfrommen Erheitern 
unb gebulbigen ©flaoen. Unb bad ift et, 
mat mir felbft hither nicht fertig bringen 
tonnten. 



Xu<h bie ©efeftgeber unb Richter ber h«tr* 
fchenben Älaffe bemühen ftch nach ÄrAftcn, 
bat Werl ber Xufflärung ju förbern. 3 n 



beiter §um Gnt?4eibunggf«mpf, «d<n Segitlaturen tauchen ©efeftelootfehläge 
ber ihnen bie Befreiung oom 304 ber Sohn* «uf, bahin jielenb, ftrifenben Xrbcitern bie 
ff taoerei bringen mirb. Untere fteinbe ftehen ju binben, fee megen «ontraflbrucht 

am «Snbe ihrer Saufbahn, einer Saufbahn ber S« befirafen unb ihre Crganifationen ju oer* 
©ewoltthAtigleit unb ber «erbrechen. Wir n»41«n J rodhrenb Richter in «olijei* unb 



TENNESSEE bagegen ftehen am Beginn unferer Saufbahn, 

inimu-N. Underwood, MAnderaonit mit einer glSnjenben «erfpeftive auf ©lüef, 
S^«B^S:. J ®wSt7er. «51 Frone e t. <5 r, 4*i‘ unb adgemeine Berbrüberung ! 

r. Dunnebeoke, uv» n. Coi- (Die ©chamloflgleit ber bürgerlichen Ban* 
*** TEXAS ferotteure ift mohl nirgenb gr öfter, alt hier. 



199. Mabtib— R. B. JeflVess. 

991 Mbmphib — C has. Weiner, 3S1 Front at. 

799. Naab till»— J. p. Du nu «backe, 1409 N. Col- 
lage at 

TEXAS 

990. AuvriB — H. Roemler. 1912 Breekenridge st 
781. Oobbxoawa — W . J. Poeicr. 1110 W. llth ave. 
H8. Dallaa-O. L. Wiley, Box 299. 

971. DaanaoH — C. H. Miner, box 309. 

998. PT. Wobth— J. B. Boidock. 

977. A Krause, Oor New Y ork and 

WllUe ata 

999. Galtbstom— O. K Ballard. Box 899. 

81L “ (Ger.l Richard Seidel, N.W. Oor. 

MH and 971h ala. 

Ill Houbtob— A. Denniaon, 7(f3 Walker st. 

997. Sab Airrowio— H. L. Mitchell, Box 690 
490. M (Ger.) T. Jauernlg. 1111. R. Commerce 
717. “ A. G. WleUel, 135 Centre si 

819. Tbbbbll— L. R. Wslkcr P.O. Box 54. 

812. Waoo— B G. Longguth, 11 Walnut at 

UTAH 

999. Baut La ab Oitt— A. Tracey, 498 E.7th 8. st 
VERMONT 

09. Bublibotob— J aa. Childs. 91 North at. 

59- RUTLAJVD — J. A. Thlbault, 8 Terrill at 

VIRGINIA 

182. Riommobd— W m . H. Gaal. 608 Albemarle at 
111. (OoL) J. B. Maaon, 704 Clark al 

WASHINGTON 

OL Bbattl»— J. O. Heymar,519 8. 12th at. 

WEST VIRGINIA 

91L Obablbbtob— J. L. Jonaa. Box 999. 

999. OLABK9BUBCF— J. H. Ridenour. Box 89. 

919. SLAT**- D. R. Martin. Box 9M. 

499. Paibwobt— G. R. White. Palatine. 

719 Hubtibotob— T. R.Gtlklson, 182V 4th ave. 

8. Wbbblzbo — A. L. Bauer. 1919.?aooh at 

Bee. District Council Wheeling and 
▼ialnity. 

WISCONSIN 

»89. Gbbbb Bat— W. Wagner. 619 N Madison st. 

90. La Oboosb— J ohn Leide, 1909 Adams st. 

180. Madiaob— W m. Moll, 209 Murray al 

Milwaukbb— S ecretary of DUtrlc4 Council 
John Bettendorf, 799 7th st. 

O. (Ger.) Wm. Bubllta, 749 Ittb st 
08. (Ger.) Jonn Bettendorf, 799 7th are. 

290. (G#r.) J Werner, 1239 llth at. 

919. (Ger.) John Haemtnn, 999 Od st 
992. Julius Badtke 341 lflhat. 



Supreme Court 4 bie beftebenben ©efefte in 
berart ungerechter Seife aullegcn, baft auch 
ber ^nbifferentefte einfehen muft, baft nur 
noch Widionäre unb Äorporationen in ben 
©erlebten Recht erlangen fönnen. (Sine 



in unferem gelobten Sanbe, roo an ber 3pi|e ötffere Xgitation für bie Xbf4affuttg bet 



ber Gewalthaber ein Wann fteht, beffen Äapitaliftenflaffe fann eg hoch rooftl laum 
eigene Mitherrf4er ihm erlldrt ba&en, baft geben ! 
ade feine ^inanjoorfchldge jur «erfchiebung * • * 

beg groften Srachd nicht« taugen unb ber fger hatte oor ein paar Wochen baran ge* 
troft adebem nicht (Sbrgefübl genug beft|t, bacht, baft Sapitaltften*«erbinbungen wie 
einjugeftehen, baft et feinen «eruf oerfehlt bie «rootlpner Xrodep.iöahn.Äompaflnien 
hat ! Wo anber« märe eg roohl möglich, baft ftunberte oon Wenigen umbringen unb bie 
ein Wenfch mie ©rooer Cleoelanb, nach «den «eoölferung einer WiBionenftabt monate* 



C heftigen, bie er oon ber eigenen «artei er* 
hatten h«t, ftch bennoch im Rmte behaupten 
fönnte? 34 glaube, ber oerrüdte Äaifer 
oon (Deutfchlanb mürbe abbanfen, menn feine 
Rathgeber, feine fonferoatioen unb national* 
liberalen «arlamentgfneCte ihm erflärten ( 
er Tönne nicht regieren unb 4tdeg, mal er 
uorfchldgt, fei purer Slöbfinn- Rber, ge* 



lang terrorifiren lönnen, ohne bafür geruht* 
(ich belangt )u werben ? 3eftt aber ftehen 
mir oor ber oodenbeten Xhatfaihe : 6dmmt* 
liehe ©efe|e, welche jum Schufte beg «ubli* 
(um# im Xdgemeinen unb ber Zrodepbaftn* 
XngefteBten im Befonberen erlaffen würben, 
ftnb oon ben Beffftem jener Bahnen offen* 
funbig oerleftt worben unb, ftatt biefe Ban* 



robe bie Zhatfache, baft bie amerifanifchen beten für ihr mörbetifehel Zreiben ju beftra* 
Bolitifer unferer Zage, menn fie einmal im fen, gaben ihnen fdmmtliche TOuniripal* unb 



Ämte finb, troft beg Wifttrauntg unb Un» 6taatgbeamte, foroie bie Richter, an melche 
roiden* beg Bolfeg ihre Beute nicht lo«* etrifer unb Bürger ftch wenbeten, „Recht” 
taffen, ift ein h<><herfreulichel 3ei<hen für unb ei mirb ihnen gejagt: „iRorbet mit 
ung, barauf hinbeutenb, baft bie Crlöfung (Suren Scab* Sarg nur ruhig meiter; faugt 
nahe ift; benn bie Gefehlte leftrt ung, baft, (Suren 9i beitern meiter ba« Blut aug unb 
je ndhet ein ©eroalthaber feinem 6tur§e ift, bebanbelt bag «ubfifum ä la canaille — mir, 
befto blinber unb hartnddiger ftdlt er an fei» Maporg. 6h*ttffg, Gouverneure, heemelin* 
mm fBahnftnn feft- bef leibete Richter unb ©ejeftgeber et heilen 

* , * Such Xbfolution, benn 3h* h«bt ja WtDio« 

Xber, eg ftnb nicht nur 8eute, mir Gleoe* nen ' ron benen uni eiMn ab Ü« bt 5 
tank, melch« »erblenbet finb unb bie 3eichen baar « 1 ® eIb P" b ®‘ r aUt < amm ‘ » u ! abtn 
bet 3*it nicht oerftehen ; fonbem auch bie unb ba * bummt Sol ‘* “ ni 

Heineren «erbrechet in ber Äapitaliftentlaffe ba *' n,b g* l um ^<nf« 1 B«!en ®‘d mir 



rennen birett auf ihr Berberben log. Wie 
mdreegfonft möglich, baft bie ©ouo erneute 
einer Ingahl Staaten jufammentommen, um 



nun irgenb 3«manb fagen, baft ein folcheg 
Zhun unb Zreiben ben 6turj ber jeftigen 
Gewalthaber nicht viel fchneüer her beiführen 



United State« Patent«. 
(Continued from page It.) 



bie militdrifche Srjiehung von 6ch»»inbem mu ^' aW bai «•"«?“««* ®ö^ a ««« Drganifi* 
ju befürworten! Unfere eigenen' «inker ™ unb *8«i«« «»"«r gertneen Injahl 
woden bie tapitaliftifehen Ztiebe auf unfere fe^fHofer unb hochhetjtger TOdnner, welche 
ftoften >u ntolefftoneUen TOftrhern heron. f«4 bie «ufflärung bet «rbettermaffen bt»t«h 



abutment from the latch and for retract- Äü f* en l u ptofefflonellen ttörbern beran* ÖArifl al0 ßebeneiirl arftrllt 

ing tbe l.tler, wh«o the .hutment ia frMd ‘“"I* «*; ■«"» *«»'•*« !»<“•« *“ *^*“ 

therefrom, said latch being provided Ärieg erft einmal in bag ©tabium beg S<hi*» , # 

with atopa between which the ward e, ot btn ® unb Z>reinfchlagen4 tritt, ihre Sdter • 

tbe key la arranged, one ot «aid atopa unb ‘ifl” 1 * 11 «rüber, bie ju Mrbetter* Drga* (Die Wertungen ber (apitaliftifchen Xgita* 
being poaltioned to be engaged by the n4 lattow«« gehören, auf Befehl ber Boffe mit tiongmeife machen fi<h übrigeng nicht nut in 
■aid ward when tbe kay ia operated to flauen Bohnen nieberlnaüen lönnen. Ra* bem befchleunigten Wachfrn ber Vrbeiter* 
rabe the abutment from engagement türl ’ <b roitb ba ! ln n *4t lornmen ; kenn bewegung, fonbern auch baburch fühlbar, 
with the latch, and the other atop being *** hlutbürftige Botfchlag ber Wiüiondrg* baft adenthalben in ben Drganifationcn felbft 
arranged to be engaged by said ward banb * ® itb nur ba » u blenen * hie «affen beg jeftt Befchlüffe gegen bit ttiltj, jur Ber* 
when tbe key ia operated to allow the ® #He * aM f bt< *! nen brohenbe ©efahr auf» ftaatlichung ader Berfchrgmittel unb jur dr* 
abutment to drop tnto position for en- mert * #OT l u »«achen unb fie in h«den Raufen oberung bet ©taatgmacht burch bag arbet* 
gaging the latch, auhatantlally a« and for h** * r ^*detbewegung tn bie Stme ju tret* tenbe Boll angenommen werben, ©ogar bag 
the parpoai set forth. ben - 34 begrüfte ben Borf4lag jut mtlitA* realtionSre element ber Wittelllaffe hat be* 

4. The combination of a «lotted latch, *tf4tn Dndung ber ©chullinber begftalb mit gönnen, mit ben organifirten Srbeitem ju 
an elastic air-cushion, and an inter- Steuben unb erhoffe von ihm ein raf4ereg fpmpathifiren unb beffen Sorberungen na« 
▼enlng movable device engaging in the ® a 4f*« unferer Drganifationcn, alg bur« bem Befift ber Berlehrg mittet unbXrbeitg* 
■lot of the latch, «aid slot being adapted ba * ®* ben unb ®4 r *tb* n unferer Drganifa* werljeuge gutjuheiften. (Die «leinbUrget 



■lot of the latch, said slot being adapted 
at its rear portion to provide a atop with 



lunft ade ©trtteg •erhinbern fod. Dj, 
Boffe weifen babei auf bie Zhatfache his, 
baft fie mit ben Waurern fchon feit 3aftr« 
ein berartigeg Uebereinlommen getroffen 
haben, roelcheg fleh trefflich bewflhrt ft«t 
©ie haben nun ben übrigen «auhanbroerlen 
verfprochen, in gleicher Weife mit ihnen 
verfahren unb gegen ben Ärcbofehaben bet 
„fiumperg” gemeinfam vorjugehen. (Sg ift 
ju münfehen, baft bie Sache feinen $intergt. 
banfen hat, unb baft bie Garpenterg, ^ram* 
erg, «laftererg, «tumberg ic. in 3ufunft 
ohne ©trileg ihre Söhne unb Xrbeitgjeit auf* 
recht erhalten werben. Rber bieg follte ft e 
nicht verhinbern, an ber allgemeinen Xrbei* 
letbetvegung theiljunehmen, welche ihnen 
ni4t nur ben jeftigen Sohn unb bie jtftijc 
Xrbeitgjeit garantiren, fonbern fie überhaupt 
in ben Befift beg gefammten «robulteg ehret 
Xrbeitgfraft feften mirb. Zag 3*<l ber ttau- 
hanbwerfet muft eg fein, a(g bie eintig* n 
Unternehmer ader öffentlichen unb «rioat* 
arbeiten anerlannt ju werben, ©ie müifen 
in bet Gitp $ad i.bte Cfftceto haben; ihre 
Bertreter muffen ade Äontrafte abfchtieften 
unb ihnen adein mfiffen ade Xrbeiten übet* 
tragen werben. Zer Äontraftor muft »er* 
fchminben unb in ber Union muft jeber Bau* 
hanbwerfet fein, oom Sehnungen unb Zag« 
(öhner big jum getchidteften Xrchitelten cm 
ganjen Sanbe. Bevor wit bieg nicht errei* 
4en, ift auch bag 3i'l unfeter Bewegung 
nicht erreicht. Zapi aber gehött oor altem 
ankeren, baft ade übrigen Xrbeiter jufammen 
wirfen, um cHtfefte tu erlangen, welche einen 
folchen 3uftanb ber Zinge befretiren unb 
mit Unterftüftung ber itaatomatht auch tut 
Xugführung bringen. 



XerBefchluft beg ©ewerffchaftg>cf on* 
greffeg (Sngfanbg ju ©unften einet unab* 
hängigen politifchen Bewegung auf focial* 
bemotratifcher Bafcg hat bei vielen ©eroetf* 
fchaftlern Befürchtungen einer 3<rfplitterui a 
ber big jeftt einig gemefenen britifeften ©«< 
werffeftaftgbewegung wachgerufen, bie fieft 
auch bewahrheiteten, lowett bie politische 
Zhätigfeit ber englifchen Xrbeiter in Be* 
tracht fam. Zic rabifale politifch« Stet* 
(ungnahmc h«t bie Äluft jwifchen ben Gon* 
feroatioen unb ben Rabifalen nicht etwa ver* 
engert, fonbern erweitert. Zic Bertreter 
ber brei ftaftionen, ber confervatioen cMe* 
werffchafter, ber 3nbepenbent Sabor «atio 
unb ber „©ocial Zemocratic Jfteberatior,” 
beldmpfen fi<h gegenfeiltg mit gunchmenbcr 
Bitterleit, ein 3®>*'polt, ber fleh nun auch 
auf bag ölonomtfche ©ebiet ber ©ewerf* 
fchaftgbewegung augbehnt. 

Xcr Berbanb ber Äeffelfchmiebe (Boiler 
Btalerg' Union), nach ben 3ngenicuren bie 
ftärffte ©ewerffchafto*Draanifation ©roft* 
britannieng, trat nun aug bem ©ewerf IchaM«* 
fongreft aug, weil berfelbe in Rorwich (ine 
potitifche «artcifteüung annahm unb bte 
Zheorien ber ©ogialbcmofratic anerfannte. 
Xie Urabftimmung im Berbanb ergab 14,0«« 
©timmen ju ©unften unb 9000 gegen ben 
Sugtritt. (Baferg’ 3oumal.) 



toren unb Agitatoren auf bem üblichen. 



which the oaid device can temporarily tongfamen unb befchr v erli4*n Wege h<rtti' 
engage, eubetantially aa eet forth. geführt werben fönnte. 

6. The combination of the latch a **• 

comparatively Ught spring reeletance con- dg war auch von oortreffU4et Wir lung. 



fehen eben, baft eg ihnen an ben Äragen geht, 
unb baft eg für fW leine ankere Rettung gibt, 
alg ber ©efammtbeftft ber groften Monopole, 
welche bie Äonfurrenj ber Hctnen Seute er» 
broffetn. Ser foOte unter folgen Umftün» 



«Muitiy oppoaed to its retracüoo, a baft oor einigen Wochen in Broollgn f«arf be ” n ' <bt unb flUten * n W« 8“* 

stronger spring resistance normally op- gef4offen worben iff. Xag Blut ber Opfer, lun ^ bliifen ? 
pacing its retraction, and means for Um- wc(4<g unter ben Äugeln ber WUIjhaSunlen * * * 

porarlly raUeving tbe latch from the gcfl offen tft, f4reit lauter jum $tmmel, alg 3n Rew Dorf |abm bte Bertreter ber Bau* 

stronger spring resistance, substantially bte jungen non jchntou<enb Boilgtebnctn. gewerfe fürj(t4 mit benen ihrer Boffe ein 
ss and for the purpose set forth. XW «4®1fe bei 1. lUgimenig in ftelfe? ©tt. ©«ieblgettcht gebilbet, welcfteg in 3u* 



J 





Xie ©ewerlf 4«f t* * ® «»egung 
Defterrei4g gewinnt immer mehr an Boben. 
Xie ©rünbung einer 8erbanbg»Drganifation 
folgt ber anberen auf bem ffufte unb bie (He* 
wetffchaftg*Gommifflon hat augenfeheintuh 
bauembe Wutjel gefchlagen. Xm 8., 9. unb 
10. ©eptember trat ber Berbanb ber «or* 
jedan* unb ©(agarbeitet ing Seben. 

Xm 24. Xejembcr trat tn Wien bet erfte 
Berbanbltag bet Bauarbeiter unb ein Ber* 
banb mit 2782 Mitgtiebern tritt ing Seben 
unb am felben Zage würbe ber Seben!* unb 
©enuftmittel*Xrb:iten>erbanb, ebenfadl in 
Wien, in! Seben gnufen. 

Wir freuen ung biefer 3ortf4rttU auf bem 
praltif4ften unb etfolgoerfpre4enbflen ©«« 
biete ber Xrbeiterbewegung. J>er wahre 
Älaffenfampf mobiliflrt langfam, aber f!4* r 
feinen h««tbann, ber 64 auf bem Boben ber 
©ewerf f4aftl bewegung h^anbilbet 3h m 
gehört bte gufunft. 



*- f , I 







i 




Arteiter, Hurt (furt Vflidt! 



©tarft ffttre Crgenifatisne*. 



Die Wücfftd^taiofiflfeit unb ^Brutalität be«j D« Xag ift nicht mehr fern, menn eine ge» 



Kapitalismus unb bie absolute Nidjtäroer» roaltige Anflcenguitg non ©eiten bei Kapi» 
tgigfeit com Nlenfchenleben unb (Sciftengen talcs gemalt roerben roirb, um bie Arbeiter« 



Th« Billionaire. faces give an opportunity to make a 

— record of the form of tooth made, so 

One of the probable products of the that each time a saw requires setting it 

>xt century will be the billionaire. He may be given the exact shape found 

111 not be a singularity, but a plurality, moot desirable. This tool is light snd 



next century will be the billionaire. He 
will not be a singularity, but a plurality. 



ihm gegenüber, ift roogl noch nie in fo fla< Drganifationen gu gerfchmettern. ©obalb His chief ' habitat will be the United | strong ; it may be easily and successfully 



granter ffleife bemonftrirt roorben, all inber biefe grofte Campagne beginnt, roirb bal States, but he will also appear in Europe operated by any mechanic, even if he 



lebten Befangenheit. ©o fagt ber Hinein« Kapital ein lehr arrog 
nati „Gbtonicle." ben, follten ftrfj bie©en 

Die ftomefteab» Affaire, bie Aufftänbe ber unb beffer organiftren. 
Winen* Arbeiter in Xenneffee unb anberen Gifenbafjnarbeiter Ntitg 



Kapital ein lehr arroganter Dittator roet» and possibly in other parte ef the world . has not the skill to set a saw with a punch 
ben, follten fid) bie ©eroerlfcbafteit nid&t mebr The millionaire long ago ceased to be a end hammer ; it operates rapidly and its 
unb beffer organiftren. ©o g. B. waren bie novel*y. There was a twenty-millionaire work is in plain sight always. Its de- 
Gilenbabnarbeiter Ntitglieber oon fteben ober 



Its de- 



Crten, ber lebte grofte Gifenbabnftrife unb mehr 'National* Unionen unb Brübetfcftaften. 



per beenbete ©trife ber ©traftenbaljnange« 
ftellten in Broollpn tc. — fte alle boten einer« 



3n allen Angriff!« unb Bertbeibigung!» 
Campagnen hoben fte bis jegt einzeln ge« 



in New York fifty years ago, and a five- sign is mechanical and its ingenuity 
millionaire in Philadelphia a score of commendable, and we recommend the 



years earlier. But only within the last award of the Edward Longstreth medal 
quarter of a century has the multi- of merit to C. C. Taintor, the inventor. 



frits bent Kapitalismus Gelegenheit, ftd) in f&mpft unb mürben roie bal fprücbroörtlicfte 



feiner roabren Natur tu geigen, unb anberer« Bünbel Nutljen befto leister gebroden — 



millionaire ceased to be a curiosity. We 
now have in New York persons who have 



The diploma is signed by Joseph M. 
i Wilson, president, and W. M. H. Wahl, 



feits rourbe ben NliUioncn von Arbeitern bie jegt flnb fie beffer geeint; bie Baugeroerte reached the centennial mark in millions, I secretary, and countersigned by Arthur 



Situation in ber fte fieft befinben, in foun« haben ihre eingelnen Unionen, aber im gatte and there are supposed to be two or Beardsley, chairman. 



groeibeutiger ffleife cor Äugen geführt, baft eine! Kampfe! follten fie vereinigt fein, um three who are well advanced toward the 



bi centennial figure. 

Starting with the last estimate the 



man ocrjmeifeln möchte an ber 3ntelligeng Crfolge gu erringen. Da! ifl auch fahr bei bi centennial figure, 
ober bem guten SUillen ber Ärbeiter, falle ben ©eftriftfegem, Breftleuten, ©tereotppern, Starting with the last estimate the 
ihnen nicht jegt enblich ein Sicht aufgeht, fall! Ntafcginiften, Korreftoren, Bucftbinbetn ic., evolution of the billionaire proceeds as 
fte nicht enblich begreifen, baft ihr Boos ein unb ben Ntinenarbeitem, nnb beinahe ohne logically as the attraction of gravitation 
roeit traurigeres ift, als bal eines gemöhnli« Ausnahme in allen Unionen in ben oerfehie« on a down grade- A sum of money 



•UR PRINCIPLES. 



roeit traurigeres ift, als bal eines gemöhnli« 



chen ©flauen. JBcr befinben uno mitten in benen ^nbuflriegroeigen be! SanbeS. 



on a down grade- A sum of monej 
doubles in twenty years at simple in 



einem Kampf auf tteben unb Xob, um ©ein roichtigfie ffirrungenfehaft für Alle ifl : bie tereet. 



ober Nichtfein, in einem Kampfe, oon beffen 
Sulgang bal Blogl unb JBebe ber fommen« 
ben Generationen abhangt. 



Oeroerffchaften mit ben 10 ober 12 Millionen 
Arbeitern gu oerftärfen, bie fich jegt noch 



■ MV tue Wvtos-W At«B ooon. 

onaire proceeds as *«WM, Th*» «tu» body thoronfhly tp.' 

Cinn nt muitatinn prove of the object* of the American Federation 
tion Of gravitation of Labor and pledge ourselves to I* ear 

A sum of monej eirne#l Wld •«pport, 

. i a . Resolved* That member« of this ornnladoi 
»FB At Simple ID- should make it a rule, when purchasing rood« 
jk — j.iUm to call for those which bear the trade-mark* of 
organized labor, and when any individual. Ana 
or corporation shall strike a blow at labor organl- 



hnndred million dollars 



außfrßalb ©on Seiß unb C91tcb befinben. owner of this snag sum lives like a Crce- 



well invested, will realise five million dol- or oorpoimtlon shall strike a blow at labor organt- 
. . \ . - .. . .. ration, they are earnestly requested to iriv© 

Ars annoal interest Suppose that the that Individual, firm or corporation their careful 



aonslde ration. No rood union man can kiai *Ke 
sod that whips him. 

T _ _ _ _ KjnOHTS or ULBOB. 

fjertfcbec üb« Altes. CS hol Kunfl unb tige Anftrengung — fommt, bann roerben bie interfere with the doubling of the prin- Knotted, Ttu* we mo«t emphatically dl» 

föiffenfchaft unb bie ©elbftftänbigfeit b« fteinbe einer befferen 2eb<nSroeife g«brüdt cipal in a «core of years. Therefore, the iicl 



Kapital ift heute unumfehrdnfter Unb roenn ber grofte Kampf — biefe geroal« I nu, the compounding ofinterest will not 



hundred-millionaire ofto-dsy should be a 



Wen fegen proftituirt unb überhaupt Alles in roerben von einer n ; e bageoefenen Sturm« hundred-milliooalre of to-day should bea 
feinen Dienft geftellt, roaS geeignet ifl, feine fluth — einem ©trife von ungefähr 1,000,000 two hundred millionaire in 1914, a four 
$errfchaft gu erroeitem unb gu befefligen ©ero erf fchaf tlern unterflügt von 11,000,000 hundred millionaire in 1934, an eight 
3rgenb etroos (Wen fegen nicht auSge« gufammengehörigen Irbeitem, ©gutter an hundred millionaire in 1954, and a 
fcgloffen), beffen ffiertg fieg nicht in Dollar# Schult«, ivie ein Wann. Durch eine beffere billionaire in 1959. 
unb Cents ausbrüefen läftt, hat nach ber h<u« Crganifation ber Ärbeiter roerben beffere While it is easy to figure how high one 
tigen Crbnung ber Xinge überhaupt feinen 3citen fommen — Beffere 3eiten alS roie fte en d of the eee-eaw will go, it is not so 
XQerth, roirb höchften! als Wittel gum '«froeef, heutgutage eriftiten. Ohne Drganifation easy to forecast the consequent depree- 



believe each trade should be organised under Its 
own trade head In a trade union. This does not 
debar our members from Joining mixed ssenm 



©ero «(fchaf tlern unterflü|t von 11,000,000 hundred millionaire in 1934, an eight 
gufammengehörigen Irbeitem, ©chulter an hundred millionaire in 1954, and a 



LABOR UMIUATIOX. 

Resolved , That it Is of the gt^ateei Importe nee 



billionaire in 1959. 

While it ia easy to figure how high one 



f&ertty, wirb ^öc^ftend alft Wittel jum beut|utage eriftiten. D^ne Draanifation 

reip. aid ftelegentlt^ee üudbeutunqdobjeft ftnb bie 8r beiter fraftlod bem Capital ge« 



beuubt. XalHapital befinbet fid) auf einem genübet, weil fte ihrer $8nbe Irbeit jeben 
Siegesjuge ; ÄUed road ihm hinbernb in ben lag ©erlaufen müffen. 



sion of the other end . — New York Daily 
Neue. 



that members should vote Intelligently ; hence, 
the members of this Brotherhood shall strive to 
secure legislstion In fisvor of those who produce 
the wealth of the country, and all discussions and 
resolutions In that direction shall be In order at 
any regular meeting, but party politics must be 
excluded. 



IB«g tritt, roirb ,,g«fchmetttrt" unb bi« trau» 
rigen 3ufiänbt, b«n«n roit entgegtng*h«n — 
fads biefe Bhaf< b« Cntroicfclung nicht g<« 



Nur roenn bit organifirten Arbeit« eine 
Webrb«it ber Stimmen in iftten Neihen 
haben ober biefelbe fontrotliren, (ann man 



DPOOBATIOH. 

Resolved* Thai while we welcome to our ahorse 
all who come with the honest Intention of be- 
coming lawful citizens, we at the same time oon- 

I demn the preeent system which allows the 
Importation of destitute laborers, and w. urgs 



the Inventur of the Taintor Saw Set. 



organised labor everywhere to endeavor to se- 
cure the e n act m ent of more stringent immigra- 
tion laws. 



roaltig abgetürst ober überbrüdt roirb — tbe jlmn^me eine! politiftyn Programm# 
laffen in fijebanfen audmalen, befürroorten. ®ur<% ®ele|e wttthe bie «r* 



The Taintor Manufacturing Company, 



aber nictyt betreiben. Xer arbeitenben beitd|< 
filaffe fällt naturgemäß bie große Äultur* 8rbci1 
aufgabc gu, ßierin grünblKb Sanbel gu mar. 
f<baffen, b. b 3 u ^ an ^ e berbei^ufüßren, unter ©oran 
benen bie ^^obufte ber fiatur unb ber iKen« ber 8t 
fdßen nicht mebr oom Kapital monopohfut @timr 
unb oerfcßlungen roerben, fonbem ber ge« gange 
jammten iRenf<bb«it S« fommen ; 3u« üabor 
ftänbe, unter benen nicht probugirt roirb, gramr 



befürroorten. Xurcß 0efe|e rou^e bie Sr« f 0 r whom Wiebaach & Uilger 84 and 86 
beitdgeit erfi oetfürgt, naeßbem biefelbe ©on Chambers street, New York, are sole 



FAITHFUL WOUL 

Resolved^ Thai ws hold It as a sacred prlndpU 
that Trade Union men, above all others, should 
set a good example as good and fklthfril work- 



Arbeiter.« Drganifationen bereit# oerfürgt agents, advises ns that a silver medal 



Deffentluße Meinung geßt bem (Befe| has been awarded bj the Franklin Inati- 



eet a good example as good and fklthfril work- 
men, performing their duties to their employers 
with honor to themselves and their organisatiou« 



Xurcß bie ooQflftnbige Drganifation tote to C. C. Taintor, the inventor of 



ber Vrbeiter, gum roenigften bi# gu 7,000,000 the Taintor Positive Saw 8et. In tbe 
6timmgebem, würbe bie 8rbeitf|eit unb ba# diploma which accompanies the medal 



with honor to themselves and their organisation. 
aaoKTKH houbs of lasoh. 

We bold a reduction of hours for a day's work 
Increases the Intelligence and happiness of tbs 
laborer, and also increases the demand for 
and the pries of a day's work. 



gange oon ber „Kmerican fifeberation of a description is first given at some 
Uabot' ju H^icago v«f ünbe t« politifc^c Bto« | eD gtb of tbe epecial features of tbe saw 
gramm — ob« roenigften! fo viel all an« M t ^nd the advantages it poaseases, clos- 
nebmbar etfäeint — fofott Sefe|dftaft er« j„g u follows : 

langen. Die Arbeiter follten ben Natft* The safety of the tool lies chiefly in 

er&isrM a tuk ma :r “ d 

nehmen, bie einzige ^icunbin bet Arbeiter the impossibility of oversetting any 
unv allein im ©tanbe $u fein, iftvm bau« tooth, or caaaing an abrnpt bend in it. 
etnbe Bel^äftigung unb ftofte ober b»fj«e xhe lettering and nombering of the 



Iebigli$ um bie B^ofUroutb be! Kapital! ju neftmbar erf$eint — fofott ©efe|c!fraft er« 



faltigen, fonbem um jebem Nlcnfc^en ein 
angenehme! Dafein ju ermöglichen, unb 
unter benen bie ffortfehritte in b« Dechni! 
Hch nicht mehr al! ^lu<h, fonbem at! XDoht« 
that füt bie Nlenfchen erroeifen. 

©tttctlicherioeife blicht fleh oiefe Srfenntnift 
befonber! unter ben organir«rtm Arbeitern 
immer mehr Bahn, unb roit haben bie <)off« 
nung noch n *4t aufgegehen, baft e! un! o«« 
gönnt fein »erbe, fteuge einer befferen ©e« 



langen. Die Arbeiter follten ben Nath« 
jchlägen bet UoUtifier au! bem Siege gehen, 



We reooy u lre that the Inte reale of «11 -* e i 

labor are Identical, regardless of oooupatloa, 
nationality, religion or color, for a wrong dons 
to one Is a wrong done to all. 

We object to prison contract labor, because It 
pots the criminal in competition with booormbla 
labor for the purpose of cutting down wages, 
snd also because it helps to overstock tbs labor 



J bie für ißre Partei ba# »e<ßt in «njprucß 
n ”, nehmen, bie einzige fffteunbin bet Arbeiter 

>em al! ffiohl« un ft allein im ©tanbe )u fein, ift: m bau» 



Resolved, That ws most earnestly 



tbe practice in vogue In many cities, but more 
«specially In tbe West, that of advertising 

A_A4*4 1^. Ja 1 a . 



Üöhne tu verfehaffen. ^olitifcl)< Zhätigfeit 
faun me unb roirb nie |uerft fommen unb 
Nathfchläge roie biefe flnb fo trflgerifch roie 
bet ©tfang ber ©crenen. Berlreibt biefe 
©riOen au! bem ©ehim, roie ©ift auf bem 
Körp«. Saffet bie Arbeiterberoegung ein 
fefte! ©pflem annehmen, fiaffet ade Arbei« 



•ctitious building booms, as It has a tendency to 
lemotalise the trad* In such localities. 



Aa Excellent Form of Indenture for Carpenter Apprentices. 



fellfcbafttorbnung »u fein. Natürlich ift «! Ba^h«« Drganifatiim fich 

BflHht febe! ttberjeugungltreuen Arbeiter!, |^ aa ren ! Die fioffnung unb Dünfche »er 
bie er fooohl gegen fich felbft unb feine Niit« ganzen Arbeiterberoegung flnb gegrünbet auf 

eine ooUftänbig« Drganifation aller Arbeiter 



menfehen, al! auch gegen bi. fommenbm | «in«, 



"mV tu ein« ©chuk-Bereinigung. (Gapt. ! 

©(Iterationen ju erfüllen h*t, baft er fein , ( American ifeberationifl. 4 * 

Uöglichfte! »ur (Streichung btefer tbealen 

3uftänbe beilrage. Darum, Arbeiter, bleibt lti .... . _ 

ni.l u.lHI. 1 , MM .in in bi« Sl.lb« b.« «■?« «« »' « «ü .-f « 1 . 1 ’'”"' 1 -" 

flbmpi«nb«n für bi« politif.« unb bfono. *, e m ®«b1«l?»o imr *r fi.ti« .«■«*« 
milche Gman|ipation ber Unterbrücften unb bietet, ben Arbeitgebern, refp. ben Kap 
febt Gute ganje Xhattraft ein für bie Au!« ften, etoa! «b»ui«aen fucht, fei e! an i 
br«i.«„ 4 , 6«i..ii(i«n», «nb MM| ffrÄJÄ 



b« .«btiMbtftanifnlinncn, bnimt bi«|« in ,, on(tn w _ , m - BtfUn Mn, eitiM unt.« '' .“.^"'1"«'^ 

ben ©tanb gefegt roerben, ba! ©thlimmfie ju t, en ßtaebenen Serhältniffen |u erliefen. lnÄ tnicted tbs said »pp. entice in tbs art, trsds snd mystery of Osrpentor nnd 



ften, etroa! abjufagen fucht, fei e! an Sohn« 

« ung ober an Arbeitgvetlürgung. Die« 
, roo einigermaften ©ef<h&f<«gui>g »or« 



iroeguna ein ef|tro lubenture, Witnsssoth that by and with tho 

t alle Arbei« conesnt of hath pat himself, nnd by those presents doth 

BünVche ber volantaril l r of hl * own f««« will snd accord, put himself apprentice to 

egrünbet auf to l«*ni tho art, Undo nnd mystery of Carpenter nnd 

tiler Arbeiter Joiner ; nnd after the manner of an apprentice, to serve the mid 

(Hapt.^ohn f or and darin«, and to the full end and term of years next ensuing. 

iomft." Daring all of said term tbe apprentice doth covenant and promise that be will 

serve faith folly, that he will not play at cards or dies or 

eine Bereini« any other anlawfhl games whereby the said may be injured. 

gung oonjfachftenoffen. roelche auf gcroerf« he will not abeent himself from work daring the recognised hours of labor, 

bJuT, Sn Arb“ tgc'beni« ^p bcS KaVuSli« withoat leave, nor frequent ^ saloons, hotel, or play boumro, but In all thing, will 

' ‘ ‘ e! an Sohn« behave himself as a faithful apprentice ought to during said term. 

rgung. Die« And that the said on his part, doth covenant and promise 

ft!gang vor« that he will use the utmost of his endeavors to teach or cause to be taught or 



verhüten, bie Gebe unb AUe! roai batauf ift 
ben Klauen bei •«rglofen Kapital! gu ent« 
reiften unb ben Slenf<h«n jurttcfjuge« 
»innen. 



(N. ?). painter.) 



Joiner. Said apprentice shall not be required to work more than the recognised 
hours of labor. The said further agrees to pay said apprentice 



3ft beine Union in einem Gentral« 
lörper vertreten ? ffienn nicht, fo forge ba« 
für, baft fte fnft einem folgen anfchlieft*, 
benn in ber gegenroftrtigen 3**1 b« Xruft! 
unb Gombinationen ift ei mehr al! je noth» 



Die Brüberfchaft ber 3immerleute 
unb Baufcbreiner non Ametifa »efchtoft auf 
ihr« füt glich ln 3nbianapoli! abgehattenen 
Gonoention, alte Kräfte auf (Erringung be! 
A<htftunben«Xage! in folgen ©täbten, oo et 



noch nicht eingeführt ift, gu concentriren, unb 
bi! auf fßr.tere! feine ©trife! gu unt«« 



bi! auf fBetterei feine ©trife! gu unt«« 
[tagen bie nicht für Gningung, refp. Auf« 



rechterhattuna be! Ächtftun&«i«Zage! unter« 
nommen roerben. ©obalb ein fflieb«auf» I 



And for the true performance of all and singular the covenants and agreements 
aforesaid, tbe said parties bind themselves each onto the other firmly by them* 
presente- 

In Wmrm Wnsnnor, the said parties have Interchangeably set their hands and 

seals hereunto. Dated this.........dey of in the year of our Lord one 

thousand sight hundred and 



meinjam ftanbeln. 



leben b« ©efebäfte ftattfinbet, foil ein aUgc« 
mein« Borftoft nach biefer Nietung unt«« 



Executed and delivered before 



nommen »erben. 










I 



\t 



IS 



p c« 



I 




W 

jtvl 









K*«» Coat Powor Mort ! mf 
Tlie U)mI •nd |*. M | 



Vou r»o im i) it is, 

HARDWARE STÖR 



a* 1 ] »«' Ir«*«« •» ii n >t fj 
••fl* « * 1 ft ul«n* frr. 

TAINTOR Mf,r. CO 

• 6 CHarnt>«ri St , N.Y 



Frimw, GlMwi. Bills PoeU and Btuddl 



You should see 
The TAINTOR 



ENTIRELY 

Of SUll 



POSITIVE** 



SAW SETÄT. 7 « 

V< * Cl * 

No. 93. 



f-#r Wc ««til muhI II I 

«»*> «Id%1 « » « tUt f. 

**r »t Mill | || | 



QISSTOn 



IMK FOB HO. 7. 



|| Will |»«f * OU U> b«» J « U« Wtli 
• i >1 I • »N "on ll il ««111 bold 14« 
•et i e ii*t <1 ■ » more work *1U' 

out nl iirftfHtu other uwi i ..«rts 



id for pemphlat. THK IAW.' 



I ).r v Ar** rutile of II « t<eet «tuk'lw 
o I crurlUirtia steel *nd or« 

Pi'Ll. Y W AKftANTBl* 



Kor «el« by all 
MbUcO Pm. 



TTc ftr y,D iss l^S ^ins 



VICTOR 
SCROLL SAW. 



FINEST 

CARPENTERS' 

TOOLS. 

All latest designs and 
approved new models of 
the best manufacturers. 

Chas. E. Schou, 

279 Main Street, 

POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 



Br. O. & J. of America Society Good* 

ESTABLISHED IBM. 

CHAS. SVENDSON 



Regalia and Badges. 

Over 2000 Hoclety Flag« and Banners Manufac- 
tured. Over OtOU Bocletle« furnished 
with Badge« or Regal la. 

No. 84 Court At., Cincinnati. 



ALL KINDS AND SHAKD Of fllCS AND KADfS. 

lOAsofbMSMMl with fraat end «art flt.carafnilT lup* **1 IMTta« «M T- ■■■■ 

^to logoe eoQMtolM ovsr «W fuD st— >— .ran... o< >1— .. _ 

wri*T r iiarcn * sown, im< n 



THE 

SQUARE ROOT 
0CLINCAT0R 



SOMETHING NEW IN FRAMING. 



■ tm ... of 1 It is in the form of a Chart, 18x28 inch?» 

— — — -‘i in >i/c, suostanti illy mounted, on which the 

, ^ * I pitches arc illustrated in connection with a 

v ’ " ] T diagram of the full-sized carpenters’ square. 
J? %/' The lengths of hi aces, coiunion and jack* 

'I*'’. * / ., . * rafitrs, hips and vallexs, are j»iven in plain 

: r — figures to the i-.ti part of an inch with ill their 

.<■' bevels. Also that of their runs, rises, degree of 

f* ZI'.- pitch and contents in board measure, 
if” s- . >/ ; Much other information, such as hopper 
• " “1 c,,,s . framing uneven pitches, |>olygon roofs. 

_F^ — ** rTic curved roofs, etc. 

fttTSeiit postpaid upon receipt of PRICE m S3. OO 

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Tfl , 

J T " 1 * ' ?/ • ' 

1 



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Hot MUG. 

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BOLID EMERY 

WHETBTONEB. 
THE TANITE COMPANY, 

HTKOUDBBURG, Monroe Co.. Pa. 

If KW YORK, 161 Washington H tree l 
CINCINNATI, 1 Weal Pearl Street* 



CUT THIS OUT. 

Bend for the Boat and Cheapest Practical Book 
printed. Written for Carpenter* by a Carpenter 

HOW TO FRAME A HOUSE, 

Or Balloon and Roof Framlrg, by Owen B. 
Maglnnls, author of M Practical Centering, 1 ' 
“ How to Join Mouldings,” etc., etc 

It tea practical treatiee on the lateet and lent 
method« of laying out, framing and ralalng tim- 
ber houMfl on thenalloon principle, together with 
a oomolete and uaily understood system of Roof 
Framfng, the whole making a handy and eaelly 
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CONTENT«. 

Paar I.— Balloon Framing. 

Chapter I. General description of * u 
Frame# , Framed PI« and their construction. 

Chapter II. First Floor Beam« or JoleU, Story 
Section«, Second Floor Beam«, Studding, Fram- 
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and Hoof Timber«. 

nr ..jh — A-*-- Balloon 



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Floor JoteU or bo+iu», < elilng Joist« and Wall 
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Chapter V. Laying out and Framing the Roof. 
Chapter YI. Raising. 

Past II.— LHffloult Roof Framing. 
Chapter I. Simple Roof« 

Chapter II. B Ip and Valley Rook. 

Chapter 1 1 L Roof« of Irregular Plan. 

Chapter IV. Pyramidal Roofs. 

Chapter V. He«« goi ai Roofs 
Chapter VI. OonleaJ or Circular Book, etc., etc. 
The work I« Illustrated and ««plained by over 
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NO EDCE TOOL CAN BE COOD 

to thalr s«i|*ertor cutting quality Is mainly o»»a the raputaClou wltlrh thty have held for an many y*^ 1 ^ 

•Ull bold, of being the beD .1 t B the rotted Htntes l*> you want ««Mb Usilsf If yiwi do you * * 

They are for «ale by dealers In high grade U^U throughout the L’littad Kune« If v our dealer doe« not 
Uiem «nd reft ,***• O ..rder -end tnr nti r «l|.iHre '.«1 <Alsl(«Ut. In Nhlrll fUll dlgWHiO«« Ihl 

ordering ere given, not forgetting to s|ie«*tfy • »Ulogo»* of carpentere' !*h.Ir 

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:*t out tnfttt rut*^ • fn . n- 

ntttiru ; uhnt9\ er/ ham*. at ft m*it 
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ha:t an t\ ttnuxt e iptrumt. and a 
dtttp mi nation that our t*t' 1*1 SV *tputa- 
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shnitl undot Comprtifioti. 

Wood -Workin g Mac hinery 

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Our Cat alogue “ A ** ill dtm u - 

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^ Water Strec-t. I’. S. A. 



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ORIGINATORS, INTRODUCERS AND MAKERS OF 

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End Vi.w of No. 2 Variott Wood Workor 

Bend for Bpeolal Wood Worker Catalogue, 
which will show all the various kind« of work it 
will make. It In the moet useful machine for a 
Parpen Ut or Builder now In estate* nee. 









PATENTS 







f 

If. 



A Monthly Journal for Carpenters, Stair Builders, Machine Wood Workers, Planing Mill Men, and Kindred Interests » 



* 



#’! V 
• .:)• 



VOL. XV— No. 5. 
Established 1881. 



PHILADELPHIA, MAY, 1895. 



| Fifty Cents per Yoar. 



Single Copies, 6 Cts. 




Kdwarii Bahti.ktt from Union 408, New 
Tsrk, for broach of trust, tuid destroy lug papers 

t a deatli claim, also for «tube /.sling funds of 
! D. <\ of New York City. 

Aruurris Distmce, from Union 87, Ht Paul, 
Mtnn.. for raising dissension and slandering 
Union men. 

Ki'Waiu» O- OsTKUMAYKE from Union 604, Ht. 
Lnuls, Mo., for embes/.llng funds of tlio U. B., 
•one of these funds were moneys which he 
ikould have sent tliod.H T , and some he should 
)nve paUVto the I). C. of Ht Louis. He was also 
short in his accounts as V 8. 



Financial Secretaries Who Should 
be Fined. 



Under Sec. 15:5, paragraph C, of the 
Constitution, it in the duty of the F. S 
to send a report monthly to the U. S-T. 
ander penalty of $-'.00 fine. Here below 
to a lint of Financial Secretaries who 
■hould be fined for their neglect to com- 
ply with 8ec. 153. 

Jn particular the Financial Secretaries 
of the following Unions have been 
repeatedly negligent in this particular, 
yis : Unions 31 1, 52, 127, 145, 165, 216, 
888, 254, 262, 263, 305, 336, 367, 368, 380, 
480 , dHd, *»22, *) iu, 553, 574, 623, 031, 723, 
end 767. 

The F. S of the below named Unions 
«hould also be fined $2.00 as per Bee 153, 
Tts : Unions 153, 204, 223, 244, 252, 318, 
388, 388, 422, 501, 507, 725 and 744. 

The carelessness and delinquency of 
Financial Secretaries must be checked 
and in most cases is entirely inexcus- 
able. The reports to the G. S-T. should 
ba forwarded promptly and regularly 
i month. 



The Church and the Lahor Movement. 



' #< What we want is not the relief of 
paupers, but the conditions which pre- 
Tent their manufacture. What, now, is 
the church doing to secure ench con- 
ditions? Where are the pulpits with 
preachers like Christ, denouncing the 
oppressors of the masses? Where are 
preachers declaring to their wealthy 
paw holders that it is easier for the 
ean>cl to pass through the needle’s 
ape, than for the rich man to enter the 
kingdom of heaven? Where are the 
ministers who are denouncing the pro- 
em* by which the Carnegies and Rocke- 
fellers absorb from the common pro- 
duct countless millions and leave the 
aching void of poverty? The complaint 
of labor is that the spirit of Jesus is 
abaant from the modern church. It 
looks quietly upon the wretchedness of 
the people and makee no systematic 
attempt to reach the real cause. If ever 
there was a time when a crusade was 
needed, it is now. No holy sepulchre 
haa fallen into the hands of infidels, but 
the privileged classes have robbed the 
ebmmon people of their liberties, and 
ite rioting in luxuries while their vic- 
feme starve.”— L, \V. Roger*. 




Frank J. MuFarlin, is the new Busi 
ness Agent of the Carpenters’ Unions in 
Rochester, N. Y. 



# # 
* 



Samuel Gompkrs, Ex-Prefiident of the 
American Federation of Labor is now 
on the road through the Southern States 
as an organizer for the United Garment 
Workers, and he iB doing very effective 
work. 



# * 
« 



Jam 18 Duncan of Baltimore ie the 
newly elected General Secretary of the 
Granite Cutter*’ National Union. Brother 
Duncan was Acting Preeident of the 
American Federation of Labor during 
President John McBride’s recent illness. 
The latter is now restored to health and 
is attending to the official duties of his 
position. 



The Boycott on the Crawford Shoe 
is Lined. 



For several years there has been a 
boycott on the < ’rawford Shoe Company 
lor unfair treatment of anion labor. 
The firm has made ite peace recently 
with the organized Boot and Shoe 
Makers, so that now the Brockton 
Branch of the Laaters’ Protective Union 
appeals to anion men everywhere to 
patronize the Crawford shoe to Bhow 
them what labor can do. 



The Iron League of New York. 



This is a powerful combination of 
contractors and manufacturers engaged 
in the structural iron trade. This League 
was very successful in defeating the 
Ilousesmiths’ Union of New York City 
several years ago in the fight for the 
eigbtrhour day. On May 1 this year, 
the Iron League voluntarily conceded 
the eight hour« a day without any re- 
duction in wages, the hours of labor 
heretofore were nine hours per day. 



All this in a Land of Plenty. 



Black slaves used to cost money ; white 
slaves now cost nothing. Black slaves 
need to be fed, clothed, housed and doc- 
tored ; white slaves are now left to shift 
for themselves. Women may become 
prostitutes for the dude sons of rich men 
if they can’t find work at pay to keep 
body and soul together. Men, a limited 
number at least, may become ooacbmen 
for board, torbejeweled upper ten ladies, 
or all commit theft and become public 
chargee, branded as criminals, to be sup- 
ported by taxes wrung from millions of 
toilers, but one step from the same con- 
dition. And this is In a land of plenty. 
—(Iowa) 'Jribune. 




A. C. Cattermull. 



Alfred 0. Cattermull was elected last 
September at the Indianapolis Conven- 
tion a member of the General Executive 
Board. Prior to that, early in January 
last year, he was elected President of the 
District Council of Chicago, and was 
again re-elected in July laat. As Presi 
dent of the D. C. it was also his duty to 
act aa Chief Business Agent for the Chi 
cags District, which embraces a vast 
amount of territory, and has the largest 
membership of a»*y local labor organiza 
tion in America In this trying position 
Bro. Cattermull acquitted himself credit- 
ably, and as President of the Council he 
displayed excellent executive ability and 
keen parliamentary skill. 

Bro. Cattermnll was born in London, 
England, April 4, 1857, and first entered 
the labor movement by joining Car 
penten’ Union 188, Hyde Park, 111., early 
in 1886. He wae Recording Secretary of 
that union and in 1887 transferred hie 
memberahip to Union 28, Chicago, 111 
He wae a hard, energetic worker in the 
eight-honr strike of 1886, and again in 
1887, and on every occasion he has proven 
himself a zealous, sturdy worker for the 
U. B. So wedded ia be to the interests 
of our Order that he haa again and again 
declared, there should be no organization 
of carpenters in America other than the 
U. B. He la a member of the L O. O. F. 
of Illinois. 

Practical, plain and decisive in all his 
actions, Bro. Oettermull wields a worthy 
influence in our ranks. 



Dilatory Unions. 



Below is a list of Unions from which 
no list of officers has been sent us up to 
date, since the election laat December: 




100 


420 


127 


422 


204 


426 


206 


510 


252 


548 


262 


590 


S68 


744 


888 


762 


403 





Oub Local Unions should join Central 
Labor Unions or such Central bodiea of 
organized labor as may be in their 
locality . It is only by uniting and solidi- 
fying the ranks of union labor that we 
can hope to advance oar cause. 

Sac. 00 of the present Constitution is 
now in force since Jan. 14, 1895, and 
applies to sdl members in arrears, whether 
so before the above date or since then. 
Under that law a member cannot be 
suspended until he owes an amount 
equal to twelve months’ does. Then he 
must join as a new member. When in 
arrears, however, to the amount of three 
months’ dues he ia out of benefit. No 
new inftiation fee can be collected from 
a member in arrears— not ontU he is 
finally suspended, and then he joins aa a 
new member. 



Laltor Legislation in Canada. 



The Toronto Trades and Labor Council 
and the Local Federation of Trades of 
that city is urging on the Ontario Go- 
vernment, to insert in all Provincial 
pnblic contracts a specification that the 
union rate of wages, where a union exists, 
be the Government rate of pay. Bro. 
Thos- Ryvse, of Union 27, who is Presi- 
dent of the Federation of Trades, was 
one of a delegation who had a lengthy 
interview on the subject with the Com- 
missioner of Public Works. Bro. Ry ves 
was the principal spokesman, and ac- 
quitted himself very ably. The Com- 
missioner regarded the subject very 
favorably. The Labor Legislative Com- 
mittee of the organized workingmen also 
have a Union Label Act before the 
Dominion Parliament in Ottawa. Ws 
were very successful in the Provincial 
Legislature here in Toronto in defeating 
several measures obnoxious to the work- 
ing people, and in securing some needed 
legislation for oar people. 



Acting Like Idiots. 



" 1 can hire one-balf the people to 
shoot the other half”— said Jay Goold, 
with a sneer, when some one spoke of 
the people’s rising against the Iron 
rule of the corporations. 

And he spoke the truth. There is not 
s day in the year when we might not 
win this fight against class lass, if the 
voters who are suffering from them 
would only unite. 

No blood need be shed ; no violence 
done to person or property. 

We could win with the ballot; and 
with an irresistible pnblic opinion. 

But they can throw the apple of dis- 
cord among the people ; and while we, 
like idiots, srs fussing over names and 
details and personalities, oar common 
foe unite in forging our chains.— 2om 
Wait on. 



- 






i 





THE CARPENTER. 



Ktcry Year. 

The poor nr«* ip lthij; poorer 
Every year ; 

HtarwitlouY ^inwln^ buht 
Every year; 

Nor I* Ille prospn t brighter 
That their burden* will l»e lighter, 

For (lie ehuiiiM lire ^m Uiiik lighter, 

Every j ear. 

Tin* rieh are grow ini' h. router 
Every year ; 

Their pmx' I* getting longer 
Every year ; 

Kor they rule with iron hum! 

The produeer* of the land, 

A ml the Moii’m allure lieiiiiiui) 

Every year. 

Haben for hreutl are crying 
Ever y year ; 

Hy Htarvatioii more are dying 
Every year; 

Their crlen no loml usee inline 
With groan* of nlavet* are blending ; 

Ami heart* of unrein rending. 

Every year. 

Tl»e rieh heed not the crying 
Every y ear ; 

Nor (lie anguish of the dying, 

Every year; 

Hut are uniting for the hour 
When in their pomp und power 
That more li^inea they may devour, 
Every year. 

Though they toll without ceasing 
Every year; 

Thetr poverty *h iiiereiislng 
Every year; 

To esca|»e the Ills In-tiding 
With grim poverty abiding 
There are thointamln unh iding, 

Every year. 

The rigid of home* are leaning 
Every year; 

And teuoulB arc lucre uaing 
Every year; 

For every law that p/tam n 
Wealtli In given to the classes 
Hy grinding down the masses, 

Every year. 

— C. 8. 1 1 Vide, i/i Chiavju Krprnut. 



<Dpen furnm. 

( Ihis DtjHirirntnU is o}xn far our readers 
and members to discuss all phases of the 
labor problem . 

Correspondents should write on one side of 
the paper only. 

Matter for jmblication must be in this ojjice 
by the t6lh of the month previous to issue . ) 



A Clear Statement ot the Situation. 

f EKY working 
arson with per- 
eptive and ob- 
eying facilities, 
is conscious 
o f the fact 
that wages 
generally 
have fallen. 

wages been 

kept st their regular standard through 
the eflectual agency of trade unions, 
brotherhoods and confederations, which 
have aided them to resist the natural laws 
of decline, while wages have fallen in 
most ot the labor departments. True, 
normal rates per diem are only a trifle 
lower now in some of the branches, but 
the issues ot newspapers every morning 
told us of cats in wages, and the bottom is 
not yet reached. Throughout the land 
are strikes, lockouts and shat-downs ; 
shops and factories are ranning short 
time in the week, and many have laid 
off portions of their help, and millions of 
idle or partially employed laborers are to 
be seen. 

This gloomy aspect in labor conditions 
is the result of vicious legislation in the 
establishment of a single gold standard 
of money. Instead of trying to legislate 



for the general welfare of the country, 
Congress and the Executive are benelit- 
ting speculative branches of trade and 
advancing the interests of foreign money 
kings ami extortioners, who loan vast 
sums of money to governments, and these 
loans absorb the products of labor to pay 
the interest. The situation brought about 
by the demonetization of silver appalls 
the mind and chills the heart of every 
workingman. For while we are a debtor 
nation we are under bondage to our cred- 
itors. Better, if we owe anything, that 
we owe it to our own citizens, who ought 
to have patriotism enough to hold it for 
an investment. 

The labor element is in a disquiet and 
restless condition, and the disturbances 
are of dual form, the one political and 
the other social. The political trouble is 
the disturbance and change in values. 
The loss in values, in this country alone, 
by the demonetization of silver, approxi- 
mates to the sum of $2,000,000,000, 
an amount inconceivable, a sum nearly 
equal to our national debt at the close of 
the war. In fact, the rise in gold has so 
affected the balance of the national debt 
that it is as big to-day as it was twenty- 
five years ago, except as to the name of 
the thing. 

The result of this change in our pecuni- 
ary matters has created an alarm not 
without reason, and distrust and stagna- 
tion pervades business. It was an unwise 
and outrageous proceeding, to destroy 
one-half of our real, actual money, when 
there *”*£ not a sufficiency, and has been 
the means of throwing millions out of 
employment, all for the honor and glory 
of a plutocracy. 

Then there is the social and economical 
difficulty. Our liberal policy toward im- 
migration has flooded the country with 
workingmen. They come here not to 
establish new industries, but to appro- 
priate the use of those already established 
after many successive generations. This 
country is large and populous, and we 
have wide fields for industry and develop- 
ment, but we have not an excess of in- 
dustries to furnish steady employment to 
all who are compelled or actuated to labor 
for their support. The ratio of increase 
of working people is greater than the 
opportunities for employment. Every 
year we are adding additional numbers 
to the working population, by ingress of 
foreigners, the increase of native born 
citizens, and the introduction of women 
and children in the fields of labor where 
before only men were employed, all to 
cheapen labor and increase the profits of 
the employer. 

Can we remove or improve this diffi- 
culty ? The most efficacious remedy 
would be to apply the eight-hour day 
system, that would afford opportunities 
for employment of more help, provided 
we could keep the industries in the cur- 
rent of progress and improvement. 

The right and privilege of laboring is 
allowed to every person, but wage earn- 
ing and employment pertains only to a 
certain few. In hiring, it is not to be 
careful in considering by the employer 
whether the one whom he is engaging 
is compelled to work for his support or 
not ; he is not inquiring as to the equity 
of tiie case, what he wants is the work, 

I it does not matter whether he is giving 
it to the most needy, only that he is get- 
ting the most efficient help. But is it 
not proper to prohibit the employment 
of a person for unreasonable and exces- 
sive number of hours, without liberty 
to rest and recuperate his physical 
powers. Then why would it be impolitic 
and unreasonable to reduce the number 
of hoifta of a day’a labor, and thereby 
give greater amount of opportunities for 
working nen to receive employment to 
earn their bread ? Still it is not wiae to 
make our country too attractive to 
foreigners, to which Europe may send 



her idle laborers, and be relieved of the 
expense of keeping them as jumpers 
But the greatest difficulty is to harmonize 
the different and incongruous elementH 
among the working class. There is as 
much antagonism in their own ranks, 
as between them and the other clanses of 
society. While such is the state of facts, 
no law will or can be enacted for their 
relief and protection. 

The surrounding conditions and cir- 
cumstances imperatively demand the 
shortening of the day’s labor, not merely 
from purely philanthropic motives, but 
as a necessary stage in the evolution and 
regulation of human industries The 
movement in the way of lessening the 
number of working hours in a day in- 
volves the abolishment of one of our 
venerated institutions, though not 
sacredly maintained, which in the lapse 
of time has become obnoxious, that of 
the ten hour system. The special in- 
terest in the movement does not demand 
to enquire if it is a hygienic measure, or 
one of social reform. However, the edu- 
cation and tastes of some people of this 
age would seem to furnish an argu- 
ment against the movement. We are 
obliged to acknowledge that more leisure 
dispose some people to seek recupera- 
tion and refreshment through exces- 
sive indulgences in acts of dissipation 
and licentious conduct. But, like many 
other reforms, the Eight hour system 
may be distinguished by what it accom- 
plishes, instead of what was intended 
by it ; that in place of establishing a 
class of people of depraved morals, it 
would be the means of instigating them 
to a life of virtue and the development of 
a higher civilization. 

This is no measure to be attained by 
a proclamation of emancipation, but a 
cause to be gained only by working 
men’s own concentrated efforts. It is 
not going to be accomplished through 
interposition of vacillating politicians. 
From such it is vain to look for help, 
and their promises will all be deceptive 
and misleading. Individuals must forget 
and sunder their party ties, which have 
so long subjected them to slavery, and 
act independently. Your champions 
will be among your own number and in 
your periodical journals. It is a mon- 
strous injustice that this country should 
be governed in the interest of a class of 
usurers and money brokers as it is at 
present. Can it be possible to educate 
and stimulate working men to intelligent 
action? The lack of systematic per- 
sistency characterizes nearly every labor 
movement. 

Briefly adverting to the use of ma- 
chinery and the share it takes in the 
labor troubles, it is here stated that 
every machine in use displaces from five 
to seventy -five pairs of hands. It is 
estimated that the type setting machine 
has thrown five thousand printers out 
of employment in the State of Now 
York, and the printing business is still 
in a most flourishing condition in the 
State. 

It is well understood that the ten- 
dency of the times is to cheapen the 
cost of production, while our wants 
and necessities are constantly augment- 
ing. It must also be borne in mind that 
prices, in a large measure, are influenced 
by the volume or amount of money in 
circulation. And now the strange 
phenomenon appears, that when our 
population is increasing, and more 
money ia needed to carry on business 
transactions, we have foolishly con- 
tracted our currency circulation by de- 
monetizing silver. Altogether it seems 
that now is a propitious time to start the 
eight-hour movement, and urge the pro- 
tection of our shores against the impor- 
tation of foreign laborers. 

JAM!» E. Mahn. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 



1* lain Talk at a Union Meeting. 



/ 



v hy 



VMON «22, Waco, 
' Tex., makes it a 
practice to have 
J its members each 
in turn prepare 
some paper or 
essay, or deliver 
an address at a 
stated meeting. 



Tli ia has aroused the latent talents of the 
members. 1 lere is a sample of an address 
recently delivered by one of the mem- 
bers : 

“ I hope you will deal charitably with 
this my first attempt to speak on labor 
issues. If each member will only have 
something to offer every meeting night 
on some subject, there will always be 
something said that will cause us to 
think, that will cause us to read and tin. 
ally cauee us to speak, and in a short time 
we will become familiar with matters 
aud study our craft interests. There is 
no workingman these days but has his 
own thoughts regarding what would he 
best to do to better the condition of his 
craft. There are certain kinds of aggres- 
sion 1 am not in favor of. There is agres- 
sion that sometimes does more harm 
than good. I have no doubt in my mind 
but the day will come, not only in Amer- 
ica but in the whole world, when labor 
and capital will be in each harmony that 
aggression will not be needed and strikes 
will be a thing of the paBt. In order to 
reach this beautiful harmonious state of 
affaire, we must be up and doing. Every 
honorable means should be resorted to 
to increase our strength, hy bringing into 
our ranks all non-aiiion men and educate 
them to our way of thinking. Each ami 
every union man must put his shoulder 
to the wheel and every man will have to 
make “a long pull and a strong pull and 
a pull altogether , u and to pull together 
is the best pull ot all. 

It lays entirely in our own hands. 
How long the day is off when we will 
have the harmonious time we are look- 
ing for, will be alien the laboring part of 
the world will be so well organized so 
well acquainted with their rights, so 
strong in numbefs, wise in council, so 
united in action demanding justice that 
capital will have to surrender. 

Do you ever give it a thought, you 
that have spent your whole life, given 
your energies and talents such as they 
are and all you bad, building palaces for 
the wealthy, that there is something 
rotten about an economic system that 
allows a man who confers so much upon 
his country as a good carpenter a bare 
subsistence as a reward for his labor. 
What a good mechanic earns from the 
trade he follows is not half what he 
gives by it. The carpenter who builds a 
mansion rearing it through a whole sea- 
son receives a few hundred dollars and 
is supposed to be well paid and is him- 
self satisfied and people seems to think 
that is the whole that he has done. He 
has worked bard during the summer he 
has earned his money to support his 
family and perhaps laid up some, and 
what has he done? Earned his money V 
Yes he has earned his money but he ban 
built a mansion in which a family shall 
be sheltered through a hundred years, 
when he is dead and his children dead, 
his work stands, and he got what ? A few 
pitiful dollars, and he gave what? II«* 
gave the community benefits, in his 
skill, in his mind, or incarnated in 
timber, he gave to the community price- 
less gifts. Carpenters, what do you get ? I 
sav working hard all your life, spending 
all you make to educate and support your 
family, generally speaking at the age of 
forty-five you are a grey-haired, broken 
man, it is hard for you to hold a job, you 
have nothing laid up. If you do not hap- 
pen to have a ^ood child with whom yon 
can live, what is going to become of you? 
It is a matter for thought and I would 
like to hear some brother speak on it 
some time, the way I have figured it out 
is very well expressed by those lines : 

Y© build, ye build, but ye enter not In 

Like the toller« whom the desert devoured In 

their sin. 

From Uie land of promise ye fade and die 
Ere lit verdure gleams forth upou your weary 




THE CARPENTER. 



Practical Plans and Estimates. 



1 back door, 3x7, 1 J 3 50 750 feet tin roof, 8c . 




j A VING had eeveral 

1 calls for store front 

& 

T plana lately, and 
t thinking that per- 

I haps there may be 

£«• • • 4i among the many 

readers of Thk 
( •AR rKNTKK some who may be in need of 
a cheap yet rather tanty design for a 
small, one-story front, I have concluded 
to submit the following design for their 
consideration. The size of the ground 
plan or Hoor plan over all is 20x30 feet. 

The walls are 12-inch brick, except the 
front, which is laid up with block stone 
to the bottom ot the I beam as shown. 

The cellar is to be 7 feet 0 inches deep. 

The store room ceiling, 12 feet in the 
clear. 

There will he two doors and two 
window’s besides the front. 

Distance around outside walls, 112 feet. 

Length of front cornice, including 
gable, 31 feet. 



KXCAVATINO AND MASONRY. 

200 yards excavating, H0c . . \ 
50, 000 brick laid in wall, $8 . . 
Stone in front and sills 



$ 'i0 00 
400 00 
130 00 

$500 00 



LCMBKR MILL. 



Feet. 

2x12 20 ft. floor joists 1,120 



30, 2x 8 20 
28, 2x 0 20 
20, 2x 4 12 
5, 2x 0 12 
10, 2x 8 10 



ceiling joists , . . 
root joists .... 
partition studding 
for platform frame 
14 44 floor . 




1 partition door, 2-8x0 8, 1] . 2 25 

3 cellar sash, 12x10, 3 lights, 

$1.25 3 75 

50 ft. 44-inch crown mould, 

$2.50 per b I 25 

80 “ 2-inch bed mould, $1 f>0 

per h 1 20 

500 *• l quarter round, 00c per h. 1 80 

32 “ parting stops, 50c per h. . 10 

30 “ window stops, 1 inch, 00c 

per h 21 

30 “ door stops, 2 inch, 1.25 p. h. 45 

12 14 5-inch oak threshold $4 

per h 48 

Mill work on front, including 
doors, brackets, cornice 
and everything used in 

the front 70 00 

Glaps . 30 00 



gutter and conductor, 10c 3 20 



1 25 RK< 'A PITULATION. 

Excavating and masonry . 
* Lumber bill and mill work- 

1 s ° Carpenter work 

1,4 Hardware 

Painting •. . . . 

Gas fitting 

Plastering 124 yards 25c . . 



$80 02 



$500 00 
256 91 
88 70 
80 02 
30 37 



dt & 

TYf 



FOB TAX. SPECIAL A8SE88MKNTB, ETC., 

During; the month ending March 81. 1896. 
VUwm to y orrort »pftttr notify ihm Q B-T. without felo j. 



30 37 1 § 

is oo sg 



II I II 



$256 01 



< ARI'JCNTKR WORK. 



9 sqrs. framing and laying Hoors, 

$1-30 $11 70 



$1089 00 

Thus we lind the estimated cost of this 
store front as designed to be $1,089. The 
same design could be carried out in a 
frame building in close imitation of stone 
front for $800. The panels under the 
windows are made by planting in a cham- 
fered block with a turned rosette in the 
center. The gable is finished by plant- 
ing on the sheeting square corner blocks 



framing and ceiling, $1.50 13 50 * which should be ornamented to some < 



0 



0 



FRONT ELEVATION. 



1- $190 00 162- 81 10 60 '326- -910 10 621- -|30 70 
j H2 35 163 ‘24 90 326 24 20 822 3 60 

3 21 70 164 4 20 327 38 00 526 86 00 

4 80 40 166—21 60 328 9 80 634 9 00 

B 16 00 166- -16 60 32*-- 3 HO 843-— 6 30 

6 4 70 167 28 00 330 11 20 649 3 80 

7 8 40 163 29 00 131 2 80 560 ft 00 

5 66 10 169 5! 0U 3^2- -111 9* 861 6 00 

9 9 00 170 6 10 33* 9 10 863 4 60 

11 63 50 171 2« 20 334 15 10 684 — 44 80 

12 13 80 178 3 30 338 4 40 568 7 00 

14 7 20 175 20 80 336 23 00 567 10 00 

15 42 00 176 60 85 339 — 13 7ft 1 P60 7 f*o 

16 21 40 177 17 50 340- -280 00 1 563-- 47 30 

17 12 70 179 13 10 442 SO 4f | f64 5 Co 

It 7 00 131 86 20 343 8 70 j 547- - 88 50 

20 81 50 186 5 20 344 6 90 »68-- 10 80 

21 45 80 188 9 10 346 19 CO »76 11 ro 

22 85 10 169 31 30 348 I 25 578 22 fO 

23 78 90 190 6 60 349 1 ÖT VO 13 10 

28 29 60 191 5 60 351 4 50 5K5 7 ft 0 

26 18 20 192 25 352 9 20 186 27 40 

27 21 CO 193 — 14 50 3*5-- 85 46 888 9 lft 

28 261 40 194 6 00 386-- 6 00 501 9 go 

29- -147 00 196 16 CO 369 34 86 592 3 20 

30 24 TO 196 6 30 380 16 £0 593 3 20 

31 6 80 198 23 00 36 1 ]0 60 P98-— 6 70 

33 — 166 60 199 19 ftO 366 7 CO 596-- o 40 

86 12 80 JC0 27 CO 367 II CO 602 3 ftn 

87 3 20 201 2 60 369 1ft 00 603- - 20 6ft 

38 12 50 208 18 60 370 20 90 604 8 40 

39— 32 90 207—20 95 371— , 8 CO 605 1 g 10 

40 IN 50 208 6 80 374-- 16 20 606 1 1 95 

42 28 75 209 58 20 375- -160 00 611- -26 00 

43—163 80 211 47 70 376 20 6T 617 6 40 

44 33 00 214 7 75 .377 4 50 622 18 70 

45 3 50 215 32 70 378 7 40 623 12 46 

48 6 10 218 7 55 380 1.3 00 6?8 17 60 

49 8 40 220 14 00 381 ftft 35 629 10 CO 

«0 10 90 221 10 60 1 382 101 50 636- » 60 

52 37 25 224 38 60 386 7 20 637- -26 20 

»4 76 50 23ft 17 00 j 390 11 40 63g 34 qq 

85 13 no 226-- 10 35 ,391 19 20 6*9 30 60 

56 11 50 327 8 00 393 10 »0 640- - 12 00 

89 3 20 22S 36 20 394 - 2 60 641 4 60 

66 15 80 229 11 20 399 7 00 645 m 

61— — 18 40 230 16 f 0 400— - 28 00 547 07 gp 

«2 31 60 281 2 60 403 4 50 649 “7 70 

63 8 00 232 2 fO 403- — 1 40 680 18 20 

64 39 30 233 1 «0 404 9 00 gif 9 00 

•7 5 20 285 13 50 1407 31 60 r,ft« § 00 

68 8 20 236 « 60 '409 9 00 e§9- - 28 10 

1,9 li 90 237 50 00 «10 9 10 661 4 50 

79 u 90 238 29 00 416 54 70 663 8 60 

n 26 10 239 84 80 ,.7 8*" Mi - - 8*0 

78 26 40 240 35 00 |1Q ]6 5" 668- —16 15 

74 13 96 242 7 »0 < 20 4 00 667 28 40 

76 16 95 243 7 60 421 )2 50 {,76 7 60 

78 18 50 244 6 50 P2 4 50 678- _ 51 30 

!2 } 3 *! 2U ,2 50 *23—13 40 679 10 00 

g] 17 80 248—16 10 424 14 »0 681 31 30 

63 74 10 247— 16 00 426 3 40 C K3 20 00 

84 f 52 248 ,1 00 427 12 00 686 17 50 

86 — - 3 00 219 13 40 428 ft V 687 16 00 

87 31 80 250 12 50 429 14 689 II 90 

88 17 70 261 20 70 431 3 60 690 t 40 

90 47 05 264 7 80 (432 7 00 692 23 30 

92 18 00 286 6 20 ,4*3 44 00 696 16 00 

94 27 60 257 96 00 437 6 2« 698 37 80 

96 67 26 258 19 76 440 28 00 699 31 10 

97 8 75 260— 8 80 442 8 501 701 7 80 

99 7 50 261 8 30 446 8 IV> 708 7 M) 

10U 3 20 262 4 80 446- - 39 TO 704 19 CO 

10) 12 40 263 5 00 449 73 90 706 50 60 

102 9 80 260 4 60 450 7 0" 707 21 90 

103 9 40 26« 8 60 451 47 20 712 24 60 

104 39 2» 267 6 60 453 51 40 714 26 00 

107 18 03 268 18 70 455 ft no 715 65 50 

109— -148 10 269 50 40 467 46 TO 716 8» 20 

111 8* 80 270 53 80 159 9 10 717 |1 |0 

113 75 65 278 8 60 460 79 60 719 1 60 

118 8 06 274 21 30 t6? — 1« ftr 793 3 40 



114 26 50 275 5 90 44 

framing and sheeting roof I tent by being turned in the center, or if {JSZTn 10 mZZ 2 o so % 
00 9 00 not turned they might be bored out with }>• — ff ®® *2 — ! 5® 



26 60 275 5 90 464 11 0T 72» 2 66 

17 80 276 1 40 468 7« 9* 736 28 50 

11 10 277 20 50 460 10 50 728 1 80 

44 00 279 3 80 470 M 00 730 61 30 



framing and ceiling parti- 



tion, $1.40 8 50 The cresting may be scroll sawed work 



40 lineal feet of cornice, 15c . . 6 00 
100 lineal feet of base, 4c ... . 4 00 
2 door frames complete, $2.50 . 5 00 

2 window frames complete, $2.50 5 00 

3 cellar frames complete, $1 60 . 4 50 

Cellar stairs, including railing • 8 50 

Work on back platform 5 00 

Work putting in the front .... IS 00 



$N8 70 



UAKDWARK. 



FLOOR PLAN. 



2,845 ft. in frame, $10.50 per m. . $40 04 
000 sheeting for roof, $18 perm. 10 20 
000 44 4-inch flooring $30 per m. 27 00 
20 0 44 l finish, $40 per m. . . . 8 00 

1,200 41 l ceiling, $30 per in. ... 36 00 
100 “ 10 inch base, $2.50 per h. 2 50 
100 44 5-inch casing, $1.50 per h. 1 50 

4 plinth blocks, 8c 32 

8 corner blocks, 5c 40 

2 windows 10x14, Slight, $1.50 3 00 



20 lbs. 


20d nails 


50 


I« 


lOd “ • 


100 


4 • 


8d “ 


50 


1« 


6d “ 


20 


II 


lOd *lnish 


30 


« 


8d “ 


15 


II 


(ki “ 


2 


»1 


3d “ 



a hit to take away the plainness in looks 1» — 87 10 wi ^46 bo or 4 50 

The creating may be scroll sawed work IS 2«— «* oo gfclS E fciSS 

cut from good solid stock about 14 inches !!? — * Z® *** — if 7 70 47 ® — ’• tw — u so 
thick and finished with a short turned isi — is to jgg — 23 78 7 .JZZ 3 « *> 

post at the ends as shown. The llnial S “ Stl £ S 2 

which surmounts the top of the gable 187 — 80 294 — 17 «0 4 * 6 — 940 750 — 76 so 
should be made of galvanised iron. 7 s" w> — '•* oo as Sr tm~ ! «0 

The brackets supporting the cornice JJJ— Jiff fcÄÄ ZZlJS 

should show a face of 3J or 4 inches and 148 — u 7ft »5 — i 20 — 12 * 76 i> 3 bo 

should be 2 feet long by abont 12 inches }i£l 2 2? £='S R S 5 fc J % 

wids. The cornice over the gable should }£=,? g «fcl™ J® «g- 7 £ •£; Z '» » 

be 2 or 3 inches wider than the other 151— — fts 40 115 — 500 ir 763 — n on 

cornice and the brackets widened pro- IStZu so m— <« 10 S!?I1 l ?? ^ 

portionately. The general appearance IE“ ,5 22 21? — 2 22 w 7 ®» — *'» 

of this design may be somewhat improved iw — 29 40 334 — 7 so «is 40 90 



6 (X) cut from good solid stock about li inches 

4 00 thick and finished with a short turned 

5 00 post at the ends as shown. The tinial 

6 00 which surmounts the top of the gable 

4 50 should he msde of galvanised iron. 

3 50 The brackets supporting the cornice 

5 00 should show a face of 3J or 4 inches and 
18 00 should he 2 feet long by about 12 inches 
wide. The cornice over the gable should 



768 7 70 

760 ft 60 

"66 8 60 



cornice and the brackets widened pro- isa — u 60 417^—44 10 4 r 

SO P , 0 . r i-T tely ' Th ® K® neral »PPearance ®« J 

•in ° r tblB <lee>gn may be somewhat improved i«o — 29 4« 334 — 7 so sir 409 

4 05 ^ Uyi ” gt T W u ° ° r th L ree COQr8e8 ° f Total reoel ved 

^ above the I beam, thus making the front Deducting Special Aaseemnent* 

1 50 from 16 to 24 inches higher. ® lud * a aboTe 



•10,203 eg 
In- 

. . 4,761 60 



50 44 sash weights, He .... 62 

1 skein sash cord 60 

8 sash pulleys, 4c 32 

2 sash locks, 15c 30 

2 mortice locks, $1.00 2 00 

1 front door lock 2 00 

1 set Hush bolts 1 50 



pLCH E S 
principal, fack 

crippla rafters, and n . - Ann A AA NSgSs 
lengths in ft. and ins. G. 1. TOPP « CO.. 

Seta instantly. Ask 

your Hardware INDIANAPOLIS* 

bniir. - Indiana. 



Total for Tax and Supplies 16,442 18 



Ueo. II. Chaiullee. II. C. Clmmllee. xskw 

P irwmnwH 

Trade-Marks, Caveats, Etc. 

CHANOLKE A CHANDLEE, 

PATENTS AND PATENT CAUSES 

Elsctrical and Mschanical Expsrts. 
POLACK BUILDING, ATLANTIC BUILDING, 
York, Pa. Washington, D. O. 




4 




THE CARPENTER. 



$ v 
K i, 

II 



THE CARPENTER 

PHILADELPHIA, MAY, 1895 . 






A ROUGH 




a non; ii 



SKETCH OF 
struggle. 



TU KE K CKNTCRJ K> OF SECRET OIUlANIZ A- 
TI ON-THK COMPANIONSHIP and 
FRIENDM 804*1 BT1BS. 



BY Hl’GH MUiREGOR. 




HE discovery of a mari- 
time route to India in 
the last years of the 
fifteenth century is too 
important an event to 
he passed over here, 
not only because the 
search for that route 
led to the discovery and colonization of 
America and the consequent extension 
of the West, but also because its imme- 
diate result was to change the track of 
the world’s commerce, to the serious 
injury of the Italian commonwealths, 
and, in a lesser degree, of the tree cities 
of Belgium and the Rhine. Having been 
specially induced to make this note in 
consequence of the prevalence of certain 
erroneous opinions as to the cause of the 
decay ol Italian prosperity, we resume 
the main thread of our subject. 

Beginning of the Modern Union .— By the 
middle of the sixteenth century the 
separation of the trade union into two 
opposing bo<lies of employers and em- 
ployed had taken place in the most ad- 
vanced countries of the West, and in 
every industry in which any considerable 
amount of capital could be profitably 
invested. While engaged in the difiicult 
task of tracing the dissolution of the 
medieval system, we have confined the 
field of observation mainly to England, 
because it was in that country where the 
social revolution was most thoroughly 
achieved at an early date; and because 
the sharp contrast, between the pros- 
perity of the fifteenth century and the 
misery of the sixteenth, there seen, is 
the best illustration of the nature and 
extent of that revolution. But now that 
we are free to direct our attention to the 
process of the reconstitution of the trade 
union ; to the formation of the third 
and modern phase of the voluntary 
organization of labor, we must turn again 
to France. 

The similarity and the simultaneous- 
ness of the successive steps in the disso- 
lution of the medieval industrial system 
in England and France, notwithstanding 
the difference of the means by which 
those steps were effected, should be con- 
clusive proof that the several countries 
of the West form one common whole. In 
France, the monarchy having succeeded 
in breaking the independent power of 
the aristocracy and in centralizing the 
whole power of the State in its own 
bands, the journeymen were excluded 
from the trade union by the sole force of 
royal decrees ; but in England, the aris- 
tocracy, by forcing the monarchs to 
respect the provisions of the Magna 
Charter, prevented such centralization, 
therefore, the monarchs were obliged to 
conspire with the richer citizens to 
effect that end. In France, the corpora- 
tions and the brotherhoods were dis- 
solved at one and the same time, and 
afterward, royal charters were granted to 
corporations of masters only, while the 
clergy were forbidden to allow any 
journeymen brotherhoods to meet in the 
chapels, cloisters, or other places of their 
establishments; in England, however, 



the corporations were continued without 
any break, hut minus the journeymen, 
and the brotherhoods were prevented 
from meeting in chapels, etc., by the 
confiscation of those chapels, etc., and 
all the property of the brotherhoods, 
together with that of the regular clergy. 
(15fiC51). 

As to dates it is well to notice that in 
1350, John, King of France, iesueil an 
ordinance forbidding workmen to de- 
mand and employers to pay, more than 
one-third greater wages than the rate 
paid before the Black Death ; and, in 
1349, 1350-51, the English parliament 
forbade the demanding and paying of 
more than the same rate of wages which 
prevailed before that calamity. In 1377, 
a City Ordinance deprived the mass of 
the London w orkers of the municipal and 
national electoral franchise; and, in 
1383, Charles VI, deprived the city of 
Paris of its municipal government. 
Thenceforward, Louis XI, by his ordi- 
nance of June, 1467, Francis I, by his 
edict of August, 1539, Francis II, by his 
edict of July, 1559, and Henry III, by 
his edict of December, 1581, accomplished 
the same result in France as was accom- 
plished in England during the period 
between the passing of the acts of parlia- 
ments known as 3rd Henry VI, in 1425, 
and the 5th Elizabeth, in 1562. 

Coming, at length, to the visible pro- 
cess of the reconstruction of the trade 
union, we are struck at the outset by the 
greater precocioueneee and energy ol 
France. The English journeymen, sore 
dismayed by the robbery of their ac- 
cumulated savings of many centuries, 
finally consummated by the Lord Pro- 
tector Somerset in 1551, proceeded with 
great caution in the work of reconstruc- 
tion. They supplied the corporation 
feature of the union by the adoption of 
“houses of call,“ where employers 
might find workmen when help was 
needed, and where workmen could dis- 
cuss trade affairs over a “friendly pint 
of porter,“ without exciting suspicion of 
illegal combination ; and they met the 
brotherhood feature by the establish- 
ment of friendly societies, with more or 
less eccentric titles and ceremonies, care 
being taken not to exhibit any special 
craft feature in connection therewith, in 
order to guard against further robbery 
by the Sta f e. The French journeymen, 
however, from the date of their exclu- 
sion from the corporations, continued 
and developed the custom of travelling 
from city to city and meeting in certain 
taverns or “ houses of call ; “ and, when 
excluded as brotherhoods from meeting 
in chapels, they elaborated a ritual or 
rituals of their own. In this way, by 
the middle of the sixteenth century, 
there had arisen in trance a form of 
trade union organization widely different 
from that which bad prevailed in pre 
vioua centuries. This organization was 
known as the Companionship (compag- 
nonnage), and it is our present purpose 
to reveal something of its form and 
method of working; although many of 
its legends, ceremonies, signs and tokens 
are enshrouded in deepest myatery. 

The Companionship .— That the Com 
panionship was the original form of the 
modern trade union is sufficiently clear 
from three of its characteristic features 
first, it was strictly confined to journey- 
men ; secondly, it united the workmen 
of the same trade disseminated through 
out a territory extending over six de 
grees of latitude and longitude ; and 
thirdly, it united the functions of the 
corporation and of the brotherhood 
one general craft organization, and thus 
formed the protective and benevolent 
trade union as it practically exists to-day 
Cities of the lour of / ranee — Toward the 
close of the previous system, a young 
man having completed his apprentice- 
ship was supposed, before competing for 



the mastership, to successively visit and 
work in certain cities where his craft was 
carried on in the most approved manner ; 
but, when the workmen could no longer 
hope to become masters, this migration, 
which had previously been only a tem- 
porary phase in the life of a workman, 
became, in most cast‘8, a life long habit. 

In course of time the tour, thus de- 
veloped, included some sixteen to twenty 
principal cities, situate between the 
Mediterranean and the Seine ; beside 
a number of so-called “ baBtard towns “ 
in which few or no branches of the Com- 
panionship existed. 

The Mother , — This was the peculiar 
name given to the “house of call“ of 
each trade in the several cities, the pro 
prietor of which and his wife w ere called 
Father and Mother ; but they also styled 
the house itself the Mother (la nj«>re). 

A companion arriving in a city of the 
tour did not look for work himself; he 
went direct to the Mother, here he would 
make himself known by the proper sign, 
and, although he might be a complete 
stranger in the place, he was greeted ae 
an old friend. No matter if he had 
money or not, he had a plate on the 
table, a seat by the fire and a good bed, 
until work was found for him, and if he 
fell sick the Mother nursed him as a son. 
As the Companionship was responsible 
for the legitimate expenses of any par- 
ticular member in such cases, the Mother 
suffered no pecuniary loss by this gener- 
ous hospitality. It was at the Mother 
that a young man was admitted as an 
“aspirant;“ it was here he entered into 
the serious questions of trade policy as 
a “companion it was here he voted, 
feasted and trod “the light fantastic 
toe “at the annual election of officers, 
banquet and ball, and it was here when 
his life work was done the companions 
assembled to carry him to the great 
Mother of us all. 

'/'he 0[Kcers —General conferences of 
officers or delegates were doubtless held 
when some great special necessity arose, 
but there does not appear to have ever 
been any kind of general executive body 
connected with the Companionship. If 
branch fell into financial difficulties, 
the sister branches of the same craft, or 
those of the same duty, came to its assist- 
ance. Despite the confusing variety of 
figurative terms and special names used 
by the Companionship, the system of 
government was direct and very simple 
The officers of each branch rarely ex- 
ceeded three in number, and, although 
in the course of three centuries the titles 
of these officers changed somewhat, the 
functions performed by them varied but 
little. Each branch may be said to have 
had a premier, a vicegerent, for the 
members of the first degree, and a sec- 
retary. 

A business agent ( rou/eur ) was ap- 
pointed by the premier each week, ae 
was also a Hick-committee. The duties 
of the agent were both numerous and 
onerous. The agent received all new 
comers at the Mother, and informed 
them of the state of trade, rate of wages 
and of any boycott or strike that 
might exist. If a new comer elected to 
continue his journey, ar.d was destitute 
of funds, the agent saw that he was 
relieved, and if he elected to remain, the 
agent found him work. If no vacancy 
existed it was the agent’s duty to find 
some one willing to leave the city, or to 
notify those employed to work less time 
in order to give the new comer room for 
employment. In introducing a journey 
man to an employer, the employer was 
required to advance one day’s wages 
This advance the agent retained. Before 
his week’s term of office expired, the 
agent called a meeting of those whom 
lie had thus placed, and returned the 
advance money to each, less a certain 
proportion for the branch treasury, and 



with the money thus returned the mem- 
bers paid for a banquet« in which the 
agent shared * / t (ticio. Before a com- 
panion quitted the city the agent wbh 
required to see that the accounts between 
the companion and his employer, and 
between the companion and the branch 
were settled, also all obligations toward 
bis fellow -workmen. The agent then 
called a special meeting to bid the de- 
parting member farewell. 

'/he Constitution . — It is impossible to 
decide to which trade the credit is due of 
originating the Companionship. The 
masons make a strong claim to that 
honor; hut after many years study of 
this and cognate questions we woulcl he 
inclined to claim the honor of thus 
founding the moilern trade union for the 
carpenters, were we not convirced that 
the Companionship was a long and 
gradual evolution. In the course of its 
development, the Companionship wbh 
constituted of the masons, plasterers, 
carpenters, joiners, roofers, glaziers, gild- 
ers, locksmiths, turners, coopers, sabot- 
makers, wagon-makers, smiths, horse- 
shoers, cutlers, nail makers, tanners, 
curriers, saddlers, shoemakers, hatters, 
weavers, tailors, rope-makers, bakers, 
and printers. Regarded from the stand- 
point of trade anatomy, we see a number 
of widely-extended institutions ol 
mutual insurance, credit and education 

* 

and from the standpoint of working-clasn 
solidarity, a powerful federation which 
nergetically defended by the boycott 
(Vitderdit), the strike (la grei r), and oft- 
times by physical force, the interests of 
its affiliated unions. 

'/he Duty . — We must know something 
of the obligation, charge or duty (If 
devoir) in order to understand the real 
nature, the strength and aspirations of 
the Companionship. Unfortunately, as 
some are inclined to think, there was 
not one duty, but three duties, to which 
the several unions held allegiance. These 
duties were known as those of the 
'hildren of Father Soubiee ; of the 
Children of Master Jacques; and of the 
Children of King Solomon. Many of 
the mason’s local unions held to the duty 
of Solomon, but other of their unions 
held to that of Jacques. The joiners’ 
unions were thus divided, and so also 
were those of the locksmiths. It is 
probable that all carpenters originally 
held allegiance to the duty of Houbise , 
but, in Paris, some unions seceded and 
claimed the duty of Solomon. A pro- 
longed and bloody feud, in this case, was 
fortunately averteil by a treaty, which 
divided the city of Paris, so far as car- 
penters were concerneiJ, in tw*o nearly 
equal portions, the half of the city on 
the left bank of the Seine being conceded 
to the carpenters of Solomon, which 
territory they hold to day. 

The legends which are supposed to ac- 
count for the origin of these several 
iluties, although couched in somewhat 
figurative language, are, at all events, 
useful in revealing the long cherishe<i 
spi ration for working class solidarity; 
and, as such, must be taken into account 
by the historians of the future. We 
gather froup the legend of Jacques that 
the founder of that duty was the son of 
one Jacquin, who was probably a mem- 
ber of one of the few fragments of the 
mason’s union (collegium urchitectii ) 9 
which in the invation of the barbarians, 
escaped the general wreck of Roman in- 
stitutions. Jacques was born in the 
small town of Carte in Gaul, now known 
as St. Romili, France ; and appears to 
have been possessed with the idea of re- 
uniting the workers of the world in a 
federated system of trade unions, as they 
existed before the fall of Rome ; but, of 
course, without slavery or State patron- 
age and control On his death, the 
legend states, he devised his hat to the 
hatters ; his tunic to the masons ; bii 



THE CARPENTER. 



5 



sandals to the locksmiths ; his cloak to 
the joiners ; his belt to the carpenters, 
and his cane to the wagonmakers. 
Soubise appears to have worked and 
travelled in Judea and other Roman 
provinces with Jacques ; and, as a car- 
penter, seems to have devoted special 
efforts to the dissemination of the idea 
of the organization and federation of 
trade unions among the men of his own 
craft, in particular. The duty of Solo- 
mon seemB to have been a special at- 
tempt at such organization on the part 
of the masons, and it is probable that 
it is from this latter duty that specula- 
tive freemasonry has derived its main 
tradition. 

The Ritual . — Notwithstanding the great 
variety of special names used by the 
several trades to designate the degrees 
in the different duties, there never were 
more than two legitimate degrees in the 
Companionship. 

A young man having served his appren- 
ticeship, to the carpenter trade for in- 
stance, would come to the Mother and ask 
to be received as a member. He was ques- 
tioned in order to ascertain if his inten- 
tions were serious. If the interview was 
satisfactory, he was engaged ( embauche ), 
and told to come to the next general 
assembly ; invariably held on the first 
Sunday of each month. The candidate, 
having presented himself at the time 
specified, was conducted into the pres- 
ence of all the members ; the rules were 
read to him, and he was asked if he 
could and would conform thereto. If he 
answered “ Yes ! ” he was conducted to a 
seat and further instructed. He was 
then required to choose a name by which 
he would thereafter be known in the 
Companionship. Having so chosen a 
name he was from that time forth no 
more addressed by the title of citizen, 
or brother, or Mr., but always as 
Country ( le pays). This custom doubt- 
less arose from the recognition that the 
Companionship was superior to the 
medieval trade union in the fact that it 
was not bounded by the walls of any 
one city, but was extended as widely as 
the language or the country extended, 
regardless of any political frontiers. In 
ceasing to be an apprentice he had also 
ceased to be, in the terms peculiar to the 
carpenters, a rabbit ( lapin ) ; he had 
now become a fox ( renard ), and, if found 
as intelligent and active as his name- 
sake, he might in time become an ape 
(singe ) ; that is to say, he would become 
a regular companion ; or, in other words, 
a good fellow ( bon-drille ), and be eligible 
to office. But as yet, while a fox, he 
could not wear the square and compasses, 
or the knot of red, white and green rib- 
bon in his left button hole, or wear the 
white gloves, which with the travelling 
cane, were the symbols of the Carpen- 
ters’ Union. 

If a companion was found guilty of dis- 
graceful conduct he was expelled by a 
ceremony called the Convoy of Grenoble. 
In full meeting the condemned was 
forced to his knees , the companions then 
Bet up a peculiar chant, similar to the 
Celtic “ keening”; his glass was shat- 
tered into fragments ; his colors were 
torn from his button-hole and burned; 
the agent then led him by the hand 
around the room and each companion in 
turn slapped his face ; the door was then 
opened, and, finally, the agent kicked 
him out. 

When a companion died, the branch 
buried him. On the coffin were placed 
two traveling canes crossed, the square 
and compasses, and the ribbons of the 
craft. Each companion wore crape on 
his left arm, on his colors, and on his 
cane. They carried the coffin by groups 
of four or Bix, changing from time to 
time, until all had borne a share of the 
burden. Arrived at the grave, they placed 
the coffin on the ground and formed 



around it the “living circle.” One of the 
companions delivered an address, and all 
sank on one knee and chanted while the 
coffin was lowered into the grave. Two 
canes were then placed crosswise on the 
ground, and two companions placed their 
feet in the quarters thus formed ; then, 
taking each other by the right hand, 
they whispered some words in one an- 
other’s ear, and gave an embrace known 
as the guilbrette. In retiring they knelt 
again on the edge of the grave and threw 
three clods of earth on the coffin. All 
performed these operations in turn ; and, 
then reforming ranks, returned to the 
Mother. 

r Ihe Convoy . — A companion about to 
leave a city to resume his travels, was 
honored with a convoy (conduite en rttgle) 
beyond the walls. Quitting work at the 
week’s end, a special assembly would be 
called on Saturday evening. On Sunday 
morning he took a parting glass with the 
Mother; the companions donned their 
ribbons, the music struck up and the 
convoy then started. Passing through 
the city gates, they marched along, sing- 
ing in chorus the soDgs of the duty, until, 
arriving at some wood or other secluded 
spot, they raised the peculiar chant of the 
Companionship, and, finally, giving the 
guilbrette to the departing companion, the 
convoy retraced its steps to the city. 

Fortified by Persecution . — We have en’ 
deavored in the foregoing to give a gen- 
eral view of the form and of the aspira- 
tions of this organization, so little known 
in this country. It must not however be 
supposed that this organization attained 
its full power without repeated attempts 
of the State to repress it. Indeed, it is 
by the very multiplicity and ferocity of 
the royal and judicial decrees and ordi- 
nances, levelled against the companion- 
ship, that we are chiefly enabled to real- 
ize its power and to trace its continued 
working during three centuries. 

An edict of December 28, 1541, pro- 
hibited the companion printers of Lyons 
making agreement to delay work, to 
choose officers among themselves, or to 
assemble at the doors of master printers 
in greater number than five persons. 

An ordinance of May 15, 1579, forbid 
the companion bakers of Paris, who were 
then on strike for an increase of wages, 
to work under less than a six months 



of condemnation which followed this 
examination was confirmed by the gov- 
ernment, May 80, 1658, and was then 
posted throughout France. 

Triumphant Labor . — The companion- 
ship was too deeply rooted, however, to 
be destroyed by judicial verdicts, decrees 
or anathemas, and twenty years later we 
see it carrying on the work of organiza- 
tion more vigorously than ever. On May 
5, 1682, the master locksmith’s corpora- 
tion of Toulouse asked for protection 
against the Companionship which had 
beaten and driven out of that city all 
who did not belong to the duty. On 
October, 3, 1688, the master tailorB* cor- 
poration of Lyons bear testimony as to 
the power of the companion tailors, who, 
in the Mothers of the Silver Clock, the 
White Cross, the Scissors, and seven 
others named, make their cabals. Pass- 
ing over many other such appeals for 
protection made during a whole century, 
we will only refer to that of the master 
joiners of Toulouse, in January, 1783, 
which declares that the Companionship 
braves the authority of the police and has 
become formidable to the troops that 
the magistrates send to disperse them. 

Effect of the Revolution . — France was 
now, indeed, in the early throes of a 
great political revolution. Under the 
influence of the new-born doctrine of the 
inalienable “rights of man,” the royal 
finance minister, Turgot, had decreed on 
March 12, 1776, the suppression of the 
masters’ corporations. But how far 
that suppression and the succeeding vig- 
orous attempt to realize those “ inalien- 
able rights,” affected the Companion- 
ship we have yet to see. 



A High Jinks decision is that of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois, that the 
Eight-Hour law of that State, or the 
“sweatshop law” as it is commonly 
called, is unconstitutional, and that the 
appropriation for factory inspectors is 
illegal. The law was exclusively for the 
protection of women. Yet Massachu- 
setts has a ten- hour law on a similar 
basis and it is not yet ruled out, nor is 
the law of New York and other States as 
to factory inspection considered uncon- 
stitutioral. 



engagement ; it also forbid master bakers 
to employ any journeyman without a 
written discharge from his previous 
master. 

An edict of January 10, 1601, prohib- 
ited the companion shoemakers of Paris 
accosting any journeyman of that craft, 
or to serve as agents in procuring work 
for others ; or to assemble in greater 
number than three, under pain of ban- 
ishment or worse. 

Apostacy of the Crispins . — The first gen- 
eral official investigation of the cere- 
monies of the companionship took place 
between 1648 and 1655. It appears tbaf 
a companion shoemaker took offense at 
the ceremony of initiation and abjured 
his membership. Not resting here, he 
organized a body named the Brothers of 
Crispin, and obtained legal sanction for 
its existence. In consequence of this 
application, information was obtained 
from the seceders, which resulted in the 
indictment of the Companionship by the 
municipality of PariB, in 1648. At length, 
on March 23, 1651, the shoemakers were 
induced to disclose the secrets of the r 
craft ; and on May 16 following they sol- 
emnly foreswore the duty of Master Jac- 
ques. In the excitement which followed, 
disclosures were also made concerning 
the ceremony of the saddlers, tailors, cut- 
lers and hatters, some portion of which 
were printed and published. Upon the 
strength of these revelations, the faculty 
of the Sorbonne was asked for an 
opinion. This opinion in writing was 
delivered March 14, 1655. The sentence 



NINE-HOUR. CITIES. 



Below is a list of the cities and towns where 



carpenters make it a rule to work only niug 
hours a day. 



Albina, Oreg. 

Allston, Mass, 
Amesbury, Mass. 
Atlantic City, N. J. 
Arlington, Mass. 
Arransas Harbor, Tex. 
Anacortes, Wash. 
Asbury Park, N. J. 
Astoria, Oreg. 
Asheville, Is. O. 
Auburn, N. Y. 
Auburn, Me. 

Akron, O. 

Altoona, Pa. 

Apollo, Pa. 

Anderson, Ind. 
Allegheny City, Pa. 
Albany, N. Y. 

Austin, Tex. 
Bakersfield, Cal. 

Bay City, Mich. 

Bar Harbor, Me. 
Baltimore, Md. 

Belle Vernon, Pa. 

Bath Beach, N. Y. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Butler, Pa. 

Bayonne, N. J. 

Boise City, Idaho. 
Bridgeton, N. J. 
Burlington, Iowa. 
Blaine, Wash. 
Bridgeport, Ohio. 
Bradford Mass. 
Brunswick. Me. 

Brad dock, Pa. 

Bellaire, Ohio. 
Belleville, 111. 
Belleville, Can. 
Bellevue, Pa. 

Boston, Mass. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Brockton, Mass. 
Beaver Falls. Pa. 
Brookline, Mass. 

Butte, Mont. 
Carrollton, Ga. 

Cairo, IÜ« 

Calgary, Omu 
Canton, Ohio. 



Meriden, Conn. 

Moline, HI. 

Mobile, Ala. 

Muncie, ’’nd. 
Moundsville, W. Va. 
Muskegon, Mich. 
McKeesport, Pa. 

Mt Pleasant, Pa. 

New Britain, Conn. 
Nelsonville, O. 

North Bias ton, Mass. 
New Kensington, Pa. 
Norfolk, Va. 

New Orleans, La. 
Newport, R. I. 

Newport, Ky 
Newport News, Va< 
Newtown, N. Y. 
Newbury port, Mass. 
Nanaimo, Brit. Col. 
Nyack, N. Y. 

Norwood, Mass. 

N. La Crosse, Wis. 
Natchez, Miss. 

New Cumberland, W.V 
New Castle, Pa. 

New Haven, Conn. 

New Haven, Pa. 

New Rochelle, N. Y. 
New Westminster, B. G. 
Nyack. N. Y. 

Newark. N. J. 

Natick, Mass. 

Newton, Mass. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 

New Bedford, Mass. 
New Albany, Ind. 

New Brighton, N. Y. 
New Brunswick, N. J. 
Northampton, Mass. 
Norwich, Conn. 
Norwalk, Conn. 
Oceanic, N. J. 
OswegOjN. Y. 

Ogden Utah. 

Olean, N. Y. 

Ottawa, Can. 

Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Ottawa, 111. 

Ontario, Cal. 



Chelsea, Mass. 
Charleroi, Pa. 
Charleston, W. Va, 
Charlestown, W. Va. 
Chester, Pa. 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 

Corona, N. Y. 
Covington, Ky. 
Columbus, Ga. 
Columbus, Ind. 
Camden, N. J. 
Concordia, Kan. 
Columbia. S C. 
Collinsville. HI. 
Cohoes, N. Y. 
Corsicana, Tex. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Cambridge, Mass. 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Coraopolis, Pa. 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Colorado City, Col. 
Colorado Springs, Col 
Cornwall, N. Y. 
Corryville, Ohio. 
Dayton, Ky. 

Des Moines, Iowa. 
Davenport.Iowa. 
Dover, N. H. 

Decatur, HI. 

Detroit, Mich. 
Denison, Tex. 
Dedham, Mass. 
Dorohester, Mass. 
Duquesne, Pa. 
Dubuque, Iowa. 
Dallas, Tex. 

El Paso, Tex. 

East Liverpool, Ohio. 
East Saginaw, Mioh. 
East Orange, N. J. 
East Portland, Oreg. 
East Boston, Mass. 
Ea8ton,Pa, 

Elizabeth, N. J. 
Elwood, Ind. 

Elwood, Pa. 

Erie, Pa. 

Englewood, N. J. 
Evansville, Ind. 
Everett, Moss. 

Exeter, N. H. 

Eureka, Cal. 

Fair Haven, Wash. 
Fall River. Mass. 
Findlay, Ohio. 
Fitchburg, Mass. 
Fresno, Cal. 
Frankford, Pa. 
Franklin, Pa. 

Fort Worth, Tex. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Fostoria, Ohio. 
Franklin, Mass. 
Galesburg, 111. 
Galveston, Tex. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Great Falls, Mont. 
Greensburg, Pa. 
Greenfield, Ind. 
Gloucester, Mass. 
Greenville, Pa. 
Germantown, Pa. 
Greenwich, Conn. 
Grove City, Pa. 

Glen Cove, N, Y. 

Hot Springs, Ark. 
Homestead, Pa. 
Hamilton. Can. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Halifax, N. 8. 
Hampton, Va. 
Hanford, Cal. 
Haverhill, Mass. 
Hackensaok, N. J. 
Harrlman, Tenn. 
Harrisburg, Pa. 
Henderson, Ky. 
Hudson, Mass. 
Herkimer. N. Y. 
Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 
Hyd Park. Mass. 
Hoboken, N. J. 
Holyoke, Mass. 
Houston, Tex. 



Omaha, Neb. 

Orange, N. J. 

Olympia, Wash. 
Pawtucket, R. I. 

Port Chester, N. Y. 
Punxsutawney, Pa. 
Pensacola, Fla. 
Peterborough, Can. 
Portland, Oreg. 

Port Townsend, Wash. 
Passaic, N. J. 
Plymouth, Mass. 
Pomeroy, O. 

Portland, Me. 

Port Angeles, Wash. 
Portsmouth, N. H. 
Portsmouth, Va. 
Portsmouth, O. 
Pocatello, Idaho. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Patergon, N. J. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Plainfield, N. J. 
Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Pierre, 8. Dakota. 
Parkersburgh, W. Va. 
Paris, Texas, 
Porterville, CaL 
Peoria, 111. 

Providence, R. L 
Quincy, Mass. 

Racine, WiB. 

Rochester, Pa. 
Richmond, Va. 
Richmond, Ky. 
Richmond, Ind. 

Rock Island, HL 
Rondout, N. Y. 
Roxbury, Mass. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Rosedale, Ind. 

Revere, Mass. 
Riverside. Cal. 

Red Bank, N. J. 
Redlands, Cal. 
Rockford, 111. 
Rutherford, N. J. 

8. Framingham, Mass. 
Springfield, Mass. 

St. Augustine, Fla. 
South Omaha, Neb. 
South Norwalk, Conn. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Salem, Mass. 
Stonebam, Mass. 
Somerville, Mass. 
Somerville, N. J. 
Saltsburg, Pa. 

Salt Lake City. 

San Angelo, Tex* 
Sandusky, Ohio. 
Shreveport, La. 
Stamford, Conn. 

Sea Cliff, N. Y. 
Springfield, 111. 
Springfield, Mo. 
Springfield, Ohio. 

San Leandro, Cal. 
Steubenville, Ohio. 
Santa Anna, Cal. * 
Santa Rosa, Cal. 
Seattle, Wash. 

St. John’s, N. B. 
Saxonville, Mass. 
Schenectady, N. Y, 

Scottdale, Pa. 

Spokane, Wash« 
Sharon, Pa. 

Sheffield, Ala. 

Staten Island, N. Y. 
Streator, HI. 
Stoughton, Mass. 

S. Abingdon, Mass. 

St Catherine, Ont. 

San Antonio. Tex. 

San Bernardino, Cal. 
Scranton, Pa. 
Sharpsville, Pa. 
Sharpsburg, Pa. 

St Paul, Minn. 

Santa Cruz, CaL 
Saginaw City, Mioh. 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
Sheepsheaa Bay. N. Y 
Seymour, Tex. 
8eymour, Ind. 



Houston Heights, Tex. Summit, M. J. 



Hingham, Mass. 
Irvington, N. Y* 
Ithaca, N. Y. 
Jacksonville, 111. 
Jackson. Mich. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Jeannette, Pa. 
Jersey City, N. J. 
Kearney, Neb. 
Knoxville. Tenn. 

Kingston, N. Y. 
Lansingburg, N. Y. 
Lawrence, Mass. 

La Crosse, Wis. 

La Junta, Col. 
Logan sport Ind. 
Lowell, Mass. 
Lynn, Mass. 
Leechburg, Pa. 
Leominster, Mass. 
Lafayette, Ind, 
Lancaster, Pa. 
Lewiston, Me. 
Lincoln, Neb. 
London, Canada. 
Lockland; O. 



Tampa, Fla. 
Taunton, Mass. 
Tawas City, Mioh. 
Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
The Dalles, Oreg. 
Tiffin, Ohio. 

Toronto, Ohio. 
Toledo, Ohio. 
Toronto, Ont., SO hr*. 
Trenton, N. J. 
Trinidad, CoL 
Troy, N. Y. 
Tarentum, Pa. 

Turtle Creek, Pa. 
Union Hill, N. J. 
Utica, N. Y. 
Uniontown, Pa. 
Vancouver, B. CL 
Victoria, B. C. 
Vincennes, Ind. 
Visalia, Cal. 
Waxahatchie, Tex. 
Wellsburg, W. Va. 
West Hoboken, N. J. 
West Duluth, Minn. 
Warren, Ohio. 



Long Island City, ^N. Y. Winchester, Ky. 



Long Branch 
Louisville, Ky. 
Manchester, N. H. 
Marlboro, Mass. 
Marion, Ind. 
Morristown, N. J. 
Man&yunk, Pa. 
Malden, Mass. 
Millville* N. J. 
Media, Pa. 

Meadville, Pa. 
Medford, Mass. 
Marblehead, Mass. 
Mayfield, Ky. 
Monongahela, Pa. 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 
Martin’s Ferry, O. 
Maspeth, N. Y. 
Milford, O. 
Mamaroneck, N. Y. 
Mercer, Pa. 
Middlesborough, Ky. 
Southampton, N. Y. 

Conshohocken, Pa. 
Cortland, N. Y. 
Ottumwa, la. 
Hillsboro, Tex. 
Bangor, Pa. 
Haughville, Ind. 
Madisonville, O. 
Mansfield Valley^FA 



Winthrop, Maas. 
Windsor, Can. (Ont.) 
Weymouth, Mass. 
Wabash, Ind. 
Waltham, Mass. 

Waco, Tex. 

W. Newton, Mass. 
Worcester, Mass. 
Washington, Pa. 
Wilmington, DeL 
Whitman. Mass. 
Woburn, Mass. 
Winchester, Mass. 
Wheeling, W. Va. 
Wilkiasburg, Pa. 
Winnipeg, Man. 
Woodeide, N. Y. 
Winfield, N. Y. 
Yoakum, Tex. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 
Youngstown, Ohio. 
Zanesville, Ohio. .. 
College Point, N. Y. 
WHllamsbrtdge, N. Y, 
i,a Salle, ill. 
Rockland, Me. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 
Flushing, N. Y. 

Dover, N. J. 

Milburn, N. J. 

Mt. Washington, O. 
Peru, 111. 

Rockville, Conn. 

4SI eitles. 











ff 



THE CARPENTER. 



6 



The Pharisees. 

We doEe and dream and lei tin- world go bv 
8hut up nn I« Ihr oyster in hi?« dirll, 

And fatten »imlt'wlx upon the «lime 
And dnce of tiling-, until at ln**i torn f«*i lb. 
Unknowing litm or why our fate i* wrought, 
And then nerved up, u dainty dial» for death 

We fancy we work and move the world, 

Simply Iwcanne we i>ile up yearly gain.*. 

Make certain prollta and Inereaae our Htore. 
Unfiiimlful «if the many p«H»rand weak 
Wim I «hm* their lahir, a* they need*« mu*t lone, 
That we may win. and get and have, and keep. 

We *l»ut our*e!vea within our narrow home«* 
And there w«* count and lay aside our gain*, 

I Mir wives and little ones beeide us there, 

And all i* phield. «u«»«*t, Herein* and «-slin. 

We pat oiiraelrea upon our ample hreaets. 

And nay: “Behold! Olim*rve wlittt we have 

done ' 

The rh*li reward of a most virtuous life. 

And all Is ourw, and we have earned it xx ell." 

Home careless foot has set the door ajar ; 

The cold wind rustic* In and there w ithout 
Is labor, pale ami weary, weak and worn. 

Ills worried wife and marveling children there 
And half !u<|iiirlng, half rebellious eyes 
Demand " Who gets my share of this xxorhPa 
work V* 

Mow soon we crush accusing conscience down. 
Shut out th«* cold ami that distressful sight, 

Draw close to us our wives and little one«, 

And count with care our petty hoard again, 
Thankful that we are not as other men. 

Ki>\\aki> W i i.i.kt. 

♦ • ♦ 

The Labor (Question. 



AN ADMIRABLE LL< TURK BY ALFRED F. 
JURY, OF TORONTO. 



E here give a synopsis 
of a very exhaustive 

V tal I PM I BD< ^ instructive lec- 

I ture delivered by Ah 

ronto, Canada, before 
the Political Science 
Club and Students of Toronto Univer- 
sity, January 26, 1895. The faculty of 
the University refused to allow the 
use of the gymnasium hall for the lec- 
ture, notwithstanding the Political Sci- 
ence Club had arranged and printed a 
programme for a series of lectures on 
which Mr. Jury’s lecture was announced. 
The objection of the faculty to Mr. 
Jury and to Mr. Phillips Thompson, a 
labor man, who w r as hooked for a lecture 
the same night with Mr. Jury, it is 
alleged, rests on the fact that neither of 
the gentlemen had been educated in an 
orthodox college or university and were 
simply workingmen. 

Mr. Alfred F. Jury is a working tailor, 
an old time, true-spirited, progressive 
trade unionist, a confrere of (ieorge 
Kccariui, the noted London tailor and 
labor writer. Mr. Jury, by his practical 
experience and ardent labors in Eng- 
land in his youth and in this country for a 
score or more years, well qualifies him to 
advise the working people, and his views 
are the result of mature, ripe thought 
and sturdy hold investigation. In his 
address to the Toronto students he said : 

I wish to hs distinctly understood at 
the outset that I do not appear here as a 
teacher of political science. I am here 
most willingly, at your request, to afford 
the members of your club an opportu- 
nity of hearing a labor man of the old 
school give his views on this most im- 
portant subject. 

Society may go for a time by the govern- 
ing classee bribing this element, cajoling 
that, coercing the other; but the fruits 
of injustice will in time he as surely 
visited on the community practicing it 
as will the fruits of immorality on the 
individual. 

The architect of society must be gov- 
erned by the eame laws as the architect 
of a building— he must have a solid 
foundation for his superstructure, and, 
in my opinion, the only solid and safe 
fouudation for human society is the well- 
being of the whole people. 



Why need we talk about a civilisation 
“passing away” w’hile the conditions 
of nature are such that man can live 
upon this earth ? The first law of civili- 
zation should be like the first law of 
nature — self-preservation. The peopled 
who in the past neglected this primary 
law, though they may have had the 
finest language, literature, statues and 
pictures the world has ever seen, were 
only partially civilized. A real civiliza- 
tion does not depend upon literature 
and art, but upon a high standard of 
living and intelligence among the com- 
mon people. What interests have the 
industrious and l.oneBt poor in preserv- 
ing a state of society which takes from 
them a large part of the products of 
their labor in order to create a few mil- 
lionaires, and then taxes them on the 
remainder to keep soldiers and police to 
protect these millions from the tramps 
and thieves which those very conditions 
of society had produced? For with the 
centralization of wealth by legislation 
on this part of the American continent 
we see a corresponding increase of crime. 
When the people see the State give the 
few the legal power to rob the many 
their respect for law and property is 
weakened. 

But no doubt by this time many of 
you are saying: We have heard all this 
before. What is your remedy? To 
paraphrase Carlyle, I have no Pink Pill 
that will cure all the. ills that society is 
heir to. The causes are many, and many 
remedies will have to be applied ; most 
of them to ourselves— the workers. 

The first is the real desire on our part 
to improve the condition of the workers, 
on the broad ground of humanity rather 
than the narrow ground of self-interest. 
Then the effort will be continuous, in- 
stead of spasmodic, as it generally is at 
present. We must become organized, 
that we may be able to understand our 
mutual wants and to have power to en- 
force our mutual demands. We must 
have intelligence, so that our demands 
will be reasonable and attainable. We 
must have courage, that we may be 
ready to make sacrifices in the cause of 
justice. We must educate ourselves, 

organize, agitate and co-operate. 

1 am not one of those who believe that 
trades unions have either failed in, or 
fulfilled their mission. I do not believe 
that the day of the successful strike is 
past, and I think that those who make 
such statements, whether they be single 
taxers or socialists, are asserting what 
they know very little about, and doing 
harm to the cause of labor. 

Trades unionists seldom strike nntil 
they have exhausted every other honor- 
able means to obtain their rights. The 
best way to prevent strikes is to be 
thoroughly organized. If a trade is 
thoroughly organized, and wages through- 
out are uniform, the employers have no 
excuse for lowering wages on the ground 
that some of their competitors are get- 
ting labor cheaper than themselves. 
There is an old saying that the best way 
to preserve peace is to he prepared for 
war. I believe that by thorough combi- 
nation among the workers they could 
get the full results of their labor, less 
interest on capital and reasonable wages 
of superintendence. But I shall be told 
that it is impossible to get thorough 
combination. It it is, then so much the 
worse tor my socialist brother ; because 
to make Socialism a success yon require 
just as thorough combination as for 
trades unions, together with intelligence 
of a higher order and a greater practice 
of altruism. 

The reason why trades unions have 
not been in the past the success we could 
wish, is the lack of the very principle 
necessary to build up socialism, namely, 
altruism. The hogs and quitters and 
scabe from within have done more to re- 



tard the success of unionism than all the 
enemies on the outside. Even if we had 
the single tax on land values— a consum- 
mation most devoutly to be wished — we 
should have to he organized in order to 
take the Tull advantage of its effects. 
Mill says: 

44 1 do not hesitate to say that associa- 
tions of laborers, of a nature similar to 
trades unions, far from being a hin- 
drance to a free market for labor, are the 
necessary instrumentality of that free 
market — the indispensable means of 
enabling the sellers of labor to take due 
care of their own interest under a system 
of competition.” 

As we should still have competition 
under the single tax, we should still 
need unions. Trades unions are, 1 think, 
eminently suited to our state of mental 
and social development— rather ahead 
than behind. The fact that we have not 
used them for half their worth is suffi- 
cient proof to me that we have not out- 
grown them. 

If it were desirable (which I dispute) 
to carry on the production and distribu- 
tion of the country in our collective 
capacity, we are not cajxihle of doing so. 
If we cannot half use the simple, we 
would be sure to bungle the complex. 
None are so loud as the Socialists in their 
complaints against the laws which govern 
society to day : yet all these laws have 
been put upon the statute hooks by the 
people in their collective capacity as 
law-makers. And those laws which 
have done the most to centralize wealth 
and spread poverty have been passed 
during our own time— passed since the 
great preponderance of voting power 
has been with the producing classes. I 
refer to the giving away of the public 
lands, the monopolization of transporta- 
tion, the restriction of exchange of the 
products of labor, and the fencing-in of 
capitalists from that competition which 
the laborers have to submit to ; and the 
giving of close corporations by act of 
legislation to the lawyers, doctors, and 
other professional classes. The remedy 
lies more in repealing had laws than in 
enacting new ones. 

Carlyle says: 44 Alas, by no reform 
hill, ballot box, five-point charter, by no 
boxes of hills or charters can you per- 
form this alchemy : Given a world of 
knaves to produce an honesty from their 
united action.” And I do not think we 
can perform the alchemy of carrying on 
collectivism by a people who must have 
been badly fooled in the past or we 
would never be in the position we are in. 
We have a country exceedingly blessed 
by Nature and exceedingly cursed by 
government. If not, how is it that so 
many are to-night without the means of 
reasonably enjoying life? Are we 
idlers, shiftless, drunken, incompetent? 
Are our people without ambition or 
energy ? Has there been a year daring 
the last twenty that there have not been 
plenty of willing and competent hands 
to do all the labor required to supply our 
wants; has there been a time when as a 
people we have not produced enough by 
that labor to supply thoee wants ? I say, 
41 No.” Then how is it that in a country 
so blessed, and with Buch a population, 
one in every seventeen of the population 
of Toronto receive charity? I repeat, 
the people have been fooled — their 
ignorance of politics has made them a 
ready prey to the demagogues. And 
yet, forsooth, our socialist friends would 
have us extend the sphere of govern- 
ment so as to give the political fakirs a 
wider field of action— they have done 
soweit in the past? Let us show, by 
making this country a better country to 
live in, that we can intelligently use the 
power we have. More government ma- 
chinery would befog us instead of edu- 
cating us, when we have taken so little 
advantage of the bountiee of Nature as 




not to be able to supply the necessities of 
all, while we can produce in abundance. 

Yon, young men of the Political Science 
Club, of Toronto University, know what 
a complicated piece of mechanism modem 
society is. I feel you must realize wlmt 
a calamity it would he for governments 
as we know them to he entrusted with 
such gigantic powers ; as having in their 
hands the machinery of production and 
distribution, and it is waste of time to 
speculate about or build upon what gov- 
ernments will he able to do until we «»•,. 
them and know what they are like. 
You know from the lessons of history 
that society will not he revolutionized 
it can be reformed, it will evolve it 
never remains stationary. The princi- 
ples of government can never for long 
he lower or higher than the average 
elector understands and approves. ( Yorn- 
well in Kngland and the Revolutionists 
in France tried to go beyond the people. 
Both failed, but they proved that the 
sun would shine even if monanhs lose 
their heads. 

A slight knowledge of the law of supply 
and demand wouhl soon teach the work 
ing class that while they keep within the 
productiveness of their labor, the shorter 
hours they work the higher their wages 
will he. And we know by the million- 
aires in our midst and by the rapid 
accumulation of wealth since the era of 
legal robbery and confiscation set in 
that there is a large margin upon which 
workingmen could encroach before atlect 
ing legitimate capital. 

1 said just now that trades unions 
could secure to the workers the full re- 
sults of their labor, less interest on 
capital and wages of superintendence 
Under our present system that is all wv 
are entitled to. If wr want the balance 
we miiBt do the superintending and own 
the capital. The way to this is clear. 

Co-operation will go a long way to 
ward settling the industrial part of the 
labor question at least so far as pro- 
duction and local distribution are con- 
cerned. There are few industries in this 
country that have in their nature any- 
thing to prevent the workingmen from 
managing them and having in return all 
that their labor will produce. But they 
must have the capital to start them and 
the ability to conduct them. It is un- 
reasonable to expect to get all the pro- 
ducts of our labor if we do not own or 
control all the factors of production. 

I think the difficulties in the way of 
co-operation are more those of character 
than of capital. Men are too jealous, 
selfish and mistrustful of one another, 
and sometimes do not respect the conti 
dence of their fellows when they are 
entrusted with it. 

They are ready to take umbrage or 
insult at a small thing said by one of 
their fellows whom they have elected to 
manage them and their work. Yet the 
eame men will take the vilest abuse from 
the boss, the manager or the foreman. 
They lack the power to discipline them- 
selves, but will stand any amount of 
discipline from others. I n spite of these 
drawbacks the success of the co-operative 
societies in Great Britain is phenomena). 
Their business has grown from a cipher 
in 1S48 to fifty millions of pounds ster- 
ling in 1S92, and all this from twelve 
workingmen first meeting in the old 
town of Rochdale and putting down one 
shilling each. When such a small 
beginning can grow in forty-four years 
to nearly six times the national income 
of this country, surely what has been done 
there could be done here and now, if we 
only had the necessary qualities. 

Some Socialists in England and Canada 
have belittled and even calumniated this 
co operative movement, but I want to 
tell all such that the men who can 
accomplish this under existing condi- 
tions might be able to elect a govern- 



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THE CARPENTER. 



7 



ment that wouhl do it for them, but the 
men who have never ehown enough 
ability to manage a co-operative grocery 
store, could not. Talk of usingthe ballet 
to select the captains of industry. You 
might a* well talk of using the ballot to 
select the highest jumper, the fastest 
runner, or the best foot-ball team. 

Co operation, I repeat, will give the 
laborers the wages of labor, the wages of 
superintendence, the interest on capital 
and the profits. That would go a long 
way towards settling the industrial 
phase of the labor question. If we do 
not know enough to do it ourselves, we 
do not know enough to elect a govern- 
ment that can do it successfully for us. 

I turn now to the municipal and national 
ownership or control of monopolies. 
The principle is one which, were I in 
England, I would support. Hut in 
Toronto I shall oppose it, so long as the 
people elect councils like the present, 
the members of which take a narrow- 
view of their public duties. 

There are other sides to the great labor 
question, at w hich time will permit of 
only a passing glance, l)Ut which never- 
theless are of the greatest importance. 

First among these is the land question, 
which I believe would be settled for a 
long time to come by levying a tax on 
ground rents and land values to their 
full extent. Hut considering t lie way in 
which a large amount of our land bad 
been acquired, this should be done 
gradually. 

The matter of transportation must 
also be dealt with, or elee, with our sys- 
tem of division of labor and centraliza- 
tion of industries in localities distant 
from their markets, the railways will 
levy greater tribute on the people than 
ever did barons or monarch« of old. 
They can in some cases deprive the pro- 
ducers of all hut a hare living, in return 
for carrying their product to market. If 
it comes to a choice of evils, that is, 
either to allow the great soulless corpo- 
rations to grind the faces of the pro- 
ducers by excessive rates, or to have 
state ownership or control of transporta- 
tion, even with the jobbery that would 
attend it whilst the public remains in its 
present lethargic state, I should choose 
the latter, because under state regida 
tion it wouhl rest with the people every 
few years at least to have a voice in the 
matter. 

Hut because it might be good policy to 
do this under all the circumstances, it 
does not follow by any means that it 
would he equally good policy to hand 
over to the State things which are differ- 
ent in their nature and surrounded by 
altogether different circumstances. The 
ordinary aflairs of production and distri- 
bution can take care of themselves with- 
out the aid of the ballot-box. 

My quarrel with Sjcialism is that it is 
entirely unsuited to our state of develop- 
ment. By the Socialists’ own admission 
the laws that we do make are not well 
made or equitably administered. If 
not, why uot ? It can only be becauee 
the people are either ignorant, dishonest, 
careless or selfish, caring more for a job 
tor themselves than for the well-being of 
society or the principles of self-govern- 
ment , I f th is he true -and the Socialists 
admit that it is— would it not be better 
to clear the statute books of the laws 
which favor one class at the expense of 
pothers, and give the people a chance to 
^eee what they could do for themselves if 
they had a fair show ? Oar friends might 
lind all their anxiety wasted it this were 
done. If they could not do for them- 
selves then in their individual capacity, 
they could not in their collective. 

1 think the Socialist agitation, so far as 
it applies to the collective ownership of 
all the means of production and distri- 
bution, is a great waste of splendid 
energy and sentiment ; because no one 



who know s Socialists can deny that they 
are men of great energy and that they 
are actuated by the highest motives, the 
loftiest sentiments— in fact, too lofty for 
this mundane sphere. The attempt to 
accomplish the happiness of mankind by 
Socialism in any country, and especially 
in Canada, is about as reasonable as it 
would be for men in England who were 
going to hay a bush farm in this country, 
to spend years in England in discussing 
what they would grow on the land they 
had never seen, to say nothing of cleared. 
We cannot tell in what direction society 
will progress when these legal inequali- 
ties are wiped away. 

The effect of any movement that depre- 
cates self-help and self-reliance is injuri- 
ous to the workers. I have known men 
who were gocd active members of trades 
unions, but who, when they became con- 
vinced that the salvation of society de- 
pended on Single Tax or Socialism, at 
once ceased to take any interest in their 
union. But, as I ha7e already pointed 
out, combination will be necessary after 
the Single Tax, and the man that is a bad 
trades unionist will not make a very good 
Socialist. 

I have now stated, as brielly and clearly 
as 1 am able in the time at my disposal, 
my views on the questions exciting the 
labor world to-day. There are two dis- 
tinct phases of social and political thought 
to-day : one rests more and more on the 
State; the other repels its interference; 
but they are equally honest and desirous 
of the good of mankind. Progress will 
follow the line of least resistance, and 
whichever of these views is best suited 
to the wants of mankind will survive. 
All we can do is to add our mite to the 
great sum of influence that will determine 
which shall have a trial. 

I have made my election for the pres- 
ent. Changes of condition may alter 
some details; hat on the great question 
of the foundation of society it is my firm 
conviction that the only practical as well 
as the only sure basis of society is the 
liberty of the individual to pursue wealth 
and happiness in any way he sees lit 
while not interfering with the like liberty 
of his neighbor. 

I am in favor of all kind of voluntary 
associations for mutual improvement and 
protection, which have the advantage of 
educating and elevating mankind as well 
as improving his material condition ; and 
I know of no better training to make 
what I may term good practical Socialists 
on the voluntary basis, than the training 
that men get in trades unions and co-op- 
erative societies. 

The Bakers Moving Forward for Better 
Conditions. 

The Journeymen Bakers and Confec- 
tioners International Union has 
recently issued a pamphlet describ- 
ing the horrible pestiferous condi- 
tions of many of the bake shops 
in New York and Brooklyn. It 
reveals an abominable state of af- 
fairs, giving pictures of many filthy 
dens where bread is made, the 
squalid sleeping rooms, the de- ~ 

graded surroundings, the insect nL 

infested and sewer perfumed un- 72 

derground quarters where the % 

bakers live and work 16 to 18 hoars w 
per day. These evils might largely ^ 
be remedied if union men would ^ || i 

make a demand for union label 
bread. The Bakers’ Unions of 
New York State, with the help V 

of organised labor, have been 
successful last month in securing 
the passage of a law through the 
State Legislature providing a limit 
of ten hourB’ work per day, or 
sixty hoars per week, better sani 
tary bake shops and the appoint- ^ 
ment of four bake-shop inspectors. 



To Frame a Bof hie Tower Roof of Four 
Centre Section« 

BY OWKN B. MAOINNIfl. 

f T is my intention to carry these 
roof-framiDg articles to a 
FJ point heretofore unreached 
r by previous authors. I this 
month set before readers of 
Tna Cabpentkr, a form of 
. roof which is fast becoming 
I popular on account of its 
uniform curves. 

As the section of the roof is a combi 
nation of curves, we must first proceed to 
lay it out. On a large lloor or platform 
draw the spring line AB, Fig 1. Divide 
this line AB into 4 equal parts as 1, 2, 3 
and 1 ; also from A and B, draw* AC ami 
BD square to AB. Now with A as center 
and A2 as radius strike the curve 2C, cut- 
ting AC at point C, likewise strike the 
curve 2D cutting BD at I>. This pro- 
cess locates the desired centers for the 
different curves of the dome or tower 
section. 



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Fin. 2. 



In order to lay out the rafters for this 
roof, proceed to Fig. 2, and lay out the plan 
fall size ABCD, also draw the diagonals 
A I) and B C, the seats of the hips, with 
the jacks abcdefghij , against the hip 
seat c X. On the line B D, divided in 
half at E, raise up the gothic section 
line, and from this section make a paper 
or wood pattern rafter to the curve B 
12, in the manner shown in the engrav- 
ing. Divide B 12, into twelve equal parts, 
as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and from each division 
point draw a line square to the line B K 
D, and produce these lines to thehip scat 



With 1 as center and 1 A length of 
radius, strike the Bhort curve, or arc A E 
and with 3 as center and same radius 
strike curve B F. This gives two arcs, 
next with C as center, and allowing the 
Irammtll pencil to be juBt tangent to to B F 
at F, describe the arc F G. In a similar 
manner describe the arc E G on the left. 
This process carefully followed out will 
give the exact four center gothic section, 
but it must not be followed in every 
plan where a roof of this section is 
shown, as the position of the center may 
not be placed or divided off as is shown 
above, and a detail or layout of the root 
may be necessary to determine their 
position. The foregoing description, 
however, will make the work familiar 
and easy. 






J&ewd 

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Vf, 



/ A, 

A/ 



Fm. a. 

B 12, will, of course, he the common 
rafter standing over E X, and each jack 
will, because the hip rafter is on a mitre 
or angle of 45 degrees, be shorter aB they 
go down from X to C, and their lengths 
will be as K 11, L 10, M 9, N 7, and so on 
down to B. 

At Fig. 3, readers will see a compara- 
tively aimple method, which may be fol- 
lowed to obtain the top side bevel of the 
jack rafters. A B, is the common, ehow'- 
ing its upper edge. Set ofl rafter No. 
10 from A to C, C D, being the vertical 
or plumb cut. Square acroes from the 
upper edge corner, from G to C, as 0 F, 
and from C D, set off the thickness of 
the jack rafter, 2 inches, 3 inches, or 
what ever it may be. The bevel will be 
as shown in the engraving. 

B X. From the points where thesedotted 
lines cut B X, draw up square to B X, 
lines of an indefinite length. Now 7 , com- 
mencing from B, on line B E, take the 
first division I, and set ofi the height 
from the line to 1, on the first line on the 
hip seat, also height at 2, 3, 4, 5, and so 
on up to 12. To be explicit I would say 
transfer these heights from perpendicu- 
lars on B E, to perpendiculars on B X. 
Next trace the curve, F B, through the 
points 12, 11, 10, etc., and the proper 
outline of hip rafter will be found. 



Eight Honr Cities« 

Below la a list of the cities and towns where 
carpenters make it a rule to work only eight 
hours a day : 



Alameda, Cal. 
Ashland, WIs. 

Austin, III. 

Berkeley, Cal. 
Bessemer. Col. 
Brighton Park, III. 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Oarondelet. Mo. 
Chloago, III. 

Chicago Heights, 111. 
Denyer, Col. 

East 8k Louis, I1L 
Englewood. III. 
Branaton. 111. 
Fremont. Ool. 

Grand Crossing, HI. 
'Highland Park, 111. 

R yds Park. III. 
Iadlanapolls, Ind. 
Kensington, III. 

Lea Angeles, Cal. 
Maaoi Station, Pa. 
Maywood, III. 
Milwaukee, WIs. 

Ml Vernon, Ind. 
Huston, Mites. 

Moreland ill. 

Lynn Maaa. 

Total 54 i 



Murphyshoro, 111. 
New York, N. Y. 
Oakland, Cal 
Oak Park, III. 
Pasadena, Cal. 
Pueblo, Colo. 

Rogers Park, Hi. 

Ht. Uniis, Mo. 
Sacramento, Cal. 
Rant» Barbara, Cal. 
Han Fra.. cisco, Cat ~ 
Ran Joee, Cat 
8a n Rafael, Cal. 
Sheboygan, WIs. 
8outh Chicago, III, 
South Denver, Ool. 
South Evanston, I1L 
8 took ton, Cal. 

Town of Lake, I1L ' 
Verona, Pa. 

Venice, 111. 
Washington, D. Cl 
Whatcom, Wash. 
Weat Troy, N. Y. 

Omaha, Neb. 

Si. JoKcpb. Mo 



How to Join Mouldings; or, The Arts of 
Mitring und Coping. Hy Owen B. Maginni*. 
l2iiio, cf, 73 pp., 4011,1891. $1.00. A standard 
work on Mitring Address. 

359 W. 124th St., New York City. 



8 



THE CARPENTER 



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THE CARPENTER 

OFFICIAL JOUBWAL OF TOt 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

IN MUKsd Monthly , on the Fifteenth of each Month, 



194 IV. Ninth St., Phil*., Ps. v 

P. J. McGuire, Editor and Publisher. 

Entered at the Po*t-Oflic© at Philadelphia, Pa., 
aa second-class matter. 

Subscription Prick : — Fifty cent* a year, In 
advance, postpaid. 

Address all letters and money to 

P. J. McGuire, 

Hox 884, Pldladelphla, Pa. 



PHILADELPHIA, MAT, 1895. 



WB DON’T PATRONIZE. 

Union Workingmen and workingwomen ami 
sympathizers with labor have refused to pur- 
chase articles produced by the following firms 
J^abor papers please copy : 

8. OTTBNBERG St BROS.’ CIGARS. 

GKO. Ell RETS' LAGER BEER. 

JAUKSON BREWERY, LAGER BEER 

8TUDEBAKER BROS. MANTQ C0. 8 CAR- 
RIAGES AND WAGONS. 

ST. LOUIS BREWERS’ ASSOCIATION, 
LAGER BEER. 

PRAY, SMALL A: CO., SHOES. 

AMERICAN BISCUIT CO.’S BISCUITS. 

MEYER, JONA88EN St CO., CLOAKS. 

BICYCLE WHEEL WORKS, BICYCLES. 

WESTERN WHEEL BICYCLE CO., CHI- 
CAGO. “ Blackha w k,” •• Crescent,” 
M Escort,” •• Juno,” M Rob Roy.” 

RAND McNALLY PUBLISHING CO., CHI- 
CAGO. 

W ASH BU RN-CROSBY CO., FLOUR, MIN 
NEAPOUS. 

SCHOOL SEAT CO., FURNITURE, GRAND 
RAPIDS. 

PFAFF BREWING CO., BOSTON. 

YOCUM BROS., CIGARS, READING, PA. 

BOSTON PILOT, BOSTON REPUBLIC. 

GLENDALE FABRIC CO., EAST HAMP- 
TON, MASS. 

HOPEDALE MFG. Co., HOPKDALE, MASS. 

A. F. SMITH, SHOES, LYNN, MASS. 

UNITED STATES BAKING CO. 

WERNER PRINTING CO., AKRON, O. 

HAMILTON-BROWN SHOE CO., ST. LOUIS. 

DAUBE, COHEN St CO., CLOTHING, CHI- 
CAGO, 

MK9KRR BROS., ST. LOUIS. 

CLEMENT, BANE St CO., CLOTHIERS, CHI 
CAÜO. 

HACKETT, CARHART A CO., CLOTHIERS, 
NEW YORK. 



Some Dangers of the Movement. 



Mr. John Burns, M.P., speaking at a 
crowded meeting convened by the Bat* 
tersea Labor League, held early last 
month, at the Washington Music Hall, 
Battersea, on the subject of “ Some Dan- 
gers ot the Labor Movement,” said that 
at the present moment there was every- 
where a tendency to depreciate what was 
being done in the labor movement . There 
was a disposition to ignore the past of oar 
labor movement, and many of the symp- 
toms and causes which wrecked the Char- 
tist movement were evident not only in 
the labor movement generally, bat in its 
parliamentary and municipal phases. 
He was compelled to admit that labor 
generally was too optimistic for the 
fatore and too pessimistic for the present. 
The latter view of the labor movement— 
the helpless despair, the anarchy of mel 
ancholy that was apparent in some quar- 
ters — was not justified by existirg things 
and in no sense warranted many of th# 
alarmist predictions that were too often 
made. At the last meeting of the Lon- 
don Trades Council a large number of the 
members talked a lot of rubbish and 
nonsense about the Eight-Hour Day 
movement. It was stated tbat there was 
absolutely nothing in it, and that it was 
useless for the unemployed, and that the 
time had arrived far a universal four-hour 
day. The time had come, he thought, 
when such nonsense must be severely crit- 
icised. During the last two years he had 



found on going through the records that 
upwards of 200,000 w orkmen had secured 
the eight* hour day. There were also 
40,000 government workers w ho had been 
conceded this eight-hour day, and from 
1889 to 1805, including this 240,000, over 
half a million workmen had had their 
hours reduced through the direct agency 
of the eight-hour movement, which he 
hoped would always continue to exist- 
He found that too frequently, especially 
during the late winter, throughout the 
whole metropolis, men who had been 
elected to public positions, had in many 
cases yielded to the demands of the 
laziest, noisiest and most disorganized 
section, and that the raw recruit of the 
labor movement had dictated to elected 
veterans of labor what to do and how to 
do it only in their own way. Almost every 
sincere leader of the labor movement had 
had his acts misconstrued, with the 
result that much harm had been done to 
the labor movement ; and, if continued, 
this would permanently wreck it, and 
reduce responsible, elected men to the 
mere level of jobbers and gamblers. He 
hoped these new mushroom leaders of 
tbe labor movement would take warning. 



Times Improving. 



The reports reaching this office the 
past month are vastly more en&mraging 
than any we have had in two years back. 
Carpenter work is improving, principally 
in the smaller towns and cities— the 
larger cities show only very slight change 
for the better, not sufficient to boast of. 
Boston, New York, Brooklyn, Phila- 
delphia, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Cincinnati, 
St. Lonis and San Francisco, are par- 
ticularly dull and overcrowded with car- 
penters. Of course the large cities will 
be the last to experience any great per- 
ceptible revival. 

Wheat, ' orn, beef, cotton, iron, copper 
and silver— seven very impertant staple 
products — have gone up in price. This 
has had a healthy and stiffening influence 
on the prices of numerous other pro- 
ducts. Markets for goods are opening up 
and business men are regaining confi- 
dence. The mercantile agencies present 
more hopeful reports, while manufact- 
urers have opened up shops, factories and 
mills on full time. 

Wages have been voluntarily advanced 
to avert strikes, even by Frick of villain- 
ous Homestead fame, and again by the 
mill owners in Fall River, New Bedford, 
Lowell, and in many cotton centres of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode 
Island, also in several woolen mills of 
New Hampshire. The Amalgamated 
Association of Iron and Steel Workers, 
for the first time in years, was able last 
month to secure a favorable scale of 
wages from the Iron and Steel Manufact- 
urers’ Association of the Mahoning V al- 
ley, with headquarters at Youngstown, 
Ohio. The Amalgamated Association is 
growing rapidly, according to its reports 
the past two months. It has been suc- 
cessful in thoroughly organizing the Car- 
negie plant at Homestead, Pa., and they 
have thousands of union men there where 
they only had hundreds before the mem- 
orable strike of 1892. These advances in 
wages, it is estimated, affect over 250,000 
employes. 

The Iron Moulders’ Union of North 
America, from reports of President Mar- 
tin Fox and Vice-President Joe. Valen- 
tine, are securing advances in wages and 
concessions all along the line- Only a 
few weeks ago 500 of their members 
went on strike in Cleveland, O.,for a 
ten per cent, advance, were out half a 
day and won- The Union Ore Trimmers 
at Marqnette, Mich., have just been 
successful in dispensing with the boss 



contractors, and have taken the work on 
their own terms direct, thus eliminating 
the middlemen- In over two score cases 
the past month, working people have 
been successful in strikes. Surely this 
could not occur were not times improv- 
ing! 

Now it remains with the members of 
the U. B. in each locality, in every town 
and city to stir themselves and make 
strenuous efforts to push ahead their 
Locals. Where the members are doing so, 
the membership is growing. By public 
meetings, private individual efforts of 
the members, by personal persuasion 
and zealous active efforts the non-union 
men can be converted, ex-members can 
be brought back to the fold, and the 
ranks strengthened. 

Onward, everywhere to make the 
eight-hour day the rule ! Rest not con- 
tent to work long hours for low wages, 
while others suffer in idleness. Move 
on everywhere for better wages, shorter 
honrs of toil and better, nobler and 
more manly conditions. 



A Remarkable Piece of Work. 



A table about a yard square which 
has just been completed by Charles F. 
Adam, Bridgeport, Conn-, carpenter, is 
according to report a remarkable piece 
of work. It is said to contain no less 
than 800,000 separate pieces of wood 
and 3364 hoars of labor were expended 
on it by Mr. Adam. It was begun in 
1891 and was intended for exhibition at 
the World’s Fair, but could not be 
completed in time. The table is thus 
described in a letter to the New York 
Time»: In the center of the revolving 
top is a good representation of tbe 
White House, at Washington, surround- 
ed by the Stars and Stripes. The 
border of the top is a handsome piece 
of moeaic work, and on the four sides 
are shown Washington’s birthplace, in 
Virginia, his familiar Mount Vernon 
home; the birthplace of Grant, in Ohio, 
and the place where Grant attended 
school as a boy. Tastefully interspersed 
with these are many quaint designs that, 
taken as a whole, make up a pattern 
which much resembles the production 
of the weavers’ art. The supports con- 
sist of two pieces of oak placed 
together in the form of a letter 11 X,” 
placed upright, cut out in scroll and 
with a graceful column after the Corin- 
thian order of things. On each face of 
these oak supports are two panels, mak- 
ing 16 in all, on which are shown trees, 
birds, leaves of different kinds, and all 
varieties of plant growth. On the lower 
part is shown an American eagle, with 
out spread wings, clutching a cluster of 
arrows in its talons ; a deer’s head, stork, 
sparrow and two roosters ; Washing- 
ton’s Valley Forge headquarters; the 
birthplace of Lincoln, in Kentucky, and 
Ford’s Theater, where he was shot, and 
the house near by where he died ; the 
birthplace of Columbus at Genoa, Italy, 
on a back ground of dark rosewood ; a 
cloister in Spain, visited by Columbus; 
the ship " Constitution,” Libby Prison, 
a cluster of lilies and daisies, 26 varieties 
of leaves, with ferns, fruits, etc. There 
is nothing in the nature of a paint, dye 
or stain of any sort in the whole work 
the various effects, which are very 
beautiful, being brought out by the 
natural colors of the woods, of which 
there are 76 different varieties. Some of 
the woods are ancient and of special 
historic intent. There are piecee from 
India, and a mahogany snuff box that 
was make from the timbers of the ship 
Constitution.” There is also wood 
from the Johnstown Hood worked into 
the table. 




COPIES OF PROCEEDINGS 
of Eighth General Convention 
of the U. B. f held at Indian- 
apolis, Ind, # are now ready. 
Price, five cents. Send orders 

to p. j. McGuire, 

P. O. Box, 884, 
Phila. , Pa. 

Appeals and Agitation Cards. 
Good reading for Non-Union 
Carpenters. 

Furnished Locals free. Let 
your R. S. write the Gen. Sec. 
for them. 



OUR PRINCIPLES. 



union-* ADR OOO DA. 

Reiolvetl, That tv© a* * b**ly thoroughly a© 
provonf th© ohjevtx of the Aim rh an Federath»», 
of Lülxir *nri |>l©dg«t <uir»«lve# to five U 0 , ; 
earnest and hearty support. 

Resolved, That member» of thl* organtzatlo* 
should make it a rule, when imrchmdiig goods 
himll forth«#*© which l*ar the trade-mark* c i 
organized labor. and w hen any individual flrir 
or corporation »hall »trike a blow at lala»r orgaid 
aation. they are earnestly reiiueMed to v . 
that Individual, firm or corporation their otieKi 
Aonaidcration. No good union man can kb* tha 
sod that whip« him. 

KNIGHT* OK LABOR. 

Resol: rd, That wo mo»t emphatically dig 
courage iür|ien ten* ami joiner* fron» orgnidzlna 
M carpenters under the Knight* of Ijtnor, a* wT 
belie vo each trade »hould la* organized under tu 
own trad© bead in a trade union. This doe» rod 
de l*ar our mem tiers from joining mixed a**eu> 
blies. 

LA BOB LEGISLATION. 

Resohed, That It 1* of the greatest Ini porta not 
that tneiniM-r» »hould vote Intelligently; hern* 
tbe member# of this Brotherhood »hall strive to 
»©eure legislation in favor of tho*© who pnaluc* 
the wealth of the country, and all dl*cu»«ioii»aiid 
resolutions In that direction »hall I** In order at 
any regular meeting, but party polities must U 
excluded. 



IMMIGRATION. 

Revolted, Thai while we welcome to our short* 
all who conic with the lioiie»t Intention of be- 
coming lawful citizen», w «• at the »nine time cor, 
deinn the pre»ent »>>tcni w hich allow* th© 
lni|H»rtation »if destitute lalmrer», and we nr*»* 
organized lal»or everywhere to endeavor to *0 
cure the enactment of more »tringent lmmlg;»- 
lion laws. 



FAITH KTL WOHK. 

. That we lurid it a* a »acred principle 

that Trad© Union inen, Htrove ail other*, »honld 
set a good example a* good ami faithful work 
men, performing their dutli * to their employers 
with honor to them»elve»and their organization. 

SUOKTEB 1101 * 8 » or LA BOB. 

We hold a redtn tlon of hour» for a day's work 
flnerea»©» the Intelligence and happlnc** of ths 
laborer, and also increase« the demand for Labor 
and the price of a day’» work. 



We recognize that the interests of all classes rrf 
labor are Identical, regard lea* of occuiiatlon, 
nationality, religion or color, for a wrong don« 
to one 1» a wrong done to all. 

We object to prison contract lalx»r, because II 
puts the criminal In competition with honorabls 
labor Tor the purp<»»e of cutting down wages 
and also because it helps to overstock the labor 
market. 



Resolved. That w© most earnestly condemn 

th© practice In vogue In many cities, but more 
especially In th© West, that of advertising 
tctltlous building booms, a * It ha* a tendency to 
demoralise the trad© in such localities. 



GENERAL LAWS. 



Wkebi.y Pat— W eekly payments are th© mod 
convenient for members of this Brotherhood, 
and where practicable should be adopted. 

Convict La so a.— We will not use any mill or 
other work manufactured in a penal InHtituilon, 
or brought from any town or city where cheap 
labor prevail*. 

Labor's HoUDAY -W© favor th© adoption ©f 
th© .*lr»l Monday In Heptcmticr as Lalior’s Holi- 
day, and w© recommend that our L U. 's shall 
endeavor to observe the name. 

Eight Hora».— Our L U.'s shall do all In iholi 
power to make th© Eight hour rule uu!v©r*al 
and to siiNtain tin»«© union» that have now ©slab 
ttshed U 10 Eight hour »ynirtn. 

Amicable Understanding— T he O.K.B. should 
do all In its power to discourage ntrlkr*, and 
adopt such means a* will tend to bring a!»»ut as 
amicable understanding between Local Uulons 
and employers 

Libs Laws.— We desire uniform Hen laws 
throughout th© United Htut«-» and Cana* las, mak- 
ing a mechanic's lien th© first mortgage on real 
©state .to »©cur© th© wage» of lalx>r first, and 
material second. Huch Hens should be granted 
without long stays of execution or other un- 
necessary delays. 

Building Trades League».— E ach L. U. shaM 
strive to form a Ix-agu© coni|»o*c<| of delegate* 
from ill© various unions of th© building trade* in 
It© respective city, and by tills means an employ- 
ment bureau for the»© trades can lie created. 

Grading Wages.— W© are opposed to any sy* 
tem of grading wages In the Loeal Unions, as we 
deem the same demoralizing to th© trad©, and a 
further inoentlv© t© reokleas competition, having 
the ultimate tendency when work is scarce, to 
allow first-class men to offer their labor at thlrd- 
olaes prices. We hold that tbe plan of fixing a 
minimum priese for a day's work to be the safest 
and best, and let the employers grade the wages 

above that minimum. 




THE CARPENTER. 



General Officers 



United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 
124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa 



General President.— Ohas E. Owens .Westches- 
ter, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

General Hocretary Treasurer— P. J. McGuire, 
Box 881, Philadelphia, Pa. 

General Vicb-Pbksidbnts. 

First Vico- President— Henry Gale, 330 W. Ver- 
mont si., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Hecond Vice-President— Louis K. Tossey, 801 
Lamed st., East,— Detroit, Mich. 

General Kxbcutivb Board. 

(All correspondence for the G. E. H. must be 
mailed to the General Secretary.) 

W. J. Shields, 10 Cheshire st., Jamaica Plain, 
Mass. 

S. J. Kent, 2018 S. st., Lincoln, Neb. 

J. Williams, 31 Spring st., Utica, N. Y. 

A. Cattermull, 8044 9. Halstead st., Chicago, 111. 

Jos. C. Gernet, 161 Foot Ave., Bellevue, Ky. 



Tlio New Mechanics' Lien Law of the 
State of Nov Jcraoj. 

Subjoined is a copy of a supplemental 
Lien law passed by the legislature oi 
New Jersey and signed by the Governor 
last March : 

Whenever any building shall be 
erected in whole or in part by contract 
in writing, such building and the land 
whereon it stands shall be liable to the 
contractor alone for work done or 
materials furnished in pursuance of such 
contract; provid'd, said contract or a 
duplicate thereof, together with the 
specifications accompanying the same or 
a copy or copies thereof, be filed in the 
office of the clerk of the county in which 
such building is situate before such work 
done or materials furnished. 

Whenever any master-workman or 
contractor shall, upon demand, refuse to 
pay any person who may have furnished 
materials used in the erection of any 
such house or other building, or any 
journeyman or laborer employed by him 
in the erecting or constructing any 
building, the money or wages due to him, 
it shall be the duty of such journeyman 
or laborer or material man to give notice 
in writing to the owner or owners of such 
building of such refusal, and the amount 
due to him or them and so demanded, 
and the owner orownor* of 8^ n building 
shall thereupon be authorized to retain 
the amount so due and claimed by any 
such journeyman, laborer or material 
man out of the amount owing by him or 
them to such master-workman or con- 
tractor, or that may thereafter become 
due from him or them to such master- 
workman or contractor for labor or 
materials used in the erection of such 
building, giving him written notice of 
such notice and demand ; and if the 
same be not paid or settled by said 
master-workman or contractor, such 
owner or owners on being satisfied of 
the correctness of said demand shall pay 
the same, and the receipt ofsuch journey- 
many, laborer or material man for the 
same shall entitle such owner or owners 
to an allowance therefor in the settle- 
ment of accounts between him and such 
in aster- workman or contractor as so 
much paid on account. 

When a notice or notices shall be 
served upon such owner or owners by 
any journeyman, laborer or material man, 
and notice thereof shall have been given 
by such owner or owners to the master- 
workman or contractor, said master- 
workman or contractor shall, within five 
days afler receiving the notice aforesaid, 
notify in writing the journey man, laborer 
or person who has furnished materials 
that he disputes his or their claim and 



requests him or them to establish the 
same by judgment. The owner shall not 
pay the claim nntil it is so established ; 
provided, the master-workman or con- 
tractor shall notify him in writing that 
he has given the aforesaid notice to 
said journeyman, laborer or material 
man. 

No debt Bhall be a lien by virtue of 
this act unless a claim is filed as herein- 
before provided within four months from 
the date of the last work done or ma- 
terials furnished for which such debt is 
due; nor shall any lien be enforced by 
virtue of this act unless the summons in 
the suit for that purpose shall be issued 
within four months from tho date of the 
last work done or materials furnished in 
such claim ; and the time of issuing such 
summons shall be endorsed on the claim 
by the clerk upon the sealing thereof, 
and if no such entry be made within four 
months from such last date, or if such 
claimant shall fail to prosecute his claim 
diligently within one year from the date 
of the issuing of such summons or such 
further time as the court may by order 
direct, such lien shall be discharged; 
provided , that the time in which such lien 
may be enforced by summons may be ex- 
tended for any further period, not ex- 
ceeding ninety days, by a written agree- 
ment for that purpose, signed by said 
land owner and said claimant and an- 
nexed to said claim on file before such 
time herein limited therefor shall have 
expired, in which case the county clerk 
shall enter the word “ extended M on 
the margin of the lien docket opposite 
such claim, and any claimant upon re- 
ceiving written notice from the owner of 
the lands or building requiring him to 
commence suit on such claim within 
thirty days from the receipt of such 
notice, shall only enforce such lien by 
suit to be commenced within said thirty 
days. 

If the owner or owners of any building 
or other property which, by the act to 
which this is a supplement or the various 
supplements or amendments thereto, Is 
made the subject of liens for or toward 
the construction, altering, repair or im- 
provement of which labor or services 
have been performed or materials fur- 
nished by contract, duly filed, shall, for 
the purpose of avoiding the provisions of 
the act to which this ie a supplement, or 
the various supplements and amend- 
ments thereto, or in advance of the terms 
of such contract, pay any money or other 
valuable thing on such contract, and the 
amount still due to the contractor, after 
such payment has been made, shall be 
insufficient to satisfy the notices served 
in conformity with the provisions of the 
act to which this is a supplement, or the 
various supplements or amendments 
thereto, such owner or owners shall be 
liable in the same manner as if no snch 
payment had been made. 

Kvery mortgage upon lands in this 
State shall have priority over any claim 
which may be be filed in pursuance of 
the act to which this is a supplement, or 
the various supplements or amendments 
thereto, to the extent of the money actu 
ally advanced anti paid by the mortgagee 
and applied to the erection of any new 
building upon the mortgaged lands, or 
any alterations, repairs or additions 
to any building on said lands pro- 
vided such mortgage be recorded or 
registered before the filing of any such 
claim. 

In all cases journeymen or laborers 
shall have priority and preference over 
any employers of labor, contractors or 
i material men for the payment of wages, 
without reference to the date when said 
journeymen or Laborers shall have filed 
the lien or served the notices provided 
for in the act to which this act is a sup- 
plement or the several supplements or 
amendments thereto. 



A flairs He fore the Panic. 

At the Denver Convention of the A. 
F. of L. the Hon. I. N. Stevens, of Den- 
ver, delivered a masterly address. Here 
are a few excerpts: 

At the beginning of 1894 the American 
people had this condition of affairs to 
face: For thirty years we had been 
engaged in the business of borrowing 
money. Nearly every one who held a 
prima facie title to a home borrowed all be 
could upon it. Nearly every farmer bor- 
rowed all be could upon his farm. Great 
railroad companies without number were 
organized, their stocks watered and 
loans in the shape of bonds were nego- 
tiated for much more than it cost to 
build them. The same was true of tele- 
graph companies, of street car companies, 
of light companies, of water companies, 
of innumerable companies in cities and 
towns. 

Thousands of cities and towns sprung 
up all over the land and immediately 
negotiated as big loans as they conld 
get. Counties borrowed, States bor- 
rowed, individuals borrowed, until at 
the beginning of 1894 the people oi 
the United States owed in all kinds of 
debts something like $40,000,000,000. 
The interest upon this enormous debt 
averages 0 per cent, per annum, or $2,- 
400,000,000. When you recollect that 
the total amount of circulating medium 
of the United States, including all forms 
of monc /, gold, Bilver, greenbacks, 
national bank notes, paper money of all 
kinds amounts to but $1,000,000,000, or 
only enough to pay eight months’ in- 
terest upon our debts, you may begin to 
realize, partially, what yon have got to 
face. 

And when yon realize that under 
present legislation gold is the only real 
money we have, all the others being de- 
pendent upon gold, and redeemable in 
gold, and that the total of all gold money 
in circulation in the United States is a 
little less than $700,000,000 or less than 
enough to pay the interest upon our 
debts for four months, you may realize 
still more what the harvest is to be. 



Origin of the Word 44 Hose." 

Even the dread name of 41 boss ” is an 
inheritance from the Dutch period. It 
is derived from baas, meaning foreman 
or master. A bnndred years after Eng- 
lish became the official language, men of 
wealth and character, like “Boss ” Wal- 
ton of the famous Walton House, in 
Franklin Square, received the appella- 
tion from persons who wished to be defer 
ential. And to-day a workingman may 
use the title in its original sense when 
addressing his employer or accosting a 
stranger. 

Ten New Unions* 

Since our last report charters have been 
granted to ten new unions and a number 
have been reorganized. The new unions 
are: No. 298, Highland Park, 111.; 401, 
Franklin, Pa.; 439, Atlanta, Ga.; 447, 
New York City (Cabinet Makers) ; 454, 
Fort Brook, Fla ; 47H, New York, N.Y. 
(Machine Wood Workersand Turners); 
503, Rockford, 111.; 600, Olneyville, IU., 
and 626, Lexington, Ky. 

THE MADDOX 
Improved Patent Self-Locking and 

Adjustable Shoulder Plane. 




w&n/M 



(Insertions under this head cost ten cents a tins.) 



New Yobk, April 27. 1895. 

Union 809, Now York Oily, adopted the follow- 
In*: 

Whir rah. It has pleased (he Almighty to take 
from our midst brother William J. Armstrong, 
to our deep regret and sorrow, therefore be it 

Resolved , that we tender our heat tfelt sympathy 
to the bereaved family. 

Matt. Mi llen, Tbos W. Huttoe, 
President, Etc. See. 



Jah. T. Havebty, *1 
t ’ii ah. E. Taylor, 
Thom. 8hrrii>ar, | 
Kobebt Thom »‘Mon J 



Committee. 



Naw York, April 27, 1896. 

Union 809, New York City, adopted the follow 
ing: 

Whereas, It pleased kind Providence to 
remove from our ranks brother Gzo. E Tos- 
ha ck, to our deep regret and sorrow, therefore 
he It 

Resolved that we tend our heartfelt sympathy 
to the bereaved family. 

Matt Muller. Thoh. W. Huttor. 

President. Sec 8tc. 

Jas. T. Haver? v, 1 
( hah. K. Taylor, j 
Thoh. Hrebidan, \ 

Hubert Thompmor.J 



Toronto, Orta bio, April 28, 1896. 

Wh Eh EAs death has removed from among us 
our esteemed brother. Thomas Hurst, who was 
a consistent Union carpenter in Toronto for 36 
years, and was a charter member of Union 
No. 27 

B‘ sol red, that we tender our heartfelt sympa- 
thy to the t>ereaved widow and family of our 
accessed brother. 

Resolved, that a copy of this resolution be placed 
on the Minutes of our Union and also published 
in our official journal, The Cari’ERTkb. 

Alex Edgar, J. Collie, 

Ihres ident. Secretary. 

Union *.7, Toronto , Ontario. 



CBI< AGO. Ill, 

At a regular meeting of Union No. 28, United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of Amer- 
ica, held on December 12 , 1KD4 the following re* 
solutions were duly presented and adopted : 
Whereas, the Great and Supreme Kular of 
the Universe has |*ermitted the bund of the 
assassin by the aid of hts murderous ballets, to 
remove our worthy and esteemed Brother, 
Dorald Grubb, and 

Wbbrj as, the long and intimate relation held 
with him in the faithful discharge of hit duties, 
makes it eminently befitting that we record our 
appreciation of him; therefore 
RenAved, that the sudden removal of such a 
life, in such a manner, from our midst leaves a 
vacancy and a shadow that will be deeply real- 
ized by all the members and friend* of Unio.i 
No. 28, and will prove a serious loea to our organ 
Ixatlon. 

Resohrd, that In deep sympathy with the le 
reaved relatives of the deceased we express our- 
hope that even so great a loss to us all, may be 
subservient to our future good, 

Resulted , that our Charter be draped in mourn- 
ing for a period of thirty days, that this our testl 
mony to his worth bespread upon the records, 
of our Union, a copy transmitted to the be- 
reaved family, and also published In our official 
journal, Tmk Cabi entxk. 

It. B. Hall, ) 

W. H Weirs. ) Committee. 

W. R Bowks, j 



custom tailors' label. 



nic&C J 



Patented April 26, 1893 Hirnpleand Inexpensive. 
OWNED AND MARI FACTORED I* V 

MADDOX & CAUNTER, 
iio iio Eliza Street, 

CLEVELAND, OHIO, 



All Trades Unionists are requested to ask for 
the label of the Journeymen Tailors* Union, and 
Insist on having It when they order any clothing 
from a merchant tailor. It la to be found In the 
Inside breast pocket of the coat, on the under 
aide of the buckle atrap of the vest, and on the 
waistband lining of the pan te. Ills printed la 
Maek Ink on white linen, with the words “ Jour- 
neymen Tailors' Union of America'* in red Ink 
In the centre. It a klr price to g good 




10 



the carpenter. 








S«»tig of Labor. 



II V KAEI. UECHKK. 

*Trnii»lute<l from tin* G«*riiiail by Prof. Sim k 
Pavia.) 



Now tlmt want ami <li»tr«*»» doth l»lH>r »|i|>re<»i», 
W hat ahull \v« »lug for labor's »«n»g " 

What filial) wr |>h ml j*gam»t mainmoi)'» grct*«), 
Ha»«* »«*lli»l»ne»» and grtevou» wrong '* 
rinse 111 «* rank» « loa«* (he rank*, «till «h*a«*r 
rvrr, 

l.et union l»e your lii^h «* n* I • av or 



Por Hit* coal und Iht* «»u earth'* ileplli* you 
«t|«lorc, 

Y«tnr strung <«rni and courage make fruitful the 
Moil. 

Y, m h« ro»H all, alien king Lalau doth «all. 

And what reward have you for all your toll ' * 
Mammon all freemen slave» wouhl make; 

Then unite unite, for freedom » take ' " 

In \ ail) t hut« h a |»r«*iuhlng, in vain Christian 
teaeldUK 

If nian)io 4 Ml lie nothing ami g«*hl all in all ; 

And humanity*» claim )» naught but a name, 

If while heaplnic u|* wealth we our brother 
euthraU* 

tf, brother»: O, »liter»' let M|iee«l the gootl eauae, 
And maeiibe on our *g * Heiter life, better 
law»!'* 

Labor'» heroes, O ne’er in life*» battle deapair, 
Kor your car« » and your toil behold victory nigh 
Together unite- and I *• »teadfaat in right ; 

He ready to 1 1 \ •* and la* leady to die ! 

Ke ready ami htcady to battle life'« wrong, 

A ml “ union for ever ! " be I .abor t* song ! 

Pittrfmrith, /*J. 



iicrul Kxmilivo Hoard rrocccding*. 




KIEST DAY'S skhmon.— A|»rll 1,189$. 

•UI-J* n K. It. met at office of G. tft-T., M A 
M , Chairman Shield» presiding. 
Pull Hoar J prcaeiit. 

Communication, Union 257, Ht. 
I /oiiIh, relating to adoption by U. 
H. of system known as "Initiative 
and Kefereodum.*' U. K. I hereby 
reatllrniH ita former dec*t»lon of Jan. l.th, but 
would recommend the coin mu» of our ofllclal 
journal be n»<»<l for a general diitcUHition of thi» 
Important auhjeet and Local» can iliatruet their 
delegate« to the next Ueuera! Convention on 
llie matter. 

Communication, Union» 434 and 718, Chicago, 
appealing from action of Committee appointed 
by I mliauupolia Convention to revise amend* 
iiienb* to Constitution. Hai«l Committee decided 
that amendment to Me« lion 47, a* »whmitted by 
Uidoua 434 and 758, w a» not adopted, and fur- 
ther «lechted the wor<l ' adopted" following 
aforcMaid amendment to Heetion 47 ill Printed 
Proceedinga, ia a clerical error. Prom their 
perMorud rccollecttoiiH, and evidence In-fore 
them, tlie <i. K II hereby decide llial the Com- 
mittee on Ke\ i»ion wum correct In iü» <le«i»i<ni, 
and the amendment to Heclbui 47 was not 
adoptcil. A» to«jue*tlon raised l»y sai«l l.oc 4 la, 
whether or not the Conatiluttoii ah«mld liave 
I «een voted on aa a whole, (4 L. H. tiechle that 
only auch parta aa were amended liy Conven- 
tion were »object to vote l»> the member». 

Cl. H T. foihmiitcd atateinent from the New 
York D.C. of money» expended in »trike again»t 
liiinplng »ystein , also correspondence of Ü. H-T. 
«leiiitiiding of New York D. C. that balance of 
$81$ be refunded which should be in their hands, 
from approprlafion «>f $1500 made by Ci. 

K. H for said strike. It appears Treae irer 
Bartlett of the New York D. C ha» been I u- 
«tru«te«i to forward aaid Imlance to the general 
oflh-o, hut baa failed to «lo so, or hi answer any 
uommuutcatloiiB, and the whereabouts of eah! 
Treasurer are unknown, lien«* the (1. E H 
b« reby pla« < » the collection of tbl» Utlam-e of 
$816 In the bands of the 44. H-T. will) full |a#wer 
to k«’I ami lake »u«-h »ti-p» a» In bis judgment 
be deemed ne«e»»ar> . 

<4. H T. sul*»lltute«l (topics <jf letters »ent Pitts- 
burg)) lb C , r« «|iie»t lug return of balanc«*» of 
luoneys one i pemJcd from appropriations ma«le 
by Cl. K. H for organising, and eipenstn of 
Pittsburgh Right Hour Convention, 1804. Held 
D C. has not expedited »aid balance» or re- 
mitted tic* same, the (4. H-T. Is hereby Instructed 
to at once again demand of the Pittsburgh D. 
C. to a« ml to t! 1« ollb-c the amount of $10$ 3$, 
lailaiM-es un accounted for. 

Ap|»eal, Union 108, Lynn, Mas»., against re- 
fusal of G. H T. t« surrender an anonymous com 
munlealiou from a member of »ahl fax-al. Ci. 
K H. decliie they <lo not «*on»i«ter It net-CNsary 
Ur otder the O H T. to r«-tiirn an> couiinuoica- 
lions from Lynn, Mass . giving the condition of 
affairs there. 

Ci.HT. laid l>efore the Ci. K. H the entire 
correspondence between himself and the Heere- 
tary of tlie Amerioan District of the Amalga- 



mated Society. It relates to the controversy 
between the two organisations, which has bern 
I aggravate«! by the »trike on the Mar«|uelte 
j BuiMIng, Chicago, where meinb«*rs of the Amal- 
gamate«! took our members' places. Mr. Bullen- 
tlne. Secretary of the Amalgamated, propose# 
the «. K. B appoint a Committee to meet a Ilk«' 
Committee fr«»m the Amalgamated in New Y«»rk. 
11 . E B. «lecbled t«» accept Invdatlon, and (1. 8 - 
T. instructed to inform Mr. Ballciitlne that a 
Committee of U. B. would n»cet Committee of 
Amalgamated April 7th at New York. Follow- 
ing Committee w-as named by Chairman Shields, 
Hi«»». Kent, Cattermull and McGuire. 

Cl. S T. oa!le«l attention of U. K. B. to fad 
Union 10 », Lynn. Mas»., had absolutely refus«»d 
to pay ass«-»siu«-nt.» lately levie«! by Cl K H The 
Boar«! authorized the G. S T to pr«H-ee«l at «»nee 
to eolle«'t Haul assessments. 



MRCOÜI» DAY’S »BSHION -April 2. 

Cl. S-T. laid hef«»re the Ci. K. B. account of 
moneys expended in »trike on Mar«|Uette Build 
Ing in Chicago. Same were examined. Ö .8 T 
I» hereby Instructed to forward Chicago the $. r >00 
remaining of the $150J appropriated, ami to re 
«(iiire that Finance Committee of the Chicago 
lb C. hereafter certify to «*t>rr«‘ctneaa of the 
account* »ent General Oflb-e 

Application, Chicago D C., f«»r »Auction of 
general strike will) tinaneial aid. I*al«l over 
until saiil D. O carries out the provisions of Con- 
stitution relating to strikes, and properly tills 
out sehe«lule of ln«|ulries 

Dinapprov« «I «loath claim of P. T. Harmon, 
Union 26, Jackson, Mich. Evidence, cash book, 
etc., thoroughly examined. Action of G. S T. 
concurred In. 

Disapproved «leath claim of Mrs M.J. Kelly, 
Union 175, Brooklyn, N. Y. Kvidem-e ei- 
amined, and «lecl»ion of G. H-T. concurred in. 

Disapproved death claim of Win. A. Dunn, 
Union 3 "4. Buffalo, N. Y. Evidence examined, 
and decision of G. H-T. sustained. 

Disapproved «leath claim Mrs. A. I. Wilson, 
Union 744, L«»gEn sport, Ind. Kvblence ex- 
amine«! Decision of G. HT. concurred in, as 
tiled K. B timl tlie member was in arreant. 

Application Union 263, Balt Lake City, Utah, 
for donation of $300 to prosecute claims of mem- 
bers in Salt I*ake City for overtime worked in 
violation of the Right Hour l*aw of Utah. G. 
H-T. Instructed to obtain copy of law, and all 
information as to steps taken by other trades in 
proeecuti«>n of any claims they may have. G. 
R. B are of opinion the case should be piece«) 
t>efore Executive Council of A. K. of L. 

Application of Indianapolis D. C. for dona* 
tion of $1.000 to assist In the enforcement of 
lra«ic demands. The Ci. HT, having to visit 
ludiauapolia April 12, to attend meeting of 
Executive Council of the A. F of L., the (4. K B. 
hereby decide to refer the matter to him, with 
instructions to report to the Board his recom- 
mendations as early as possible. 

The G. H T. submitted bills of Brother Wyatt, 
organizer, also corre«poD«lence between the G. 
H T. and Brother Wyatt In relation to organizing 
in Newark, Orange, Houth Orange and Montclair. 
Brother Wyatt claims to have ample authority 
to incur the bills now before the Board. G. H-T. 
is instructed to request Brother Wyatt to for- 
ward immediately to this Board all such evi- 
dence duly certified, 

TBian day's sassioir- April 8. 

Entire morning and part of afternoon «on. 
eumed in audit of book» and accounts of <1. H-T. 

Consideration of report of Brother Cattermull, 
referee in disapproved death claim of Mrs. Jane 
Clapperton, Union 269, Chicago, Report re- 
ferred back to Brother Cattermull with Instruc- 
tions to make further Investigation. 

Consideration of report of Brother Cattermull, 
referee in case of appeal of Union 162 against 
decision of Chicago 1). O , in case of Union 718 
vs. Union 162. Union 768 c) a line«) certain initia- 
tion fee» collected by Union 168. Report ac- 
cepted and <aee further reviewed. Decision of 
Chicago D. C. not sustained. 

Appeal J. H Murray, Union 340, New York, 
siulalned by appeal» of Union» 63, 64, 840, $8$ 
and $09, against action of New York D. C. In 
«•ou nti ng the votes of Union 876, In election of 
bu»iue»s agents. Evidence reviewed and de« 4 e 
ion of the New York D. C. »ustalued. 

Communication», Unions 18 and 66 , B«j«Uju, 
Mass , reoontroverey now existing over settle- 
ment «if certalii indebted ness incurred by the 
Boston D. O . ami disposal of certain property 
belonging to that body. Ha id iinhirui appeal to 
the G. R. B. to take action toward settlemeat 
of this controversy. G. R. B hereby authorize 
and empower Brother W. J. Hh leide to act as 
agent oftlils Boar« I In aetlling the pending diffi- 
culty, and if niM-esMary to lake charge of all 
property formerly held by lap»e<J D. <?. of 
Boston 



rouaTH day’s eaesioa— April 4. 

A p|*eal, Union 484, New York, against decision 
of Grievance Committee of New York D O. 
This appeal relate« to case of Union 464 vs. Uui« 
Dam er, one of Its members. Evidence re- 
viewed Drei • 'on of New York D. C. «-on- 
cur red In. 



Further consideration of application of Union» 
526 and 611, Galveston, Tex , f«»r sanction t<* 
strike with financial aid. Laid over and Brother 
Kent of G. B. B. instructed to proceed to Gal- 
veston and make full investigation, ami eend 
report to G H-T. to lie submitted to G. R. B. 

Continuation of audit of hook» and a«» , ount». 

Communication from Kings County D C., 
accepting terms pr«ip«»»ed by G. K. B. at last 
meeting, for support In resisting vhdatlon» of 
trad«* rules by the contractors. 

Consideration of re«|iie»t from Chicago D, C. 
for paid organiser lo b«» put in the field to «trgan- 
ize outlying districts of Chicago. Laid over 
until G. K. B. perfects plans now under ronsltl 
erallon for organizing the diflcrent sections of 
the «*oiiiitry . 

Communications, Milwaukee 1> C ami Union 
130. Ma*llsoii, Wia., for appropriation» f«»r organ- 
izing Same action as in Chicago case. 

Claim of Union 169, Hast HI I.oiiIh, III., for 
legal ex}MmseH paid out lit suit of Mrs. K Kidds 
vs. U B. G. H-T is hereby instructed to ascer- 
tain if this is tin* entire expense covering tlx- case, 
aud, if so, he will credit Union 169 on hi» hooks 
for the $41 80 claimed. 

Communl« atton Fct«*r Morch, Union 381, 
Brooklyn, N. Y , requesting G. R H to icopeu 
his appeal vs Kings County D. i\ Adilitlonal 
evidence examined and G. E B. hereby re- 
affirms Its former decision. 

Appeal Union 162, Chicago, against action of 
Union 63, New York, In refusing to remit $3 95 
c«»llecte«l from Peter Crowley, a f«»rmer meinher 
of Union 162. Rvidciu*« examined The F. H. 
of Uniou 63 makes affidavit to having »«*nt the 
amount ln «luestion to Union 163 in an ordinary 
letter, and K. 8 of Union 162 in turn makes affi- 
davit he «lid not receive sah! remittance G. R. 
B. hereby «!e«-i«lc Union 63 is re»p«m»ilile for 
official acts of its officers, and orders Union 63 
to remit to Uni«m 162 the amount of claim, 
$3.96. 

Claim of Peter Garsoit, Union 4$, Slireveport, 
1 ^ , for balance of funeral i»eiietit on «h-a'li of 
H HchaetL-r. G. R. H ciamined new «*vi«leacw 
»ul «milled, hut see no reason to change their 
former decision of July 19, 1«V4. 

KIKTH DAY'S BKSSlOg- April I. 

Coiitlnaallou of audit of hooks, et«*. 

Ap|H-al W. J. Hhockley, represt-ntative of 
Union 446 on Executive Committee, appointed 
to settle intlehtetluess of ls|»se«l D. C of Imllan- 
a|K>lts, against Union 80 of »aid city, In failing 
to comply with de«-isfton of Indianapolis Con- 
vention, page, 18, printed pnx-eedlng» Referred 
to G. 8 T. to investigate when be visits Indian- 
apolls, and report to G. R. B 

G. R. H. «lecided that wlieii they adjourn they 
adjourn to meet Monday, July 1 $, 1896 

Disability claim W. B Musser, Union 661, 
Omaha. Neb. f shl over until next mecllng and 
G. H-T. InstriicUsl to re«|Uest Union 6$1 for Its 
statement of the case 

Continuation of audit of books, vouchers au«J 
accounts 

sixth day's lasioit, April 6. 

G. H-T and G. R. B. went into consultation 
and dlscuMScd matters of general interest to the 
U. B. 

Telegram from Secretary of Amalgamated So- 
ciety, git ing time and place of meeting of the 
committees representing the two organiza- 
tions. 

Reply r«H«lve«l from Brother T. P. J. Cole 
man, Trustee of of the New York District, stat- 
ing Brother Mtntdowcraft, President of D. 4 !., 
hold» the bon«l of the missing Treasurer of the 
New York D. O. 

Completion of amlit of tM>oks aud accounts of 
G. HT., from which the following summaries 
are drawn : 



«•esksa l ruin. 

Balance on hand Jan. 1 189$ I 447 87 

Receipts Jan., Fell and Mar«?h .... 18,291 62 



$13,789 89 

Re« elve«I from special assessments . . 6,806 20 



Total . . $ 20 , 04 $ $9 

Expense« for said perl«*l , 19,281 S 3 

Balance on band April I. 1696 88,768 78 



FBOTE* T1V1 rt/mr. 

Balance on hand Jan.l, 1895 $7,041 2$ 

Re«<el pis Jan., Feb. and March .... 8,321 $6 



Total II0.3M 11 

Expended on strike» and lockouts for 

period ending April 1, )H9$ 1,800 00 



Balance ou baud April 1, 1896 8$, 16$ 11 

Brother» Kentan«l Cattermull were Instructed 
to go Ur Newark, N J , and investigate claim of 
Brother Wyatt. 

Adjournsd i P.M. Ur meet again July If, J 1996 . 

H J. Km, 
ßterelury (J. K. B. 

Attest : 

P J MoGuiag, 

(Jenerol Btcrtlury TrmMurtr. 



Ketluce the llourH of Manual Toil, 
Mr. Editor: — 

The shortening of the work day is the 
only consistent way by which the labor- 
ing man can realize the benefit ef labor- 
saving machinery, which is constantly 
reducing the amount of labor that is 
required to provide the necessarieh of 
life. If machinery has taken the place 
of labor, then leas labor is neceeeary, 
and bow can this benefit be justly dig. 
tributed amongst the people other than 
by shortening the work day. There are 
many who contend that a shorter work- 
day and an advance in wages would in- 
crease the living expenses so that we 
could realize no benefit. Hut 1 think 
such men are only the friends of the 
money kings, or are influenced by them. 
It ia clear that a shorter work day will 
cause an advance in WAgee, and that the 
rich will have to pay more money for 
lees work. They will also have to bear 
their share of the advance in the living 
expenses- This wguld give the working 
man decidedly the advantage. If the 
shortening of the work day can be con- 
tinued then it will eventually exhaust 
the wealth of every plutocrat, and oblige 
them to labor in order to live. The full 
benefit of an eight-hour work-day will 
not be realized until it is extended to 
every class of labor throughout the entire 
country. For whenever there is a de- 
mand for mechanics the common laborers 
will turn their hand to the trade and 
prevent the advance in wages that wouhl 
otherwise come. 

An effort to advance the wages with- 
out shortening the work-day is like try 
ing to stop the flow of a river hy build- 
ing a dam across it. The minimum wage 
system is the principal reason why so 
many men drop out of the union during 
dull times. They must remain idle or 
violate the trade rules. It also prevent« 
mechanics from coming into the union 
through fear that they cannot get work 
at the minimum wage- It tends to create 
lumpers and rushers. Freedom shotil I 
be extended as far as possible. The most 
expert mechanics seldom stick up for 
more than the minimum wage, and when 
times are dull they only can get work, 
and they delight to vilify those who are 
less agile for violating the trade rales, 
and after all they can accomplish very 
little of themselves. 

The power of a union L'oneists in num- 
bers. If an out-of-work benefit were in- 
stituted it would tend to bring this ele 
ment to their reckoning. We think that 
when an effort is made toeetablish> uni 
versa! eight-hour day it will be infinitely 
better for mechanics to continue to work 
at the tame rate of wagee per hour than 
to loee the cause. It will certainly be 
a radical anti-laborite that will nppos«* 
such a course. 

H- K. Hnyosk, 
Local Union 478, N. Y. 

A Helping Hand to 41 Jack.” 

The Coast Beaman’s Union, with the 
help of the American Federation of I n 
bor, has done noble work for their craft 
during the last session of Congress. They 
have had laws enacted that place a sea 
man on the same plane with the rest of 
humanity ; they have relieved him U) >> 
small extent from the brutal treatrm'Ut 
usually accorded sailors. Imprisonment 
for refusal to join s ship or for deserting 
during voyage is abolished. No boarding 
master or other person can seize the 
clothing of s seaman, etc. Of course, 
Congress has jurisdiction only on trad** 
between ports of the United State*' 
Every local, national and international 
trade union and the old-line Hrotherhod 
of Railway men— all gave a helping ha ml 
to 44 Jack/’ by sending vigorous petition« 
to Congress demanding the passage of 
the laws in behalf of the seamen. 



THE CARPENTER 



U 






Craft Problems* 

(7 hi* IhfHirimnU u far cr'Uicim and 
comt/tond* ncr from our renters on mechani - 
rul mibjicU in Carjmdry, and idea* a* to 
rraff organization. 

Writs on one tide of the jhijht only All 
nriich* shtruld hr fntjrwd. 

Mtdlsr ftrr this DrjkirtmnU must Ur, in thi* 
ojfirt loj ihr fftth of Lhr montii . ) 

An r.iisy Way to >lakc Window Frames. 

A Rood Floor C1niii|i. 



Bihtou Cahiks neu IVrliajii Home of 

tlu* readera of Tmc Cari kntkk woaltl 
like to know n way of making wintlow 
frames l»y hand, panier ami faster than 
the old way of making with the try 
square bevel and gauge. I have made 
and used patterns for window stile« or 
jamhe t Iiuh : 




Flu, I. 

Take a t inch hoard joint, H<piare 
the exact width of jamb, bevel lower 
end and brad on strip \ x 1 inch. 
Measure length of window, saw aquare 
1 inch Hhort and brad on strip 1 
inch wide project in? as shown. Then 
brad on 4 blocke 1 ' inche*. Ion?, squarely 
on edge« to project \ inch on either Hide. 
We now have a reversible pattern. 

• I'iate on «tile ami tack brad through 
pattern and into «tile to keep it from 
fdippin? end wine, the blocks keep it 
Htrai?lit. Then with a gauge dado it ie 
only a moment's work to dado the etile, 
and by reversing pattern it makes the 
opposite Htile exactly the reverse. If 
some of your Traders will try this way I 
• think they will be pleased with the 
result. 







1 have also used a Moor clamp of my 
own make to ?ood advantage. Take a 
pice of good ash plank, Ij inches thick, 
made 2 inches w ide at one end, and 1$ 
inches at the other, and Ij feet Ion?, 
round the «mall end, '.ret a piece of steel 
; xl| inches, and s inches Ion?, upset one 
end ami draw to a point, pinch bar 




Km. :: 



shape. Finch 2 holes J inch throii?h 
Mat part and holt on to lever with i 
inch holts. Next take a piece of li 
spruce, 6 inches wide and 12 or 1 1 inches 
Ion?. Tut slot in one end I ijaft inches. 
Bore or j inch hole through slot end as 
shown in Ki? *2, then bolt to lever as 
shown in Ki?, 3. and clamp is ready 
for use. By takln? lever in one hand 
and treadle in the other, am) plunge 
spur into the floor linin? or joist, so 
that the end of treadle will come near 
ed?e of Moor. Stand one foot on treadle 
ami the operator will la* surprised with 
the purchase he has in this lever to bear 
a?ainet the board he w iehes to squeeze 
up. Hoping these suggestions may be 
of some benefit to some fellow workman, 

I remain, very respectfully, 

JJ. F MoKttHJSAJ). 
Union .V/, Nru lirilain % <Jt. 



Squaring the Circle. 



The following interesting solution of 
this somewhat paradoxical problem is 
submitted : 

If the radius of a circle is figured, 
as 1 or unity, the area of the circle will 
he According to the following formula. 
Area (It * 1.7726)*. 







Referring to the engraving we And a 
circle of one inch radius. Divide the 
diameter A B into 3 eqoal parte in 
points M and N. From point M draw 
the Sim M B. Take B as center and 
M K as radius and describe the curve 
D K, cutting in 1) and R. Join A and 
l>. The area of the square on chord 
A D is equal to area of the circle. As 
line A D squared is to the eqnare lines 
of the large and small circles as radius 
A O in full circle A K It B l> ; is to the 
large and small radii. As the square 
line in a circle of 1 inch radius is equal 
to 1.7725 so is the area of circle equal to 
(It -• 1.7725)*. 

M acinus ( 1 . Txnokr. 

I lull and , |7. 



To Construct an Oval Flower Stand 
From a Circular Table. 



Doio hkhtkk, Nkh. 

Burma Cakpkntek : — 

I have been reading your paper for 
some time and think any carpenter could 
take no paper that would fill its place 
for the money. 

I will give you a problem which will 
pu/.zle a great many. 

A man has a centre table with a round 
top, also two daughters who each want 
the table. In order to satisfy both girls, 
fie took the table top to a mechanic and 
told him to make two oval Mower stands, 
w ith au oval hole in the centre of each, 
and to make three cuts and waste no 
more material than the saw kerf 

1 will send a drawing showing the 
cuts, it was given me by an old mechanic. 
1 studied it several months at odd times 
and finally solved it. 

A. Z. VV II IT? ICY. 

Burma's Noth — The solution of above 
problem will appear in our June num- 
ber. Bros. F. B. NVelton, Union 72, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; and B. A. (ieisler, 
Union 62, Chicago; Sam’l Thornhill, 
Union 388, Dover, N. J. f sent ns similar 
problems and solutions. 



A Ship Carpenter'* Problem. 



The following problem has been re 
reived ami the solution of same will 
appear in our June number. 

A wrecked ship carpenter found in 
the bottom of the only boat saved, a 
bole which measured 8 x 18 inches 
On investigation he found the only 
board he had to Mil it was one 12 x 12 
inches. How did he cut this piece so as 



to till up the hole and make the boat 
seaworthy ? 

A Steady Reader. 

Editor's Note —A problem similar tu 
the above and solution was sent us by 
Bro. A. J. Bohr, Altoona, Pa. 

Alimenting an Insurance Feature. 

IxjtTIMVILLK, Kv, 

As 1 never noticed a communication 
in reference to instituting an insurance 
feature in our i >rder, I thought 1 would 
occupy some space in a discussion of the 
question. 1 have been a member of the 
U. B., with the exception of a couple of 
years when I was away where there were 
no unions, since the year 1887. I have 
noticed that there have only been an 
average of about 75 to 100 deaths per 
year in our Order. 

(Khitobui. Notk — Our correspondent In In 
«•i ror. Our (lentil rat«? for tneiiiliers mid iiieintM-r*' 
wlv«** hm ragen over !S»KI death* |»«-r year. Her 
O S.-T import ) 

Now with an insurance assessment of 
25 cents per month from each member, 
and this money to be used for no other 
purjiOBe, we would realize from our pres- 
ent members about $175,000 per annum 
The expense per member would be the 
small premium of $3.00 per year — just 
about one-eighth of the cost of regular 
insurance. Suppose that fora six inonti* 
member $250 he allowed at death or 
total disability, $500 for one year, $1,000 
for a two year member, and $2,000 for 
all over two years a member. Take the 
past ten years aB an average, this would 
leave iu the treasury the sum of about 
$80,000, to pay treasurers' and other sal- 
aries, and have a surplus besides. 

There are thousands who are now pay- 
ing their dues into the union merely for 
the sake of the small insurance we art- 
now offering our members, and I think 
we could with the additional incentive of 
the increase of the insurance not only 
bring back many thousands of those who 
have dropped out from the U. B., but 
also would be enabled to uni nize nearly 
every small village and town in the 
United States. In connection with the 
by laws governing the Order, there should 
he a strict understanding that all mem- 
bers, to be entitled to the insurance, 
should be strictly square with their local 
unions, or within one month of it, any- 
how. 

There are too many that, when they 
get three or four months behind, rather 
than pay up will let their names drop 
from the rolls. They are not much good 
ae union men anyhow. But I think witf 
a better incentive there would be mail) 
less w ho would lag behind in dues. 

W. P. I). 



The Diameter of a Circle. 

To TIIM KdITOH OF T1IK CAKI'KNTKR .' 

In the March number of The Cakckn- 
tkr, I see #l Philo " asks -* 1 How to find 
arithmetically, t lie diameter of a circle, 
when the cord line or width and rise of 
a segment is given. As I have not seen 
any answer to this problem, I here send 
you a solution for publication. 




Assume the given ehord to be 40*0" 
and the rise 8* M", and proceed aa fol- 
lows: The cord 40' : ‘J 20";- go' x 
20" or squared lo <H) PK)o : 8.5 
17.0.»: 47 05 f 8.5 55.55 which is the 

diameter required. Diameter 55.55 : 2 
radius 27 77 or 27' VK' approximately. 
This will be siiflicienlly close for all 
working purposes- 

Yours fraternally, 

St. Jajuxs, Mo. Sawdust. 



CONSTITUTION FOR BUILDDM* 
TRADES COUNCIL. 



ARTICLE I. 

Section 1. Thin nrgntdzation nhall be known 
an the Amalgamated Council of the Building 
Trades. 

8kc. ft. Thlnoouncll shall be composed of dele- 
gates duly chosen fr.-rn all eocletlt-s In the btihd 
log trades, who shall, before being admitted, 
produce credentials signed by the president and 
recording secretary of their Society, and shall 
have the seal of their union attached. 

Bko. a. In case of a secret aoHt.y, the neal of 
their lodge attached ehaU be a sufficient guaran- 
tee of their genuineness, 

Haa 4. Theofflcersof this society si ml I conslsl 
of a chairman, vice-chairman and recording neo- 
retary, corresponding secretary, financial secre- 
tary, treasurer and eergeantrat-ann*. 

Bbo. ft. Tl»o chairman and vice-chairman shall 
be elected at each meeting, and shall be nomi- 
nated from delegates of different societies, nor 
shall any chairman sit In Judgment on any case 
affecting the union he belongs low 

8ec.Sw The record I ng secretary, corresponding 
secretary, financial secretary, trenail re r and ser- 
ges nt-at-arm« shall be elected quarterly ; the re- 
cording secretary shall receive such salary ae 
ibis council shall deem advisable. 

ARTICLE IL 

BEfTloif 1. The executive functions of this 
council shall be vested In the officers and dele- 

S n tee while in avastoii. and in such committees as 
da com.ctl may find nect-aaary to conduct lie 
bualncHM under this constitution. 

Hue. 2. The objects of tills council shall be to 
centralize the united effort* and experience ol 
the various nocietlee n gaged In the erection and 
alteration of building*, and that they may form 
one common council, and with common Interest 
to preveut that Which may be injurious, and 
properly perfect and carry into effect that which 
they may deein advantageous to themselves. and 
for the common good of all. 

8 EC 3. All t ra<ie and lalair societies represented 
In this council, when dealroua «if making a do 
iiiand for either an advance of wages or ao 
abridgement In the hours of luhor, shall, through 
their delegates, re|M»rt the *an»e to this council, 
prior to the demand being made, w h* n. If con- 
curred In by a two-thirds vote of all the societies 
present, at any stated meeting, the ac tion shall be 
binding. This section shall not prevent any 
Society from acting on Its own responsibility. 

article m. 

fiECTtoif I. No trade shall be entitled to mors 
than three votes on any question that directly 
affects the material interests of any trade Moclety. 

Hie. 2. All trades or s«K*ietics represented shall 
be entitled to three delegates. 

Sec. ft. Any society having three or mors 
branches shall be entitled to one delegate lot 
each branch. 



AET1CLB IV. 

Section L Any trade society represented In 
this council that may desire material aid, shall 
state their cm*« to this council, and, If epproved 
by the delegates, shall bring the matter la-fore 
Ui r rvrqariive oi gu»d<tui»oUM for luiAiiixiiata 
action. 

aeticlb v. 4 

Bection I. It shall bo the special duty of this 
council to u*e the united strength «>f all the 
societies represented therein, to compel all non- 
union n»cn and “Mils” to conform to, and obey 
the laws of, the society that they should properly 
belong to. 

8kg. 2. It shall be the duty of any trade or 
labor society to u ae every lawful means to In- 
duce all non-urdou men or aca)»o to Income 
members of their respective unions and any 
trade society failing in their fust effort«, shall 
bring the matter befora this council throng* 
their delegate*, with all the facts In the oa*e, 
with the names of the men. if possible, where 
employed, and the name of the employer, the 
same to be presented In writing with the signa- 
ture of the president of the society affected, 
when this council shall take Immediate action In 
the matter, and. If de« ined ad vi nable, this council 
Bsay, by a two-third* vote of the delegatee then 
present, forming a quorum, order a withdrawal 
of any or all trad«*« or societies who may be on 
any building where said non-union men or 
seal *9 may I») employed. This order shall be 
carried Into effect through the agency of the 
walking delegatee of the various societies. 

article n 

Bw-noif 1. All societies represented In this 
council »1 »ail pay the «Mim of two dollars each pet 
month. 

aeticlb tu. 

Section 1. On demand of a uuton represented, 
a general strike shall I* ordered to reinstate a 
Dumber or members who liava struck and si* 
refused employment on that job that was struck. 

Hbul % Any walking del«*g«de or delegates of 
any society ordering a strike without the con- 
sent of this council. The trade lm represents shall 
be held n**|Mmntble for the wag«« of the men on 
strike. This shall not prevents delegate from 
ordering a strike of the timmhets of the wa-lety 
he reprt-JM'Dl* to adjust its own internal affairs 
without the assistance of thi* council. 

Hbo. 3. M« mln-ni of a union according from ft 
parent organl/nllon and forming a s«*|»aratcunkM» 
shall be excluded from U»Uc«»iii»cll. 

Hbo. 4. All branches of a union shall demand 
the same wages and the same hours of labor. 

abticlb vin. 

Bettion 1. When the nu mbers of two unions 
represented In this council work at the same 
trade, It shall be unlawfhl for on# to take the 
pLaoe of the other when on strike» 

article il 

8ETTIOB 1. No society or branch of a society 
•hall bo allowed to strike more than one em- 
ployer at a time, «irdes* there are two or moss 
employers ou the same job. 



ARTICLE X* 



Section 1. Two-tl»tnls of all the trades repre- 
sented In this council * hall farm a quorum. 

ÖKO. L It shall take two week«’ notice of mo- 
tto»» and iwo-thlrds majority le alter er aaeeed 
say article ef thto •oJurtks 



1 






U 



5 

i 

1 






12 



THE CARPENTER 







The Workman is Only a Slave. 



The workman, though hearing the Image 
Of God, Ills creator ami friend, 

Ami made to enjoy the full right« of a man, 
fa cme'ly robbed of hi« end ; 

HI* claim of asserting hin freedom 
la drowned under tyranny's wave, 

And Capital'« countenance «mile« aa It aaya 
The workman I« only a slave. 

We hoaat of our civilization, 

Ami sing of the progress of right, 

While liberty weeps in the darkneaa of grief 
And prays for the dawn of the light ; 
Oppression 1*« raging in madness, 

And vows it w ill dig a deep grave, 

Wherein shall he hurled the working man’« 
rights— 

The workman ia only a slave. 



When masters combine in a union 
Promt Wealth loudly shouts “ It is right ' M 
Hut when combination the workman attempt* 
It irritates Capital's sight ; * 

And forthwith theaweid from the scabbard 
Is drawn, with the might of the brave, 

The organization to smite tothe ground — 

The workman is only a slave. 

Blot out from the page of our country 
The name of Al>e Lincoln, who died 
A martyr to " freedom for all men as men,'' 

The son of America’s pride ; 
llis hones must be shaking with anger. 

Though lying to day In the grave. 

Ami threaten deep vengeance against the false 
cry— 

The workman is only a slave. 

The Statue of Lila*rty blushes 

Ami prays that It quickly may die— 

That stands on the step of America's door, 
Hecausc it proclaims a foul lie : 

If Heaven would answer the prayer 
That's heard within sound of the wave, 

The scandalous libel would cease to exist— 

The woikman Is only a slave. 

The tongue of divine retribution 
Though silent, will speak before long. 

In words that will scatter the workingman's 
foes, 

And substitute right for the wrong ; 

The forces of justice are waking, 

The workingman's freedom to save. 

Ami soon will proclaim In unquestioning tones— 
Tbe workman Is mors than a slave 
Piihbnrgh, Pa. J Tw vhoiv Ion aa. 



Cain. 



IOHK (iROZ. 




VERY army in its 
line of battle rest« 
on a key, a certain 
position which, if 
lost, necessitates the 
formation of a new 
line. That implies 
an army with some- 
thing of a good gen- 



eral at it* head. 
That does not apply to an army of crude 
Bavagsfi, nor to a mob or mass of people 
in sudden revolt against oppression etc. 
Well, we reformers are lighting against 
the best organized army that ever existed 
under the solar disk, and commanded by 
the shrewdest general that is possible to 
conceive. The name of that general ia— 
Monopoly. The army is composed of 
people of ail claasee, in all social condi- 
tions, rich and poor, wise and ignorant, 
good and wicked,— all united by sel- 
fishness and greed in this or that form, 
open or masked, unconsciously some- 
times, but not the less effectual on that 
account. 

Monopoly itself is nothing but greed 
and selfishness embodied in human laws, 
and ao clothed with a mask of righteous 
ness or respectability. Monopoly is then 
organized sin, sogar coated iniquity, 
made palatable to a great many people 
who woQld otherwise reject it with the 
utmost indignation. Few men are fond 
of sin when left naked with all its natural 
repulsi Yenees. It is therefore the hidden 
•ins which are most fatal, because diffi- 
cult to apprehend. 



We are then face to face with a big job, 
face to face* with an army magnificently 
intrenched, organized and led. That 
army can only he crushed, or seriously 
defeated, like every other, by a careful 
analysis of its line, so as to find the 
key on which it rests. This should be 
the preliminary step before a general 
attack is undertaken. Once the key has 
been discovered, then we should proceed 
with our general arrangements, they all 
to he centered on the capture of that key. 
That is we should pour upon that key all 
the elements and strength at our com- 
mand, and not to waete our time or 
powers of attack against any secondary 
position hut in so far ae more or less 
intimately connected with the key, or for 
the purpose of keeping the enemy at bay 
along the line of battle. Even the latter 
predicament may he unnecessary in our 
case, because, as we said, the army and 
general against which we are fightiDgare 
excellent in shrewdness and skill. They 
already know the only process by which 
they can he defeated, and will defend 
their key to the bitter end with the cour- 
age of despair. 

The key in question is embodied in the 
answer that Cain gave to God when 
asked, — II here is Abel thy Brother t We 
know what the answer was— Am I my 
Brother'* keej*r t 

By those words Cain asserted that be 
did not consider himself his brother's 
keeper or in any way conducive to the in- 
timate relations with which brothers 
should live, if their social compact is to 
rise above that of wild beasts in the 
jangle. God seems to have viewed the 
matter somewhat differently from Cain. 

That question of God, 41 where is Abel 
thy brother,” is no doubt replete with 
significance. It is the question that God 
has been asking ever since to men and 
nations. And the answer of nations and 
men has always been the same — ‘ Am I 
my Brother’s keeper?” We refer of 
coarse to the fundamentals of human 
existence. Take for instance the almost 
universal fact that we have always said, 
and say to-day : Why should we, the 
elder brothers, the first comers, the wisest 
of the lot, why should we make laws of 
equal justice and equal freedom giving 
to all men and all generations equal rights 
to the possession of the earth? Why 
should we not keep the earth to our- 
selves, the best portions anj how, since 
we came first, or happen to have a little 
more talent than some of onr brethren? 
Why should we not have thoee brethren 
under tribute, as long as we let them re- 
tain enough, out of what they produce« 
to keep body and soul together, for 
awhile? 

I*t us remember that Cain was the 
first born, the elder brother, and he was 
just the one who killed the younger 
brother, the second comer ; jealous of 
Abel for using the land as pasture for 
his fiocks, and in being unconscious 
that he should have to buy the land from 
Cain, or pay any land rent to him for 
the privilege of using the planet to make 
a living from. 

Of course God could not accept ( Ain’s 
offering, the frnita of the land, when he 
considered himself The Land Ixml, and 
was jealous of Abel, unwilling to deal 
with him ae a brother, and hence un- 
willing to let him have equal right to 
the lands from which all human needs 
and comforts are to come ! Of course no 
real brotherhood is possible as long as 
we condemn eone men to live and die 
according to the conditions that other 
men may fix, because claiming to be 
landlords, and with power to say how 
much they shall receive from land rents 
or land sales. 

You can therefore notice that every 
civilization resting on land monopoly is 
a proclamation of the words of Cain, and 
thus it repudiates the conception of 



human brotherhood as emphatically as 
Cain did after he had killed Abel. The 
form with which we now assert that we 
are not our brother’s keeper, may be 
lees open than that of Cain. But, if any 
thing it is far more criminal, because 
carried by wholesale in its general fatal 
results over millions of brothers in all 
our so called Christian nations, century 
after century, just as if human history 
was not intended to teach us any higher 
duties towards each other, just as if 
human life, in the mind of God, was to 
he hut a mere straggle of despair ; some 
men forever preying on the rest through 
the legislation of land robbery ! 

Look at the objections by most men 
presented to any fundamental reform, 
and the inevitable results through 
which some people always manage 
to become very wealthy, while others 
are forever sunk into poverty. That 
is hut Cain’s modern presentation of— 
“Am I my brother’s keeper?” Why 
should I bother myself about laws of 
equal rights, when laws of privilege suit 
me very well, and keep me in clover? 
That ia tbe monopolist point of view in 
life, or that of the fellows who expect yet 
to become wealthy through laws of mon- 
opoly and privilege. For such people 
the divine conception of human brother- 
hood is never to be an actual fact, never 
to he interlinked with our social, politi- 
cal or industrial relatione. It must 
remain a mere sentiment, to be preached 
on Sandays, but never to he realized on 
week days. 

Human brotherhood means — E»/ual 
Right*, if it means anything ; just the 
kind of rights repudiated by class legisla- 
tion and laws of monopoly, to day more 
than ever before. 

Equal Rights is then the motto under 
which we must march, and with which 
we must attack and capture the key of 
the enemy in front, that army under 
monopoly rule we have been talking 
about, that civilization which pretends 
to have realized all divine ideals because, 
possibly, we are not quite as had ae men 
may have been 3,00o years ago in the 
worst periods of human history. And 
yet, we should remember that sin is 
nothing hut a relation between what we 
may do and what God expects us to do, 
because of the gifts and inspirations He 
may send ns. Hence, for all we know, 
perhaps we are to day, in God’e eyes, 
the most sinful set of men that ever 
lived ! 

Be that as it may, our redemption and 
manhood can only come from a social 
status asserting that each one of us is his 
brother’s keeper, individually and col- 
lectively. Hence each one of us should 
work for social righteousness, and pro- 
claim the need of systems of taxation 
and monetary methods respecting Equal 
Freedom and Equal Justice ; thus repu. 
diating all special privileges to individ- 
uals and corporations. As a matter of 
fact, we should not have any other cor- 
porations hut the Nation and Vu Munici 
j*ality. Either that, or a < iovernment by 
corporations as we now have in these 
days more than ever in the history of 
humanitv, relatively and absolutely, in 
all forms and respects. We don’t see 
how that can he disproved. 



This world was not made that the 
rich might enjoy themselves while the 
poor toiled and suffered. On such terms 
society wae not allowed to exist. The 
film of habit on which it rested would 
burst through, and hunger and fnry 
would rise up and bring to judgment 
the unhappy ones whose basinets it had 
been to guide and govern, bat who had 
not guided and had not governed.— 
Carlyle . 



Things to be Remembered. 



Titrick months In arrears subjects a mend« r tc 
loss of benollts. 



Htkaiiv attendance at the meetings gives Ufa 
ami Interest to the Union. 



Mkmrkkh going olf to another city nhouM I« 
provided with a clearance card. 

Al.r. local treasurers should ho under bond* and 
the IkiimIh filed with tlio president of the I.. U, 

T rustic xh' reports should I** prepared *« ml. 
annually and forwarded to the CL H. Blanks nr« 
'urnlahcd free for that purpose. 

All change« In Secretaries should Ih> promptly 
re | io rt cd to the <L H. , and name and addrcnnol 
he new Secretary should bo forwarded. 

Oroanizr the Car|>cntcrfl In the li Morgan I /» d 
town* in your vicinity, or wherever you tun.' *„♦ 
Hold public meetings or social fcwii valw at stated 
occasions , they will mid to the strength of your 
Union. 

Lkttkr« for the General OOlce should I»« 
written on olllcai note paper and hear the 
of the Local Union* Don’t write letter« to tl»« 
G S, on monthly re|«»rt blanks, as mich com in u* 
ideations are not In proper shapo 

All Monfys received by the O. R one mot, tli 
are published in the next month’s Journal. 
Moneys received c»n not l»e puhii«hc<i In tj,fa 
lotirnal the same month they are received. It 
takes some time to make up the report and nut 
It Into type. 

Tub only safe way to send money 1« by Post 
Office Money Order or by Blank Check of Draft 
«« required by t lie Constitution. The G. * fa 
not rcpotialbir for money sent In any other way. 
Don't send loose cash or |x>«tago stain pe In ti*yi 
meut of tax or for any bill due tbe U. 8. 



RULES RE6ARDIN8 APPRENTICES. 

At the Detroit Convention of the United 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiner* of Amar* 
lea, held Aug. 8-11, 1HKH, the following ml«« In 
relation to apprentlrv* were approved, and tbs 
Local Unions are urged to secure their enforoa 
ment: 

HVmu. The rapid Influx of unskilled and to. 
competent men In the carpenter trade ha* had, 
of late year«, a very depressing and Injurious 
effect upon the mcchani«« In the biiMlnens, and 
ha« a tendency to degrade the standard of skill 
and to give no encouragement to young men to 
l>ecoino apprentice*« ami to master the trails 
thoroughly; therefore, io the »H*«t interest« of tbe 
craft, we declare ourselves In favor of the follow* 
lng rules: 

Rntioi 1. The Indenturing of apprentice« U 
the l«-*t means calculated to give that efficiency 
whirl) it Is dr«irahle a c*r|»cnU*r should 
and also to give the ncceeeary guarantee U> ths 
employers that wune return will I«* made to them 
for a pro|»er cflbft to turn out comt**U»nt work- 
men, therefore, we direct that all Local Union« 
under our jurisdiction shall use every perns! !»!• 
means, wherever practical, to introduce the ay» 
tern o! indenturing apprentices. 

Her. 2. Any boy or person hereafter engaging 
himself to learn the trade of car|M*iitry, «hall I« 
required to serve a regular apprentices!)! oof four 
ooDHecutive year«, and «hall not he considered • 
Journeyman unle«s he has complied with this 
rule, and Is twenty-one years of age at the com- 
pletion of hi« apprenticeship. 

fliw\ S. Al. 1 h»> s entering the car|>cnter trad« 
with the Intention of learning the ImsincMs shall 
be held hy agreement, indenture or written con- 
tract for a term of four years. 

Sac. 4. When a l>oy shall have contracted with 
an employer to serve a certain term of years, h« 
•hall on no pretence whatever, leave said em- 
ployer and contract with another, without the 
full and free consent of «aid llrst employer, un- 
less there I« ju«t cause or that such change la 
made In Consequence of the death or relinquish- 
ment of biislnc*«« by the first employer ; any ap- 
prentice so leaving shall not be |*erri)ittcd to 
work under the jurisdiction of any Isxml Union 
In our Brotherhood, hut shall he required to re- 
turn to his «mplcyer and serve out his apprsn* 
tlceshlp. 

Hso. t. It Is i v 'olned upon each Local Union to 
make reguiatic is limiting the number of ap- 
prentice« to lie employed In each shop or mill U> 
one for such number of Journeymen a« may 
seem to them Ju«t; and all Unions are recom- 
mended to admit to membership apprentice« I» 
the last year of their ai>prentloc«hlp, to Uie SMc 
that, upon the expiration of their term* of ap- 
prenticeship, they may l»eoome acquainted with 
the workings of the Unions, and **e letter fitted 
to appreciate Us privileges and obligations opes 
WO nr lag fuJl nr»*»rh*r*ht® 



RXTATL CLKftKf LABEL. 

This is s foo-slsall* of 
Die badge worn by all 
members of tbe He tall 
Clerk«' National Protect- 
ive Association of ths 
United States. Bee that 
all salesmen and clerks 
waar this badge and you 
may be sure they are 
solos SIIL 




PATENTS 



Promptly 



•eon red. Trade- Mark«. Copyrlgbt* 
• registered. Twenty-five years ex- 
V, *port 

INOTOM, 0.0, 



e 



i 




V 



THE CARPENTER. 



0u<ttni<fir*la»<l 
Dtefel £abd to 




aUcn 8<itung## uni ra* 
bcrcn Drudartriten fret# 
toenbct, totUbe in b«d* 
f$tn Union # Drucf ertini 
bergcfteQt tocrbtn. 



Unionen gegenüber tfteilnaftmlo« unb ablelj* 
nenb oerbalten, fo ift bie* nerfeftrter, Iran!» 
batter ggoiämu«, ber roeber jum ©eil ber 
«rbeiterfaibe, noth jum ©orttjeil bet belref • 
fenben Union gereuet. ffiürben benn bie 
betreffenben Unionen bie Sortbeile, bie fte 



BUT UNION HADE HOODS 



Ilia an old, well-established principle of the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters for member* 
to buy Union Label Good« in preference to 
other articles. And why not? If we ask fall 
wages for our labor, why should we buy goodr 






(For Our Herman Members.) 
Mud Buffalo. 



errungen,- Tür jere «rbeit«)eit unb botyere m*de at unfair wages by other». 



BÖ&ne -genieften, toenn ni<$t bie Watbt ber The Union Label In every Induetry I* a guai 



tint., i* • rtta.be. 

* •• 1 a n rcT-w M L L f . nm !A ' W W . r * 



«uff a lo, 91. ©.,7. «pril 1895. 
SBertber ©ruber «leffluite ! 

©iermit fenbe icb 3bnen einen Meinen ©e» 



, , . . - . • auu uinvii «awi v vi . 

f)ätte V 2Diltben bie Ulltfllwber ber bettef* We here give a facsimile of the Union Isibek 



^CC/S TE.B^ 



UNION MIDI BATa. 

This Label l* About 
an Inch and a half 
square and Is printed 
Jk/y^A on buff oolored paper. 
jBA y^A It Is placed on every 
union made hat be 
e I f or ® H leaves the 
fWtF/vy-/ workman's hands. 
Wgy If a dealer takes a 
label from one hat 
snd plaoes It tn 
EW* another, or has any 



fenbett Union nidjt ^eute roieber in ib* flii^e* so our members may know Union Label good/ detached labels In his store, do not buy from him 



red 9li<f>t« jurütfftnlen, roenn fte ifolirt ba» 
ft«ben mürben? Died ift nur ein ©eifpiel 



and make It a point to ask for them. 



as his labels may be counterfeit, and his bats may 
be the product of scab or non-union labor. 



ri'bt über untere Sage im Carpenter.Wefcbäft J ^ b „ So , ibatilät , bie 

m ©uffalo, »elften ©teroo$l fo gut fein »er. 3ntfreffen9emeinj< * aft , bet ® e ift ber inter» 

Lam iimW « vm n 1 C e* *■ a iv ♦ <* r * 1 nern ffjwi* v no 



AMERICAN FEDERATION LABKL. 



ben unb im näftften „Garpenter" ceröffent» nationolen 8tübet i i( *feit. erringen ben Sr. 



lichen. 

©ier in ©uffalo ift unter ©efdfäft fo f(©le<©i 
unb bie Böbne (o niebrig, baft nur noch 12— 
18 Gent« bie ©tunbe bejablt roirb, unb ba< 
bei ftnb bie Beute fo bumm unb feben niefit 
ein, baft fte nur in einer ftrammen Drganifa« 
tion iftre Sage oetbeffern tonnen. Untere 



beitem ©ortbeile in bet ©egenroart, ftftern 
ihnen ben Sieg in ber 3ufunft. (©.-« »3 ) 




h I ^ 



Srbeiter=©ufletin 



'"''ttk ■’ • l J'' 

01 L 



This Isabel 1* used on all 
goods made by Union men 
connected with Union# 
Affiliated with the Amerl 
can Federation of Labor 
where auch unions hav# 
no distinctive trade labe' 
of their own. This labe 
Is printed on white paper 



UNION map» wurm 



T s*t# ~ 



9 



Unfcr nationale# bureau für Arbeit#* 



Union Wo. 855 agitirt immer flott roe#. So ©tatiftif in BJaWngton roirb mit beginn be# 
haben mir roieber am Montag ben 1. Upril n&4flen ftidcalja^re# ein alle jroei donate 
eine große SRaffenoerfammlurg oeranfialtet, erf^einenbe# „Bulletin für 2lrbeiter«Änge* 
welche fe&r gut befugt roar, benn roir Ratten legenb<iten" $erau#geben, für welchen 
biefe Meeting eine Söoche oorher bur<h große ^ cr iüngfte Ser. Staaten Kongreß f^OOO 
Slafate befannt gemacht unb gute Webner bewilligt hot Xiefeo Sulletin wirb 




(BIOIBTKUD* 



UNION SNNAP 

This Is tbs label of Ihc 
m Journeymen Bakers and 
& Confectioners, under thsli 
International Union. II 1» 
i printed on white paper In 
black Ink and Is pasted or» 
each loaf of bread. It mean# 
^ death to long hours and low 



The above Label Is Issued by the Iron Molden' 
Union of North America and can be found on all 
onion made stoves, ranges and Iron castings. II 
le printed In black Ink on white paper and pasted 
m all union made stoves, images mad castings. 



TACK MAKERS' LABIL. 



waren anroefenb. 

®enoffe W. Sleß non ber Gigarrenmadjer* 
Union befprach bie traurige Sage ber Gar* 
pettier. Unter anberem tagte Webner, roie 



100 DttaO’Seiten ftarf fein unb fachti<h e wages In bakers' slave pens underground. 

©eriibt« übtr bie Sage b«r «rbeitet in alien CiflON Ant> , Bom 

Staaten unb Bänbetn enthalten. 9lebnli<be — r.w. 

©uDetin roetben bereits non ben ©egietun» 



es fomme, baft bie Garpenter fo f<b(«btc * n Gnglanb. Jranfreitb unb 9leufeelanb 
Böhne hüll*” 8*8*n anbete organiftrte 9lrbei« b«rondgegeben. 



ter unb ob fte nicht gerabe fo gute W«bani!er . .„ 

roaren alb bie anberen. 3ut felben 3eit for* Ät,n *. te 8'««nbe, er oien e 3 ee ift “““-“77-» — 7- 

berte «ebner aüe biejenigen auf, toelcbe noch « le ^ ^ erl, fl unb « t ® a »>l ,net au8 b,m 3 ^ 00 ^ »“ every >oot * n<1 ! Th, T«k Maker.- urn 

niffct tur Union a»börlen ft* bertelben anm> ber 3 eit entfprungen ; alle JUformatoren by tiiloe men. It guarantee* tte booU an4 orK>nllKlioll ln Ameri< » 

ntept §ur union geporten, ltcp OCrielOrn an^U* ... r w C nt « *boes are not convict or prison made. 

Tiitnn Wn.h#r anrhnrfl bn« h<*&«n für »uftühter, «uflüteflUr, §e|er, für ^ IW4. Alwveisthe label 

«"*• *'*»"•" » * • • i * t T- ft u« a “ D “ to 

benbeit erlebigte unb reifen ©eifaü erntete. au ^ J u j? fJJJ , - 00 m uti 

©ierauf fab ich mich oeranlaftt, alt ©rüft» rotl ^ f b,e fut J ,baten ® ‘ ber,p *J e “ n,,r * r <Ü Ni I O nTBRBcA BLL> . uthority of th. 
bent ber Union 355, einige SBorte an bie 3«ftänbe aufbeden unb barnacb ftteben. f« i»«*rnaii.nui 

... riA ^M forbsrtr Ä u oetbeffern. G# gtebt eben tmmer noch Typographical 

»nroejenoen ju richten. *»uei ft yoroe i . . , «w«*. n.<» n . n< i A nk« n*arm^n Tvnnvi«nhi#. Tb# 



This Is the Joint Label of Ihe 
Boot and Shoe Workers’ Inter 
national Union and of Ihe 
I am ter*' Protective Union and 
all other union men in Ihe 
Boot and Shoe trade. II Is 
printed ln blue Ink and pasted 
on every boot and shoe made 






UNION rmiNTRRS’ LABEL. 

This Label Is 
m, m i lMU °d under 
\ LA , BEIL/ authority of th# 

Interna tl on el 
Ty pogr a p hloa} 



The Tack Makers' Union is the oldest labor 
Organization in America. It was founded In 
1924. Above is the label placed by the Bodety 
on every package of Union made tacks* 



Mtbner alle biejerigen auf, ft 4 1« erbeben, f'.“ 1 '’ J ,a f “““ 

toelcbe nicht jur Union gehörten, n,a8 fte be» ^ a « en ® tl »«.«fluffung irre machen affen 
reitmtüigft »baten, g« roaten etwa 10 9li«bt» unb baoot «Freden fm unb unentwegt 
Union.fieute anmefenb. ©itrauf erflärte «uSjubatren m ftampfe für fBabrbet» unb 



Beute, bie ftcb burch frembe« Urtbeil ober Union end of the Germ*n Typogrmphl*. The 
tagen mit ©eeinfluffung, irre ma 4 en taffen ^^SLn^T-'l 
unb baoor etfwreden, fret unb unentwegt Ä printing work u done. 

_ m f. f et ftn.t_l.li W r 



^yruNiosXl 






«ebner, baft e« am 1. «pril 1889, fomi» ge« 



«echt, troft aller Ulacbinalionen unb 9lnf#in* 



BLÜk LiBKl. CTOAI*. 



«.w«,, «■»«-«« .«-s ss~s- ~* 



Buffalo', mlatjen unb fi4 ftotf fl*nu, fü,I. »“‘""'ff* “* u " fc 

un, traun,. Vafl« ettua. |u beff.rn, un ti.Hu.uf.n muff.n t,,M S.dlt 8'««» »« 
eink uiuj.n unb bi. »f.ünbi„ B,b,i»,.it U«,mdMl«fc.t. b.. M*l> ««««".“• :««'• 







This label Is printed In black ink on light blue 
paper, and Is panted on the clgar-boz. Don’t 



<T>n6 hi* sw# bie fiuityit ß<flen bic Rncchtfchaft octthei* 

erlangten. Daft bte Beute aber glaubten, ( ©udibrudet» Leitung ) Tht. Übel l* printed ln bleck tnk on light blue 

UUe# JU ^aben unb bfr Union bfn S^ücfen 1 * ' paper, and is panted on Die cigar- box. Don’t 

fehrten, fo baß efi folglich ih re Schulb . . **' . n-; A „r*„*. ;a mlE it up with the U. 8. Revenue label on the 

hi. bub auKnblMH« f. Wh*tt Mbm b.. »« .».»«.» »“'l* 6 ' If', b.,-,u.l.,.,l. u«rt,.,..„,,« »to,. »- 

' u . 4 Li rK r„ Äi* #1 ofi*r mi#w baß m ©hop#, mo ^lcht»Umonlcute befehaf* that the Cigar Makers’ Blue label appear* on tha 

* ^ tigt ftnb, barnacb |U trachten, baft biefe ftcb bo* from which you eerved. It Insure« you 

flU cJü a< 6 tn ' « e ü nru f ' 4beiUmon mebet ihrer refpeftioen Drganifation anfiblieften, <w»in.tchineMm*docig*™*nd tenement m*d* 



The label of the German printer* «rill h* tnnJ 
•a page 15, la our German department 
Thera arm labels also for these trades t Tk* 
Coopers, Journeymen Barber% Bona Collar 
Makers, Elastlo Web Weavers! International 
Furniture Workers and Hardwood Finishers 



anfiblieften mürben. 

' " , ...... . , . . ober tm SBeigerungSfaHe bafur emtreten 

3ume<bluffe lann .dj berichten, baft bte . . mitfT , n 



•gainst Chinese made cigars and tenement made 
foods. 



LASTBBS' LABEL. 



«leeting ein grofter Grfolg roar unb feftr ju 
empfehlen roäre für unfere 6cbroefter»Union8, 
jumal bier in ©uffalo. G8 roäre ieftt ^eit, 
oom IBinterfcblaf aufjuroacben. 

©rcbe «iann machten gum Scbluft Jlppli« 
lation gur mitgliebfdiaft. 

3eicbnet acbtungeooH 

G bad. SB. Ullrich, 
©räftbent Union 355- 



baft biefelben ben ©bop »erlaffen müffen. 
fieiber müffen roit conftatiren, baft ba ©iele* 
faul ift, unb abermal« ftebt man oor ber 
traurigen ©flicht, mit bem 91 © © ber ®e< 
roerlfcbaftdberoegung angufangen. 



AUTHORITY •# 









Somethin? for Carpenters to Read I 



N gOAflS /' 

'»or» 



m 



^ N0 Msr£° 



Id IAK1U uiliunn mm *vi* ...t?.« 

juterenrn louoarifch« yc*r*, it has grown t<> »umi 

Unions In over 6J0 cities, a 

Die 3ntereffen oDer «rbeiter ftnb foliba» few' price. *nd bi»tch 

tifeb, bie «rbeiter ftnb gegroungen, vereinigt work: iu*imi«to*ocour^»w,h*r *und»rd 
für ihre «echte gu fämpfen. gin «rbeiter, 4p^!,uco' ByltimJ *11? u»’ «id *Tid* Uni mi' the 

... _ . 1 r . . i : i u .ui liwiinvnlpnl 



The United Brotherhood of Cnrpentere *ne ^ "T" 

Joiners of Amerlcw wan founded In Convention B**dy-tn*de Clothing, including overall* *11 
atUhlcago, Auguet 12, 18H1. At flret It h»d only j^ckeU. U not m.de under the dreaded, dies** 
12 leocal Union* and ^>42 niemliem. Now, in ten |« D ement house and sweating system. 

(hTion e ’l n *over* #J0 U.Ä S’inrffl You will And th. linen label attached by « 



|h , . , 1 Im I The iAatcra' Protective Union of America has 

pi gllisuai# ^ 1 _1 copy righted the above trade-mark, which when 

found on the sole or lining of a boot or shoe, Is s 
This Label Is the only positive guarantee that guarantee that the same Is hand lasted by union 



Beedy-made Clothing, including overalls and men. On account of the Introduction of so-called 
Jackets, Is not made uuder the dreaded, disease- lasting machines and “scab” workmen, the 



infested tenement house and sweating system. la* ter* deemed It necessary to take tills effective 

Tou will find the linen label attached by mar means to protect tbemselvee and purchasers of 
ahlne stitching to the Inside breast pocks# of the footwear from unscrupulous manuflaeutrsrs. 



jeat, on the lnslds of the buckle strap a i tbs vest 
«a4 an #b* M»lv U Ik* aaa t a 



The hand lasted shoe# and hoots are sold as 
cheap as the Inferior lasted article. 



I — - '7'- B" v’ • Appmilii'v njBti iu. , . 

bet ftcb bem groften, geroaltigen ©tteben bet S^", t b *S^,ffInS2S SSÄÄr ' ?iom 



|.-p ww... n w f n — n — means. It pays Wire r uncrai wnrm ui iruiu 

internationalen 9lrbeiteu>ereinlgung gegen» »-2» to *so ; M<-miwr'* Fun.«^ BeneiiL|ioo to 



iniunuuuiiuicii Hivtudvmiiiiuunu pin w gw, _ 

übet ifoliten roiB, auf eigene ffauft ben oe„e«i* Benefit». have i»een c* 

*ampf um« Dafein fübtt, roirb gat balb Hsu* 

etlennen, roie tböriebt er banbelt. 9tut ber* Bencftu by the Local Union*, (hu h an organl- 

V.. v.™ CK.», ration I. worthy the alto,. Hun of every C'arpen ter 



Save $50 When you Build. 



ientge ggoibmu«, ber mit bem 3beali«.nu« Th, BrotherhVod U aiM . irot^ti ve *Tr*de 
ibentifeb ift unb ber ba MUet : „Da« tm* ^ 



Hicks’ Builder#* Guide 



— rf raised the wa^es in see cine*, ana piucw rive 

Snberer ift mein ® lücf, meine fceityeit fann and a Half Million Dollar» more wages annually 
; . . . - tn Wi o a :* In the DOOkets of the Carpenters In thoee dtlee. 

ub nur erlangen, tnbem ub für bie ftret^ett u reduced the hours of labor to 8 hour» adaym 



«Der route," ift aHein naturgemäft unb vet» vhlch iubi'iel^thel 

nünftig. Da« ©lücf be« arbeitenben ©olle« or »-hour «yaU-m on Hatimlay*. By thla nicana 
m ;.h h.„ K.V tIPilfiAnXv. h.r 12.1W morel men have Kf^.ederoployment Tht* 



roirb ben 3ntereffen bet ©ItHionäre, ber re8 uTt of thorough or K ani«ation. And yet 

©cblemmer unb ©raffet, ben ©cbroinblern .^^Äb^hTTIÄ 

unb ©aunern aUerXrt, geopfert ; bie Urbei- it 1» nota*ccr*t oath hound organisation, ah 

A.a. e.Ai ..mW k»a «in. «A 4 competent Carpenter» are eligible to Join, and 



ter ^aben ba# Redit unb bie $fli(*t, ba« Sff^S^uon^yä 1 ftS^« 1 
iftnen oorentftaltene Bebenlalüct mit allen 

ihnen äU ®ebote ftebenben Sü affen JU errin* l» a branch of the BroUierhood: the due* are but 
an :rr_ ir-n small In comparison with the beneflU, and It If 




comprising an easy and practical system of est! 
mating material and labor for Carpenters, Con- 
tractor» and Builder». A comprehensive guide to 
thoee engsged In the various branches of the 
building trade. It savee time, money and mis- 
takes 160 pages, 114 Illustrations, doth bound. 
Price, |1K 



gen. 2Benn geroiffe Urbeiterorganifationen | ^ 
ft4 ben ©efttebungen unb «ingen anbeter , ft** t** 1 * 



I. P. HICKS, 

Iku 37, HUtioo A, Onutlut, Neb. 



The Building Budget and 
Kverybody*# Asalstant 

contain» the practical experience of over 60 build- 
er» right to the point on all subjects relating to 
calculations on materials, labor and proper con- 
struction, Prioe 60 cents. 

Hick#* Vest Pocket Guide, 

A memorandum, time hook, price current, and 
bandy reference. It Ticklis. Hent free for the 
asking. Don’t ml as It. 

I. P. HICK8, Box #7, Station ▲, Omaha, Neb. 
Bend order at onoe. 








14 



THE CARPENTER. 



l&ifer 

Mi 



ms 






ALABAMA 

99. Moriij Hutchinson, 1 0 J'J Go vet u ment at, 
93. “ (Ool.) W. G. I Asw 1 m, 761 St. Louts st 

ARKANSAS 

669. Hot Springs- Walter Mtaire, 318 Market nt. 
683. Pinn BLUFF— J. K Walker. 67G s. state «I 

CALIFORNIA 

833. 1/0*4 A NGELBh H. Gray. Hoi 224. 

646 Pahadkna — Gen. W. Reed, Box *Ü1ft. 

38). Riverside— Flia*. Hamilton, 4th and Km. h- 
lypiiu* ave. 

Ha 5 Francisco— Seen tary of IHnt. Council, 
.1 K NeNwender, 1 16 Turk hi. 

33. N. L. Wandel I, 23 Ninth at. MU. B 
804 (Ger.) Win. Jllge. 2231'* Mission street. 

483. Guy lathrop, 116 Turk st. 

816. Haw Joe»- K. K. Crews, 6% H 3d st. 

86. Han Uakakl K. Scott, Box 673. 

336. Hawta Barhata-K. A. Smith, 1429 Costello. 

CANADA 

98. Halifax , N H. -A. Nortöup, 169 Morris st 
18. Hamilton— W. J. Prld. 26 Nelson at. 

194 I/ONDON— K. J Auat, 706 DiiimIrm st. 

184. Mostkkal— (Fr.) H. i*eve1lle, 240 Logan it.. 
3d 6*1 at. 

876 “ H. T Holland. 36 Kent a t. 

88. Hr. (’athahinfs -Henri Raid. I/OuIha it. 

37. Toronto— D. I». McNeill, 288 Hamburg av®. 
•17. Vanuouvkr B. C.— L. G. Doldge, 23| liar 

rie nt reel. 

648. Winnipeg. Man.— K. Bell, 70 Schultz nt. 

COLORADO 

MO. OOLORAlK> City— G. F. Hamll. 

•15. Colorado Spgs.— C. Gelnaler.33 Franklin st. 

M. lUNVKii U. M. Wood-, 2253 Logan ave. 

410. PUMELO— J. B. Hariiier, 626 W. 14th st. 

46 TRINIDAD— K. C. Pierce, 631 N. Commercial 

CONNECTICUT 

115, Bridgeport— C har lea Walfctna. 50 Alice at. 
48. HABTroUi>-Wm A. Nellnmi 32 Wooster *t 



157. HiDtiHTILLB'I H. White 
60 Indianapolis — (Oer.) II F. Bmmlt, 100 S. 
Linden at 

181. ** II. K. Travis, 272 Brookahlc ave, 

446 " J M. Pruitt. 328 Proa peel at. 

215. LAFAYETTE— H. G. Cole, 387 South at 
78.1. " (Ger ) Jacob Klierlc. 133 Union at. 

744 I AVGArnpowT— J L. SehrtM’k . 731 Kieventh at. 
*WV5 M a hion — J ■ M Simons 609 Sherman nt. 

592 MuncIB J. D. Clark. 715 Kirby av. 

19 New Alhany A. T. Smith, 1*4) W Mth at. 
756. Rich MOND— J efferson Fox. 527 N. 19th street. 
629 South BEND — Geo. I.eslier. Box 65h 
48 Tkrrk Halte -H. Hutteu. 312 H. 14th at 
668 V INC'KNN wa A ll. Pennington, HIM N St 1 1 at 
«31. Wabash K IV Macy, Box 813, 

IOWA 

534. Burlibgton Win. Uull, 1115 Kllzatieth at 
5M 1 ** vpn port — W F. Meyers. 924 Harrlaon at 
68. I>i-> M oinks A V. Sway no. 753 Oak si . 
h78 Drmqux M H. Hogan 299 7th at 
(48. Oskaloosa J. H. Parker, S. I at ft. 

767. Ottumwa — A. Mellla, 223 N. Davis at., H. H. 

KANSAS 

499 I ka FEN WORTH -44. McOau 1 1 v.6th A Seneenata. 

I 58 Topeka -l\ K Gardner, 307 llaneoek at 

KENTUCKY 

712. Covington— A. Oherrlngton, 36 K. Thomaa 
785. *• (Ger ) Joe. Kanipsen. 216 W. 12th at 

641. Dayton Jos. Hen/. 34 Uhenaford -t.. Belle 
v ne 

442. Hopkinsville- WO Hall. 



I 626. l.iMNi.roN 4 i \\ Stover, 118 \\ Main st 
4 l/Oi’iaviLt.K s. W. Downard, 1712 Port- 
land ave. 

«03. " H. S. Huffman. 618 Twenty-fourth *t 

214. “ (44er.) J Schnehler, 15.38 Hrcnt at. 

729 (Car) Hutler Lee bolt, 1715 Hancock at 

698. Newport— M. McFauti. Gen. Delivery. 

JUI. Paducah • W. H. Wl I llama 7H7 H. 10th at. 

Dl WlNUffENTBE— jaa M Powell. 

LOUISIANA 

New Oki.kans -S ecretary of Dlatrlet Coun 
Hl K <4 Wetter, 2220 Josephine at 
76. D. 4\ Kcslcr. 2818 Constance at 
249. F Doering, 730 Julia at. 

704. T, Duhrkop, 4536 Annunciation at. 

739. John Halaer, 612 Vlllere at. 

45. Hh RET KPORT— Peter (4arMon. Box 83S 

MAINE 

407. Lew into N — A. M. Flagg, 94 Spring at. Auburn 
344. POBTlJkND— N F. Mi Donald 161 York at. 



49. Mkrii»kn-Goo. J. Stanley. 258 E#mt Main at 439. Rock LAUD— A. W. Smith, 6 Willow at. 



97. New Britain— J ohn Hlltpold, PO li..x 902. 
799. New Haven - -44. K. Chlpmau, 4t*6 Washing- 
ton at. 

187. Norwich— A. D. I/cwta, 94 Asylum at. 

746 Norwalk — W in. A Kellogg, Box 391. 

•10. Rockville— G eo. Diederlng 

960. W ATKKBUKY — Joaeph Sandiford, Box 680. 

DELAWARE 

40. W i lm i noton — W. P. Crawford, It 01 W. :id 

DIST. OF COLUMBIA 

190. Waehihgtoh— L. F. Burner. ’901 Hal.. N. W. 

FLORIDA 

194. Jacksonville-- (F id.) M. K Dunlap, oor. 
Jefferson and Uninn ata. 

605. Jac'Kmonvile.— W in Whiteford, eoi Slate 
and Luma ata. 

74. PKNaAC'Ol.A <4eo Marble. Ho* 71 . 

177. “ (Ool.) A H Petti way 313 K 4ftiaaest 

496 Tampa It Kdenlleld, Hoi 44 Ft Brook. 

254. Wk*t Pai.m Beac h W. V. Rushing. 

GEORGIA 

439. Atlanta K \V Hit« -brock, 92 Jett st 
im. AiniOHTA— (Onl.) T. P. Lewla, 19*9 Philip at. 
144 Mauon— J. W. Waterhouae, 1411 Third ah, 

ILLINOIS 

488. RBLLKV1I.LK -Louta Goa*, 622 Hr lato w at 
70. Bkiohton P’k— P. Puuliot, 2106 Joaepki at. 
688. CANTON -Hointr Whalen, 345 W.Faaa place. 
Uhic*Ack>— Secretary of Dlatrlet Council, 

W. K. Bowea, 49 La Halle at. 

1. Adolph Stamm 120 W. Luke at. 

II. (Freu chi P. lludon, 54 Vernon Park PI. 

0. J. H. Htevetia, 5**58 Dearborn at. 

18. Wm. Mead, 7164 S. Fhicngoave 
64. (Hohem. 1 John Hund. 53*., W. 20th at. 

73. (Ger.) Aug. Ke i ehe. 40*18 Atlantic at. 

181. (Mcand.l K Knghorg. 80 Heine at 
942. (Ger ) Theo. Deach, 5327 Union avu. 

989. Win. Hounette, 1741 N. Clark at 
418 (Ger.) Jan Hell, 1310 Van Horn at 
419. (Ger.) John Huckrati, .3263 Oakley ave., near 
83d at reel 

445. (Holl.)K F. VauateeuiMTg. 147-1 13th at. abi. T. 
621. (Stalra) Gnat. Hanaeu, 2*»8 Auatln avu. 

565. (Pollah) I. Maalak, 125 W lilaekhawk at. 

623. (Hohem )— J. KvoInjcIm, 1816 Fook at. 

679. W. 11 Phillip*. 1341 W. Polk at. 

890. (Ger.) (Mil! Bench Handa) F. H qullmeyer, 
1126 Hlmuan at. 

780. H. Friedrich. 20 Heine plain. 

741. F. l^araon. 751 Jane at. 

286. OoLLJNHVlLLM -.1 M. Sutler 
IM. JCawtHt I/OUUl-K Wrodllng.512 Illinois nv 
944. Bi^iUUiurr (Ger.l H. Hiding. P. O. Box 39 
02. Knolkwood -F. F. Nugent, 643 Fhcetinil at. 
817. Rvanmt«»K — J. F. McFcrran. 1425 Kmeraon at. 
668. Fernwooi>- 0. Huhiuan, Jeireraon, eor 103d 

680. Galbhruro -P. F. Hwhiiimmi, 731 K North at. 
141. GbdCbomuNcj -G F Atinera,7720DolmoiiMVe 
878. Hauvbv— I) O. Monte 

189. Hyde Park 44. H. liaker. 7015 Oghwby ave. 
849 Jacksonville- 44. P Garter, 742 K.( 'liAtuUn. 
484. Keekiwotob (F r.)— M. Hong. run 423 IIMh 
at. St*» T, < *h l< -ago 

880. Lake ForbnT- It. W. Doan, Itox 64 

884. I«A Hallk^-F. H KUiott. HIM Grave Clour at. 

666. Lincoln B. F Po* 627 Hlxth at 

769. Monmouth— G eo Nea1\,6l7Ko. Main at. 

10. Morklakd— J T. Ijume, 2629 Kin ale at. 

666. Oak Park-H. Boetli her, 1.38 Marengo at. 
(Harlem). 

681. Ottawa— J ohn D. Geary, 216 DeLeon at. 

2411 Peoria— I t W Hhueh. 206^ Hancock at I 
196. PKRU-Uarld George. 

1M. Qui»OT~Wm. Benner, 220 N. Front at 

160. Hoc k Ulakd— J o«. Neufeld, 477 7th at. I 

196. South Chicago— J. O. Grantham, 8023 

Kdwarda ave. Hta H., Chicago. 

786» B. Bkulkwood — I. Tnoiupaon. 8631 Morgan 
atreet Chicago 

16. BpRlKGriBLI>-J II. Freund, 1613 S Grand av. 

INDIANA 

878. Alexandria- H. W. Klchman. 

862. Akdbraon-A. M. Cooper, 69 E. Butler at. 

Ryahsvtllb— 

80. Joa. K. Wurth, 902 K. Columbia at. 

470. (Ger ) P. F. Nau. 1601 Fulton ave. 

749 (PI. Mill. Mach, and B. H.) G. V. Mann, 
1502 K Mlaaourl at 

161. Fort Watkh-A. H. Haag. 201 Taylor at 
791. Frankfort — F rank. Btrothmau, lat A South 

at recta. 



596 Watkrvillr— E. 8. Hutcnina. 13 Perclval d 

MARYLAND 

IS. Baltimore— W. H Keonan, 1137 K Payetteat. 
44. “ (Ger.) H. B. Schroeder, 506 N. Wolf at 

MASSACHUSETTS 

State IMatrlct (kiuncil— Secretary W. C. 
Dengle 237 Central Park av., Hj de Park 
33. Bontos— W. J. Shlelda. 10 Fhcahirc at., 
Jamaica Plain. 

56. •* (Juwlah.) L. Klehter, 6 Sheaff at. 

549. “ (Shop Handa) W. H. Jardluu.i Burn- 

Hide ave. , Somerville 

138. Cambrjdob— D. Maloney. 24 Huron ave. 

104. >k A. H. McLeod. 68 Mt. Auburn at. 

118 Kamt Rohton— J K Potta 228 iAuidon at. 

403. Fall Rivkb— Jaa. Walton, 6 Branch st. 

390. FlTTHBUBfi— V. Wuatherbeo, 9ti Green at 
180. Gloccdttbr— H.W.D avla. Box 443. 

82. Haverhill— P. D. Can*, luu Locke at. 

*24. H INGHAM— Colin Campbell, Box 113. 

400. HuDaoN-Geo. K. Bryant. Box 125. 

196. Hyde Park— B. Daly. 41 Garlidd at. 

111. Lawrenck — J ames Mcl^ren, 160 Water at. 

370. Lenox — J no P. Kirby, Box 143 

196. Lowell -F rank Kappler.291 Lincoln at 

108. Lvnn— M. L. Delano, 103 I/ewlaat. 

tIL Marhlkiik\i> F. Hammond. Box 100. 

154. MarlkoRO-J. O. Donohue, 21 School at. 

192 Natifk— H. P. Anuta. 1H Oakland at. 

409. New Bedford— C G Francis, 14 Spruce at. 
77«. Newton < . ConnBM. Box 71. 

124 Newton Crntkr — Fred. Bolaner, Box 7.39 
198. North Adamh— Joh Dary I4V^ Prn*|**ct at. 
08. North Eahtok— F. W Mason. Box 448 
67. Koxbubt-II. M. Taylor, Kenton st., Dor- 
chenter. 

140. Haijim— F. A. RvtttE. 1 Smith ave 
24. SOMBRVILIJH-Ira Doughty. 6 (?arlton at. 

220, So. PuAMimill am — Irwine Mank 
96. Springfield— (French) I. Ha/wettu. H*** 766 
664 ** Goo. KIiikt, 414 Central at. 

674. I'aunton- D. O. King. 10 Gen Cobb. 

216. Waltham— J ohn Venn. 

426 Weit Newton — H. F Kyan, Box «66. 

420. Weymouth— K.J. Pratt, Weymouth Heights 
13 Wobowtrr— O. D. Flake. 720 Main at. 

MICHIGAN 

421. Dwtroit— T. H. Jordan. 427 Beau fait ave. 

689. M O H. Glbbluga, 877 Heaubien at. 
760. Grand Rapidh— A ug Nelaon, 16 Mai Ion at 

J6 JAi'KaON— II. liehau. 208 Ik*yo at 
331. Kalamazoo— II. Gre* ndvk. M*h.3 N Park at 
502. LUDIROTOR— A. K. Dlbhlo, PO Bo* 596. 

4A0 MANiaTKE-Wm Hhal get. 808 Maple at 
100. Mumkmdor F K. Itidoiit, care Brakrman, 
eor Houaten und 4th sta 



MONTANA 

88. Anaconda— C. W. Starr. Box 506. 

Lift BahiK— J ohn Nelaon. 

2to. Belt— W m. K. Kiley. 
i 12. Butte ( ’ITT— H. F. Lapler, Hot 638 
386. Great Falls— A. J. Kramorton. 

W». Helena Chaa < ^alu. 810 5th ave. 

331) K AI.IM MLL-P. K. Nelaon. 

NEBRASKA 

427. Omaha— T hoa. McKay, 262^1 Franklin at. 

651. ** (Ger.) K. Kup(»ert, 2016 Martha at. 

685. “ (Dan ) J. Tolatrup, IH7.3 S. 16th at. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

283. Oonoord— Haim Larsen, P.O. Box 563. 

118. Manchester— S. Thornes, 65 Dougiaaasl 
586. POBTMMOUTH— K. C. Frye, 13 School at 

NEW JERSEY 

750. Aebubt Park— H enry P. Gant, Box 897 
486. Bayonne— S tephen Hussy, 743 Avenue K. 

I 131. Bridgeton— J. H. Keevea, 14ft Fayette at. 

20. Famden— T. K. Peterson, 337 Mechanic at. 
388 Dover — L. G. Pott. 

167. Klixabeth — H. Zimmerman, 347 Fay av. 
So. Kllxalndh. 

687. Ej.IZAHKTH— (G er.) John Kuhn. 827 Martina! 
647. KnglrwooD— S. L. Weatervelt, Hoi .326. 

'191. Hoboken — F. Steigleiter. 109 t*ar<len at. 

J65 HaceenmacK— T. Heat » 1 , 250 Slate at. 

482. Jkb/eyFity— G. Wllllaui8on,220 ' j ;hl st. 

564. (J. F Hkiuii is* John llandorf, North ft and 

Hoii'evard. 

161. liONii Branch— C has. K Brown. B<»x 241, 
Ia»ug Branch t'lty. 

232. Milburn— J. H. W’hlte. Short Hills. 

305. MiLLVii.ua- Jaa MeNeal. 

429- Montclair- T tioa. Kehoe, 9 Fulton at., P.O 
Box 24. 

638. Morristown— C. V. Deals Ixxk Box 163. 

119. Newark -Kl G. tamg. 2d) Norfolk at 

305 “ A. L. Heegle. 81 1 ^ Oiange r«t. 

723 “ (C4er.) (4 Arendt. 698 S. Mill at. 

602. Oceanic'— Zac h. T. Alas. Box 70. 

349. Orange - 

1.3 Paterson- (H oll ) Al. Meenen. 35 N Main 
325. “ P. R Van Houteu. 713 K. 27th 

490. Pahhaio— John Wood, Sherman at. 

898. PHlLLiPMBrBo Wm. Hodge cor. MnlU'rry 
ai.d Spring Garden ata., Kaaton, Pa. 

155. Plainfield -Win. H. Lunger, 94 Weatervelt 

*«5. SOMKBVILUI— W W. Pittenger 

B8. 8. Orange Kd. Walah, Maple w ood. 

456. SrMMlT — Kd ward Mart'll, Box 618. 

543. Town of Union -Ji**. Wohlfarth, Weeliaw. 

ken P O . 

81. Trenton — T. Heed, 153 Rose at. 

NEW YORK 

Albany.— S ecretary of District Council 
D P. Rlrwln. 43 Myrtle av. 

774. Jainea Finn, 337 Orange at. 

659. (Ger.) Alex. Ktckert. 416 Klk at. 

6. Amsterdam — Herbert Clark, Per kina at. 

453. AUBURN — W. W. Gillespie. 119 K. Genesee. 
131. Binghamton— C. H. Torrey, Box 993. 

Brooklyn— S ecretary of Dlatrlet Council 
T, B. Llneburgh, 890 Galea ave. 

109. M. A. Maher 61 Irving PI. 

147. W F. Gregory, 1615 Atlantic av. 

175. K. V KIUmou, 1 1**3 Putnam av 
247. Fha*. Monroe. 51 St. Mark's ave. 

258. M. Spence, 36 Van Buren at. 

391. (Gerd F Thlcinaeu, 20 Lawton at. 

381. S K. Klllott H9 Hock r way ave 
451. Wm Carroll. 792 Bergen aL 
471. Fred. Brandt, 465 6th ave. 

657. (Millwrights) W. K Kelk, 12 BuUer at 
639 Jaa. Black 269 Vd at 

Bt T FF A I/O — -Secretary of !>1atr1ct Ooundl. 

W. H. Wn ggilt. 5C Trinity at. 

9. W. H W r eg gill 56 Trinity at. 



(Ger.)H. l.uenae, 118 Koae at. 

374. E. O. Yokom, 19 Ferguaon ave. 

440. J C Weigel, 292 High at 
99. Cohorh — A. Van Arnam. 23 George at 
640. College Point. - G. A. Pickel, 5th ave« and 
Uth at 

*». Oobtlaed— K W. Fran dal 1 ,8 Maple ave 
815. Rlmira— R. M. Snyder, 761 K. Market 
•30. Fibheill-on-Hudmob — J aa. Hayes, Mat 
tea wan. N. Y. 

7)4. Flushing — F. S. Field, 154 New IaknimI at 
500. Glen Ooyb. L. I., John Martin. 

27). Glens Falls- I ra Van Duaen, 9*» Hanford at 
149. Ibyington— A lex H. Smith. Box 187. 

608. Ithaca- K. A. Wldtlng, M Auburn at. 

261. Kingwtoe— J. DeyoUhtpp, 150(’linton ave. 
«91 LITTLE FaLLS-T. H. Mangan. 529 Garden at 
493 Mt. Vernon— J. Beardsley, 131 N. 7th ave. 
801. Nbwbuhoh— D. O. Hcaly, 4« Johnson at. 

42. New Hochrllk-T Uululan 45 Drake av 
W7. Nbwtowb. L I— T H Wav Corona PO.1,1 
New York -Secretary of District Oounc'l, 
.1.0 Doyle. 233 K 201 h at 
«I. 1C. A. Itodd. 1346 ('liisholm st. 

63. Jaa J. Kane, 837 K 36th st 

64. J. U. Lounsbury, Hudson Bldg , 801 W. 37U» 
200. ( lewlab) John Goldfarb, 212 Madison at. 

309- (Ger Fab. Makers) Ixiula Becker, 225 K. 
76* h at 

840. A. Watt, Jr., 103 W. 106th at. 

T76. (tier) O. Kueehele, 2*>tf7 2d ave. 

382. H Seymour, 1300 2d ave. 

4S7. (Sean.) J. l/owander, 28 K. 1 14th at. 

464. (Ger.) H Malberger. 622 K. 156th si. 

468. J G. Doyle, 232 K 26th at. 

478. Wm. Trotter. 918 9th ave. 



OHIO 

84. Akron— J. Glass. Ill K. Thornton at. 

17. Bkllaire Goo. W. Fiirtls, Box 30. 

170. BRliaiEPORT- John A. Fawcell. 

501. IfUCT BUS— J. A Fink 

143. Canton - Keller Huff. 91 Flmilesst. 

3h6. Fhillkothk IC I". Thompson, 167 W.M k | n 
Cincinnati Nocrelaiy of District Foum p 
D P. Howland, 102 Sy mines st , Wj»' ui 
Hills 1 

2. W A Kenyon, 1 16 Sy iiiinca st. W. II. 

209. (Ger.) August Weiss, iM* Krtmuau ave. 

324. (HhfptWp)J. 5. Hamilton. Pin K. Front 
:-r/7. (Mill ) II. Brink woiih, *^6 Woodward st 
481. (Stairs) II. Ilogg 127 Milton mi 
628. A. Berger, 727 6‘ergusst., Station A. 

664. V J. Haines 39x Iknta a» e. Station C. 

667 I* J Jones, 14 K e li toil M , sta. J*. 

G76 L. A Groll, 213 Jefferson ave.. Sta. K. 

681. F. A. Wagner. 729 Kreimian ave. 

6KL Wm. Kthel, 1.341 W. lith st, 

692. J. P. Liickcy.7 Bloom si 

Flevklano Secretary of District Goum|| 
VI m^l it lllavln 158 Superior at., Boon. | / 
11. A M. Blair. 2« Say lea st 
39. (Boheiu.) V 1 1 l«i\ In 124 Farran st. 

893. (Ger.) Theo Welhrteb 16 Parker ave. 

449. (Ger.) W. 11. Nt hull/. 35 Fon rad st. 

461. II. J. Higgs, 84 Ha v Its hi. 

231. Collmok Hill M. Simons 

Columbus Secretary of District Ou i *i,i! 

J. W Met/ 21 s K Spring ft 
61. A C. W f eleh, 762 W r Broad st 
826. John Gahan. 958 Uotiard ave 
104. Dayton — W. F .Smith. 6.8 F.. Ilufliuan ai • 
346. *• (Gerd Jos Wirt!». II 1 Clover at. 

77b. Delhi — James Slattery, Home Fit v. 

338. R. IdVEKPOOL— 1C H Sieve Ilion, Pleusan* 

188. Findlay— W. Al-pa« h «28 Adams st. 

637 Hamilton W F Musch, lltl Heaton st. 

636. I RoNloN. — A I* Xcuiucyir 125 It U. sln «i 
267. Lima — J. Vanawerlngtm, 712H Main at. 

703. LiH’K la M>— F hm*. K. Hertel, Box 182 
369 MadIhonvillk I* L. Beiden, Box 201. 

356. M a uiirrTA J. W Forester *a*0 It h at 
779 Marion J. K Smith. 910 N. stale at 
14. Martin s Kerry -Tim« V Salisbury, Ito* r,s 
725. Middletown — W m. Hill. t5 Vniidevcre -.t. 
746 v T W’ahii inton W. II NliLolson. 

736. Nelsonyillb A If Mill» r 
706. Norwood - A. K. Bost I vai h.wav., 

Norwood dnelnuatt Olito 
660. Pomkroy J M Ki.w !er, Man/m City W. Va 
437. Portsmouth -J. F Waul«*«« Box 326. 

107. Handi mky -J. H. Brown. 9J3 llaiu oi k -( 

2M. Springfield W. li KnlsU y, 215 Linden ave 
186. Hte\’bknvillr-D. H. Vtrdm, 310 S. 6th *«t 
243. Tiffin— A. Welgle, 151 Syimmoreat. 

0. Toledo— J. W. Mitchell. 49 Vane at 
1 M. 41 (Ger.) A. Nepper, H24 M»»or«- at. 

171. Youn«*ktown-F. N. Frozh r, 124 Baldwin -i 
716. Zanbs^ii.lk- Fred. Kapfaw, ('eutral ava 
10th Ward, 

OREGON 

60. Poutlaed — D avid Hemloraou. Box 548. 



Hagieaw - See. of D C . O. li. Oralgan, 1420 478. W. Chamberlain 637 K 138th at. 



G« riu uiiu live. 

10 O Bovnhin 112 S. 10«h at K M 
UN (Mill) L. Maler. 181 Barnard at W S 
334 J H. Fharlebols, 9 ii N. Payette si. , W. H 
466. (Ger.) Win. Teckeutleu, 231 H I 1 1 It at , K. H 

MINNESOTA 

01 . Duluth -J. L. Ileasley, 415 6 th ave. W. 

67. St. PAUL— Aug. J. Matager, 428 Hondo at 

MISSISSIPPI 

10 . Vickjibumm— Frank Ourtla, 600 Jackaoo at 

MISSOURI 

519 Benton Station— C. Roll, 6712 Arthur ave.. 

Ht. l/outa. 

160. RAEBABtJrTY-W. A.I/oehman. 709 Moody av 
877. Springfield— J. W. Patrick, 2047 N Boone- 
vllle at. 

Ht. l/ouia — Secretary of Dlatrlet Council, 

V. S. launh, 6348 Odell uve. 

4 . Geo. J. Swank. 2124 Alice ave. 

5. (Gerd Kudolpn Oloor, 409 Sidney at. 

12. (Ger.) Rdw. kiessling. 2218 N. Market al. 

118. James Shine. 4254 Blaine ave. 

240. (Ger.) D. Fluegel. 4011 N 23d at. 

267. H. G. Ferguaon. «17 W. Jefferson ave. 

270. A. N. Wolff, 5325 Theodosia av. 

423. (Ger.) O. Jablonaky 2630 Clara ave. 

518. (Ger.) Henrv Thiele, l/oughlmrougb and 
Gmvola ave. 

978 . (HUIr lildra.) K. Fmilsh, 4211 Linton av. 

604. (Mill wrlgbta)— J. H Miller, 2920 Kadaav. 

699. C. H. Gulpe, 1629 Olive at. 

764. (Gar. Mill) P. A. Laos, 2207 Gravola ave. 



197 . (Ger.) II. Baumann, 88 latav. *66 Williamsport— L. F. Irw 

409 . Patrick Ravanacb. 346 W 49 th at. Yore Kd. Mirk ley. (9 N 

613 . (Ger.) Richard Kuebriel, 61 Av« A. 

707 . (Fr Canadian) L. Bellinare, 228 K. 7 ftth at. RHODE ISLA 

716 . J. P Hiialne, 2462 Mih ave 

70 . (Ger. Mill wrlgbta and Miller«) Henry Maak 174 Newport -P II. Dawlev, 
%I 9 17 tb et.. Ho Brooklyn W 2 . Pawtuckmt J. J. L*»»dl,< 

576 . Niagara Pallm-K K.Fornell, 446 Kim wood Kalla 

ave. 64 . Providbmcr P Dolan, 3 

474 - NYA*m— Robt. F. Wool. Box 498 . 

101 . Orbceta —A. J. Ryan, K K. SOUTH PA no 

404 . PoBicHBMTHBr— W. H. K. Jonea, Rye, N. Y. _ ^ ÖÜUTH CARO 

208 . PouuHkBBPaiB — G. K. Baker. Box». •*- Chablemtox— <O ol.) K. i 

72 . Roch enter- H . M. Fletfther. 31 Bartlett «t. _ _ Mount «1 

179 . ** (Ger.) Frank Schwind, 4 May Plaoe Columbia -<U oL) C. A. T) 

479 . Ahnrc a Fa lia-C. E Doty, 79 < hapel at. Tailor «1 

10 . Hch*» BCTTADT— Henry Bain, 326 Craig at. 

Staten Island — S ecretary of Dial. Counci', TENNES 8 E 

OT Shay. 19 6 th ave. New Brighton. m . - vr IT . 

808 Po YÄSKr J - KMI,,n ' 238 ,l sSSS^it jJS&° 

667 . Htaplrtoe— P. J. Klee, Box 497 . 5 J* 

16 . Htraouir— (Ger.) E. Kretach .724 ButtemuU. 66 K Dunne) 

614 . Tabeytowk— D. Page, North Tarrytown. ,e *° #t T _ VAO 

78 . Trot— H obt. Laurie, box 6 «. TEXAS 

I». Utica— G. W. OHHUia. M 0 Dudley at«. MU. Anim»- II lt<,«ml«r. I III; 

S«. Watbbtowb-P. J. Doovey, 2 Union «lock, Ttl. Oomicaba -W. J r.mU r 



PENNSYLVANIA 

Allegheny (tty 
A ll. C. L. Mohuey. 70 Wilson ave. 

07. (Ger.) Roliert Gram )s«rg 21 lleust. 

A87. Altoona — II L. Smith, 2006 4th avenue. 

961. Bangor Jolin Allien. Box 150. 

20. Heaykr Palls A Burry, Ho* 611, New 
Brighton. 

550. Bradford— 4J. Fummlnga. 1 Fheatuul s? 
738. Farbondalb Theo K t i all. . V. Terra« »* -t 
107. Fh enter Klier H Rigby , 24*» K Fifth «I 
«9. Kanton— P rank P. Horn. 914 Butler st. 

422. Frankfoud-J R. Naw. 6410 Keystone st 
Tacony. 

41 1 Franklin— M I* C?hne. 

1X2. Germantown J K. Martin. 58 W. Duval 
462 Grkknshi m#-J If. Rowe, :M6Fnncord st 
«7. Harrimhurg <* W Diehl. 1/28 Herr «t 

08. Homrktrad T II Wilson, Bo* 527. 

253. Jeannettk J G Baker Penn Station. 

208. IdkNi aster 4' lb nacll 314 N««w Holland a* 
177. McKkiwport H G. Glliiert. 1**10 lirh k alle> 
01. Mansfield -R. H Met'onkey, Faruegle Pa 

Box 1 06. 

888 New Kensington r W Shafer Box 168 
706. NewFantle-W. W. McCleary, 238 Harts» 

PHTI^ DELPHI A 

6. Matthias Moore. 412 N 6th st. 

227. (Kensington I Fhaa I. Spangler, 2164 Serg ean* 
06. (Ger.) Joa. Oyen. 10?'* N 41 h «t. 

4*6 (Mill* I fno»Hngsr fr JJtil Se^rtsanl «4 
PlYTHHUBdiH Sec retary of District ( 'ounell 
W. F. Wlllock Box 215 Mt <*l!\» r. 

»41 H. G. Schomaker, 126 Welistorat.. Aiieg 
(64. (Ger.) Adolph Bata 131 12th st. , S. H 
10. (R. Knd) F A. Klni'cy, fti*i| S) t ak «*«|»oar« st 
36. F. B. RoMns«iii. Juliet St , lltii Ward. 

401. (44c. r.) Ludwig Pauker. 1310 BrecMit at. H. H 
10. Pun xsi rpA weft - Wm Kvans.Boi 137. 

06 Ueadinic-T. Kissinger. 1 1 13 Grmii. with at. 
4M Hoc ff NHTN14— A N G'ltormufL Riu 18* 
Scranton Meer««tarv Dia» riet Council, 
Ro)»ert Gould 812 Marlon st. 

468. Geo. Htcsodraek. 908 Oxford nt 
*0. H. Sc RANTON (Ger ) G Roes» h. 72ft Palm st. 
87. HhamokiE -H. A. L Sitilnk. 510 K. Farnerur 
168. SBAliOH -J P Hmitli . :*»; A Ht 
176 TarBNTUM — T. F. Miller, Box 267 
767 TayI/OR George W lek s. jiox 45 
459 (Tniontown-W S Koonta. 18 Mnrgartnwr. 
102 WilkmsBakre— M Malloy. 349 N. Wash at 
M6 Wilijamhpoht L. F. Irwin. 514 Hepburn ai 
•91. Yore Kd. Mlekley, 19 N. Penn at. 

RHODE ISLAND 

*76 Newport P li. Da wie v, 693 Thames at 
02. Pawtuckmt J. J. L«h «I lium, Box 22. Valiev 
Kalla. 

M. Pro y i DEMUR P Dolan, 32 Grand View n| 

80UTH CAROLINA 

0. Charlenyon— (O ol.) K. A. Washington, 12 
Mount at 

** (Ool.) C. A. Thompson, 106 Kast 

Tailor at 



Araanel at. 

08. Waverly— A. L. Smith, Box 176. 

Weht Ch enter Couety— S ecretary of Dla- 
trict Council, Jam«« Oagan, 22 IawIoh 
at., New Rochelle, N. Y. 
m± Went Troy -C harles Angus. 121 8d at 
096. Williame Beidoe— John Kdgley, Box H. 
ttv Yo ke ER E Fhaa. Gordon , 142 Aahhurton ave. 
TM. H. W. Mai 11 naon, 210 Kim street. 



TENNESSEE 

OR. Knoxtille—N. Underwood, 14 Anderson «I 

10. Martin B R. Jeffreaa 

»4. MEMPHia-Chan Welr.er.3M Front st. 

70 Nashville - J F. Dunnebaeke. 1405 N. Col 

lege Et 

TEXAS 

«U. Austin— II Roeaaler. 1912 Brerkenrtdge *1 
761. Corsicana -W. J Fosb'r MIO W. llth ave 
10. Dallas- O L Wiley, B«,x 299 
871. Dee iso b -<J. H MJIIer, box 306. 

223. Ft. Worth- J. 14 Boldoek. 

^ Krause, 4X>r. New York and 

Willie ata 

Oaltikto»— O. K IlKlInril. Ik.* M. 

*“• „ , Klclmrd rt«|,l„|, N. W. Oor. 

... „ XHudrui *u. 

ill. Houston— A. Dennison, 703 Walker by. 



THE CARPENTER. 



887. Bah Ajrroaio— H. L. Mitchell, Box 660. 

400. (Oer.) T. Jauernlg, 1111. K. Commerce 

717. M A. O. Wleteel, 13ft Centre n 
Sift. Tbbebll. — D. F. Coburn. 

(US. Waoo— B. O. Unifuüj , 11 Walnut it. 



Standing Decision* of 6. E. B. 



UTAH 

M. BAUT 1^«i Ottt— A. Tracey, 400 E.7th 0. at. 



Jan. 1.— A mrmUr who leave* the trade to 
enter another occupation nee«l not withdraw 



April 17.— It 1» not advisable to extend the 
jurisdiction of a District Council over a large 
extent of territory, but lo coniine it to one city or 
one county. 

July 16 —All benefits are forfeited by a *us- 



from the U. B. He can still remain a. member pcnded Union, the same as a suspended mem 



should be as Indulgent as possible with travel- 
ing memiters. 

1804. 

Jan. ft.— G. 8-T. instructed to send for hook* of 
Local Union for examination in ease of a doubt- 
ful claim for benefit. 

April 7.— All dues received in the interim be- 



VERMONT 



and in benefit, except lie engages In the sale of |)er A 8UMHjn <jed Union cannot be entitled to tween meetings must be credited as received at 



09, BuiUMTOf-Jaa. Childs. O North it 
0. Butlajid— J. A. Thlbault, 18 Terrill si 



VIRGINIA 



Intoxicating drinks. 

April 22 —A Union lapsed or suspended. If re- 
organised or reinstated, shall not be in bench 1 
until six months after date of reinstatement. 



any benefits other than those prescribed for a the next subsequent meeting. Hec. 1B3 means 



new Union. 



that the actual date of the meeting at which the 



July 17.— Local Unions are at liberty lo charge dues are received or credited as above shall ap- 
a fee for a working card to traveling mem- pear on the member's card and books of the 



■oiD-Wm. H. Gaul, 80ft Ai betas rls i 
(Ool.) J. B. Mason, 704 dark si. 



Fell, lft.— We favor the licensing of architects. 



bers on a clearance, said fee not to exceed the 
sum of 12.00 for the first working card, and such 



Union. 

April ft.— In all strikes or lockouts only those 



WASHINGTON 

-J. O. Heymer, ftlft 8. 12th st. 



Feb 1®.-In giving grants of money to aid »um thereafter as may lie charged any other men employed when sueh strike or lockout 



other trades In cases of strik 
It is advisable to exercise c 



a or trade troubles, 
ire and not make 



WE8T VIRGINIA 



Hl. OiAftLvroi-J. L Jones. Box 68ft. 

06 . Ouaxiiuifl — J. H. Ridenour. Box 88 . 

619. Burns- D R. Martin. Box 20» 

4M. Faieuost — G. K. White, Palatine. 

71ft H usTiwoTOg — T. R. Gllkison, 1829 4th eve. 

A Whuuvs-A. L Bauer, 161ft Jacob si. 

Bee. District Council Wheeling and. 
Tlcinlly. 



donation unless condition of local funds per- n< >* more than 81.00 per quarter for working 
mit* and then make it iu the form of a donation, raf d. 



WISCONSIN 



688. (dan BAT— W. Wagner, 628 N Madison sC 
0ft. La OaoasB— John Leide, 1806 Adams st. 

10. M a disob — Wm. Moll, 208 Murrey st. 

MiLWAuane— Becreiarv of District Council 
John Bettendorf, 766 7th aT. 

0. (Ger.) Wm. Bubllts, 746 18th si. 

20 (Ger.) Jonn Bettendorf, 766 7th eve. 

290. (Ger.) J. Werner, ISSft 11th st. 

818. (Ger.) John Hassmann, 696 82d st 
122. Julius Radtks 841 16 th st. 



and avoid any assessment | an assessment levied 
for such a purpose shall be purely voluntary In 
payment by the members. 

Feb. lft.— A member In the ante- room on busi- 
ness authorized hy the Union must he con- 
sidered as present at the meeting, and Is eligible 
to nomination for office. 

I>eo. 28— Funds of Local Unions cannot be 
used for political party purposes. 



Oct. 16.— A Lot 



resident member. takes place are entitled to strike pay under our 

July 17.— Non* resident members can be charged laws. 

11.00 per quarter for working July lft.— When a Union Is three months in 

arrears it is not allowed seven days grace before 
>1 Union In granting a clearance running out of benefit. The acven days grace 



card shall not accept more than one month’s specified In Bee. 62, is given to save a union from 
dues In advance, and should more than this have sus|>ension entlrelv, and from forfeiture of 



been paid by the member, his surplus dues charter. 

should be refunded him by the Union. July 20.— A member working as inotorman or 

conductor on an electric car can retain his mcm- 

' . . . bershlp In his Local, but should he meet with an 

J.n. IS.— A Loci Union cnnol ~ln.lt a boy ^ o|dent aBd be<om ,. dlw , bled> or ,„ e from the 

uder 18 year*. effect», bis heir* would not be entitled lo any 

April 1.— A member can join a Hhip Joiners’ bene|l ’ 

nlon, and st the same time remain a member igg®. 



under 18 years. 

April 1.— A member can join a Hhip Joiners’ 
Union, and st the same time remain a member 



Feb. 16.— Unions not holding meetings st least I °f our 



Jan. 10.— The non-payment of an excessive fine 



once a month forfeit their charter and are not In aeiegste v« . ,u, - — 

benefit. U- B. must hold credentials from the Local of 

Feb M - Carpenters joining the navy cannot which he Is a member, but several Local* can 



April S-A delegate to a convention of tbe , l |d ^ ^ . brtr the ri|th , of 



Socialism vs. State Socialism. 



be entitled to benefit, on tbe ground of unusual 
risk. 

Feb. 26.— A Union cannot admit to or retain In 
membership any one who, himself or any of his 



u. n. mu*«, non. «xwcni.m. .rut« ^ j an . 10.-Where a member from an outside 

which he to a member, but aeveral Local* can di ' lrict inlo . clly u> ,* ke advantage 

dub together, or *o can Union. In a D C and ^ eon4|UoM> „„ . houl ,, be W „|, IIK u , bear 



electa delegate, but be must hold credentials 
from the Union of which he is a member. 

Oct. 6.— Notices are sent out regularly by the 



some of the burdens borne by the members of 
the U. B. in that oily, and be willing to take the 
risk of being called out on strike without pay. 



A correspomlent writes the Boston intoxicating drinks. 
Labor hauler and wanta to know why March 12.- Person 

that paper is “ oppoeed to eocialiem." chro " ,c rbeunmti.n 
The answer ib, that it ia not opposed 
to Socialism. man Is hazardous, 



household, Is engaged or engages In the sale of 10 al1 months In arrears. Tbe ThJ(| does not apply to strlkeH sup|»orted 



toileting drink*. ° 8 ‘ T - ~“ not be h,ld , r«l«o"*“*le for tbdr non- 

March M.-Pewon. ruptured an.) aflllct.d with '««»very, «»peclally where Fluan. lal ^reUrte. 

»«* 1 . '.ISÄSSSST *• - ■* “ 

June 16 -Tbe ocou,mtlon of a paid city fire- •* " e ® of ‘" e,r \ 

Socialism. 1 man I* h.rardoua, and a member .« engage,) P-«. «"»*■ tow «»me reml at the meeting 

» ia nnnmiarl tn Slate Socialism, which I cannot be allowed benefits. 1698. 

June 22.— In movements for wages and hours j ftn . U — The G. E B deem It expedient to 
™ ' 77 ,-’ 7 ' 7 " . where mei»d»ers are working at woodwork, out- confirm an unwritten law heretofore In vogue In 

limed to itself the Renenc meaning °f I lde of i 10U8e carpenter work, they can be the U. B , and decree that all General Officers of 
5 term 14 SocieliflUl." I exemi t frbm trade rulee. the U. B shall be exempt while In office from all 

July 80.— A member taking direct contract io<al duties in tbe Ixxals to which they belong 
from owner, where the latter furrlshes material, April lft.— All Unions or districts sending dele* 



financially by tbe G. B. B. 



The Silver Question. 



It ie opposed to State Socialism, which cannot be allowed benefits, 
has for no good reason, that is evident, June *•-*» mov * raen ‘® for w*g~ and hour. 

?a iffiL - wliere meiultem are working at woodwork, out- 



the term "SocialiBin." 

The situation in economics is analogous 
to that existing in the theological world 
some generations ago. 

The Duke of Alva said, 11 I am a 
Christian. M 

.lohn Calvin said, “ I am a Christian." 

Martin Luther said, 14 I am a Chris- 
tian." 

The head of the Catholic Church eaid, 
“ I am a Christian." 

Between the theologians of the differ- 



. In 1873 the United States by act of 
Congress demonetized silver and the 
price of wheat fell below a dollar per 
buehel. 

In 1890 Roumania demonetized silver, 
but the United States again began to 
buy under the Sherman act in 1800 and 
wheat went up. In 1801 the whole 



exem| t frt>m trade rules. the U. B shall be exempt while In office from all . * 

July 80.— A member taking direct contract loml duties in tbe !x>cals to which they belong but the United States again began to 
from owner, where the latter furnishes material, April lft.— All Unions or districts sending dele* buy Under the Sherman act in 1800 and 
and the member contracting hires union men gallons to appear before the G. K. B , must w heat went Up. In 180l the whole 

and pays union wages by the day, Is not piece notify the G. 8-T. ten days prior to meeting of ArA.itivw* 

work; but If tl.. owner I. an employing eon- a . B B. ,>a P* r T“® 7 >yBtei " ° f ‘ h ® Ar ^ nUn ® 

tractor, it Is piece werk. April lft.— A member can remain a contractor, Republic went to Smash, and the grand 

Aug. 8.— Wherever a union man goes, he or enter into the bust neun of contracting, pro- panic there WAS followed immediately 

should live up to the union rules of the city he T |ded he pays the scale of wages, obe>s trade |,y greatest failnreS ever known in 

worksin. rules and hires none but Union men, and com ^ 

Sept. 17.— Grading wages is demoralizing to piles wlUi the Constitution, and doe* not do 1 J ^ ' * 

union primdplea and to the welfare of the trade, ium|»-work, pleoa-work or sub-contract for a and those ID turn by Widespread bank- 



end no Local Union should adopt the system of car|>enter contrxkctor, and further provided that ruptcy in Australia and financial troubles 



grading wages. 



he is not, nor does not become, a member of any 



ing schools, however, there was little or date from time of accident 



Oct. 22.— Claims for disability benefit must I contractors’ or employers' union. Any violation 



no recognition of the Christianity of the 
others. 

The modern time has come to acknowl- 
edge that the truth in Christianity is 
not pent up by a sect or denomination, 
and tolerates where it once gibbeted 
and burned. 

But as Christianity has been used as 



Dec. 22 — All payments of dues made to s F. H. 
Iu interval between meetings after Union has 



of this rule to be punished by fine or expulsion. 
Oct 6.— Relative to granting dl*|»en*ationB to 



in nearly every one of the Kuropean 
countriee, notwithstanding their gold 
basis. The United States was tempo- 



adjourned, must be credited under date of next crisis, by virtue of power vested in G. K B and 



ix>cai Unions and members during the present ratilj naved by the Russian famine and 



meeting of the Union. 



March 10.— A local Union can fix 



G. 8-T., by vote of Locals on circular dated Dec. 2H, 
188», and again given hy Bt. Lotus Convention 
(see |>ege 81 of printed proceeding*), special 



tbe fftilnrea of crope eleewhere, which 
once more eeot wheat above a dollar. 



penalty for non-attendance of members at a instructions and full power are hereby given to 



monthly meeting. 

July II.— No member of any local Union can 
"Kali” It on any other trade hy going to work 



the G. 8-T. In dealing with extraordinary 



Lbt our Uoions everywhere help 
orgioize the Painters more thoroughly. 



Oct. 6.— Tbe Board decide that seven members The union men of that craft have given 



a title for bigots and fanatics, as well as I ^ t riM i e when ii is on strike. 



can bold a charter or constitute a quorum. 

Oct. 7.— In charging |2.0 to traveling wem* 



by saints and martyrs, — to to-day Social- I Nov. 24.— Dues are chargeable on first of b«rs for first working card, G. E. B. would 

* - . . .... » _ 1 _ _ » t »U ....... | n ll. u k..lld 



ism covers a multitude of economic sins month, hut a member does not fall In arrears edvlee «^ng stagnation in 



as well as virtues. 

Properly speaking, every mao who 
wants and works for a better aocial state 

ie a Socialist. 



until end of the month. 



Ing trade, that Unions throughout the U. B. 



the U. B. help to organize in many 
instances Send names and addresses of 
Journeymen Painters to J. T. Elliott, 
General Secretary, 1314 N. Fulton Ave., 
Baltimore, Md. 



Jan. 6.— A union contractor must always hire 
union car|>euters where available and where 
not available, he should have the non union 



Am Eieelleot Form of Indenture for Carpenter Apprentl.ee. 



When One comes to the consideration I men he hlree to join the Union 



of the methods hy which an improve- 
ment in the aocial order ie to be obtained, 
there ie a radical departure between the 
various schools of Socialism. 



State Socialism is compulsory inter- oniu«r» 



ference with private affairs hy politi- 
cians, or, if the phrase is objectionable, 
by those who are the administrators ol 
public office. 



It means the magnifying o( the gov- ,, ® w "•« ,nl * or - 

“ J # . Hep 7— .A member owing a sum equal to three 

ernment and the subordination Of the month®' duaa cannot pay part of lilt arrears and 



rights of individuals. 



Wf)lto XnSunfnr*. Witnesseth that b” and with the 

March ».-in death or disability claim», tbe consent of hath put himself, and by these presents doth 

card of a member mu*i be retained by thed. 0 T. vo j on t* r Uy and of hie ovo free will and accord, pat himself apprentice to 

“ ' ^ e i“-K.,h Local Union u „-.pon.ibie for l ~ rn th ® art ’ trade * nd “y ,l ®7 of Carpenter and 

the carelessness or negligence of iu own local Joiner ; and after the manner of an apprentice, to aerve the aaid 

o ai con. for and daring, and to the full end and term of yean next ensuing. 

June to.*- Member* workinx under union rule» y ar i nK B u of eaid term the apprentice doth covenant and promiae that he will 

feriod* * mu *' P * y * ,lr,ke ~ n, - n ‘ ,f serve faithfolly, that he will not play at cards or dice or 

Aug. ii.— a member reaigning »ever* aii mu. any other unlawful games whereby the Mid may be injured. 

nection with tbe u. H and can only rejoin a* a That be will not absent himself from work daring the recognised hours of labor, 
new mamlmr. without leave, nor frequent Mloons, hotels or play houses, but in all tilings will 

>»»*'• ^ >» “»■“'» 

Ih j In iMiirllt B«j must pay all h# owes the And thftt the Said ..»..On hii pftrt, doth COV6DfLUt und pronuBc 



June 2ft.®- Members working under union rules 



Aug. 81.— A member resigning severs all <*on 
nection with the U. H and can only rejoin as a 



he In benefit. Be must pay all he owes the 



To this we are oppoeed, end reedy et Union and wait three months after that to be thet he will use the utmoet of hie endeevore to teach or oaoee to be teught or 



all times to give reasons for the faith •» benefit. 

Nov. I.— 



that is in os. 



UiUon on a membtr^or To- “p^n^on Joiner. Said apprentice shall not be required to work more than the recognised 



instructed the Mid Apprentice in the ert, trede end uiyatery of Cerpenter end 



hoars ot isbor. The seid further Agrees to pey Mid Apprentice 



Tin meet ebused men in the rsnki of 



■ Jan. 18 — A Union cannot expel a member for 
organised labor ia be who trie* to better owing a fine; It can only suspend him when 



the condition of hie lei low- workers. 



with ike fine his Indebtedns 



does not matter how sincere he is, or «*“•* tor «.ion. 

. . . - ,, Ä « i Jan. ».—A fine cannot be remitted except on 



whether he is paid for the time he loses, 



and it is often the case thet the men who 
does the most work in this line ie the leM 



Oct* 4.— All Local Unions are hereby ordered 
not to olrculate any appeal or circular asking 



thanked, not to Bay paid. Employer« financial aid or calling on the Locals In any 

ii u: .«...I «KmI if u form to purebsse tickets, unless by tbe approval 

call him an agitator, and assert that If it ofthe ^ altMUd by 0 . w 



>7>end him when And for the true performance ot ail and eingular the covenants and agreements 
equal, the .um of aforesaid, the eaid parties bind themselves each onto the other firmly by these 
presents. 

imttted ** cept 0,1 I« Witmms Whbbbov, the Mid parties have interchangeably Mt their hands and 

seals hereunto. Dated this day ol in the yMr of oar Lord one 

thouMnd eight hundred and 



wm not for him they could hire chMper 
labor.— Every Saturday. 



Nov. 18.— A walking delegate may be deputlxed 
by a Local or D. O., to collect due®, etc. 



Executed and delivered before 



L 



nf 



& 



End View of No. 2 Variety Wood Worker 

Bend for Bpeelai Wood Worker Catalogue, 
which will show all the variou« kind* of work It 
will make. It le the most useful machine for a 
Carpenter or Builder now In existence. 



THE OARFENTER. 

J. A. FAY & EGAN CO., 

188 to 208 West Front St., CINCINNATI, OHIO, U. S. A. 

ORIGINATORS, INTRODUCERS AND MAKERS OF 

WOOD WORKING MACHINERY 

FOR ALL PURPOSES. 

The Largest Line in the World of the Latest and Best Approved Designs- 

14 GRAND PRIX” AT PARIS, ’89. HIGHEST AWARDS WORLD’S FAIR, CHICAGO, ’93. 

Outfits or Single Machines Supplied. Send for Catalogues. 




Egan Foot Power Mortli# r 

The Latest and Beet 








VICTOR 
SCROLL SAW. 





DIAMOND 

muktis'kr. 



I N ION 

COM HINA 1 ION SAW. 



At S EXEC A FALLS , XEIC YOKE, 
we are turning out a line of Machinery 
«•« the constant improientent of uhich 
ue focus our entire energies. In con- 
neciion with ex err met hantcal resource 
aff>rded by a plant that it is our aim to 
kf'f> constantly " at the front/* ue 
hax e an extensile experience, and a 
deter mi nation that cur enviable reputa- 
tion shall continue to grow, and not 
shrivel under competition. 

Wood-Working Machinery 

for Foot and Hand Power u e is our 

spei tally, and of this ue make a ten 
large assortment 

Our Catalogue *' A ' * u ill demon- 
strate clearly u hat grounds : i e ha:e for 
the a hoie xlaim\, and this xt-e Would he 
pleased to mail sou .shall ue d» so f 

Seneca Falls IVl’f’jf Co., 
Seneca Falls, N. Y., 

** Water Street. L . S. A. 



fir. O. A J. of America Society Goods 

• •TABUSHED IBM. 

CHAS. SVENDSON 



You should see 

The TAINTOR 



ENTIRELY 
OF STEEL 



POSITIVE 



SAW SET 



No. 93. 



> You can iee It at the 

HARDWARE STORE 

for we will fiend It t«! 
any dealer you n*iii**i 
or we will send It ui 
anv address or: re« . |„» 
of |l. Circulars fee« 

TAINTOR Mfg. CO. 

86 Chamber« Si., N.Y 



QISSTO« 



IBK FOB 90 . 1. 



_ you to buy a law wltfi 

•UIsS IoM ,r on It. II will bold lk^ 
eel hmgrr .and do more work w»th 
out flliug than other saw*, iherefi^ 
saving in labor and cost of V*. 
They are made of the beet qa u«v 
of crucible cant steel and are 

FULLY WARRANTO. 

For aale by all iee l a m 

l for Pamphlet. M THE SAW/' Mailed Riwa 








MAFVFAOrVAAA OF 



my;? v?"? y ^ . 1 v" 

J-/ »_* * /it . y Lvi . yL ^ 's* >, ; rfj 

FINEST 

CARPENTERS' 

TOOLS. 

All latest designs and 
approved new models of 
the best manufacturers. 

Chas. E. Schou, i 



279 Main Street, Regalia and Badges. 



Henry Oisblon & Sons, 

- j i mi 



All KINDI AND SHADES OF FILES AND RASPS. 

olbMtHMl «IthcTMtcr« .ndMrtfll.n.r.ftallT la^etod tmfor. U.n«* Mm "rtory. DM Mt 
3 M .l t»» a. ooot^aliif ovw >00 full MMl *D(rmvl.(.of 




s 

O Cfl 

ii 

H Ö3 



TUT 

SQUARE ROOT 

DELINEATOR 



I «Ml ..» r.vl.g. of Aim. 

HIKIT DIBITON * BONN, 



SOMETHING NEW IN FRAMING. 



POUGHKEEPSIE, N. Y. 

BDLID EMERY 

WHETBTDNEB. 
THE TANITE COMPANY, 

HrKOUDHBURG, Monroe Oo.. Pa. 

NEW YORK , 161 Washington BtreeL 



Over 3000 Boclety Plage and Banners Manufac- 
tured. Over 6000 Hocletles furnished 
with Badges or Regalia. 

No. 84 Court St., Cincinnati.' 



; Mr. m . ff It is in the form of a Chart, 18x28 inches 

p*r \ — in size, substantially mounted, on which the 
• pitches are illustrated in connection with a 
fVr ''r^J diagram of the full-sized carpenters’ square, 

jr* The . le,, S ths °F braces, common and jack- 

FT iE** rafters, hips and valleys, are given in plain 
Figures to the 1-32 part of an inch with all their 
j VJ/il bevels. Also that of their runs, rises, degree of 
•jvj a pitch and contents in hoard measure, 
j tf j i Much other information, such as hopjKr 
M l ■■ cuts, framing uneven pitches, polygon roof, 

— “ iiTfe curved roofs, etc. 

Sent postpaid upon receipt of PRICE - $3.00 



ll^_the carpenter, 



Ho. NH«. 

I’ll I I. A OKI.!* II I A , HA. 



OINOINNATI. 



1 Wert He 



FIRST CLASS BOORS, 

CHEAP. PBACTICAL AMD USEFUL. 

BELLS CaEPENTBY MaDI KaIT $5 OO 

Tub Builihck's Guile and Ksti m ator’s 

Price Book. Hodg»on IO o 

Tub Btebl Square, and How to U*b It . 1 00 
Fbactical Carpentry. Hodgson . . 1 00 
Stair-Building Mads Rasy. Hodgson . 1 00 

Hand Mailing Madk Rasy 00 

Illubtbatkd Architectural and Mi- 
CHANICAL Dr a wing Boob. A Self In- 
structor, with 500 Illustrations I 00 

THfi CABPKNTKB fi AND BUlLDKfi'fi COM- 

plbii Companion .... 1 50 

Addreas P. j. McOUIMB. 

Box 664 , Philadelphia, Pa 

HOBBBTB' 

Handj Wood Coting Tool 

PmUfiUd Joly 19, 169*4. 



CUT THIS OUT. 

Bend for the Best And ChMpwt Practical Book 
printed. Written for Oarpenter* by a Carpenter 

BOW TO FRAME A HOUSE, 

Or Balloon and Roof Framing, by Owen B. 
Maelnnls, autlior of “ Practical Centering," 
11 How to Join Mouldings," etc., etc 

It la a practical treatise on the latest and beat 



(V is», t) 

TRADE MARK. 

If yoo want the very beat tools 
made, buy only thoaa 
•tamped aa above. 



•talr Bonders’ Chleal. 



«lamped mäkST »tsdr Bail der«* Oo« «a. 

NO EDGE TOOL CAN BE GOOD 

without a hard, smooth, keen, cutting edge. ThU le the oue essential Nature of a good edge tool, and the 
?“?Jü whlch l he are eeeeealid They are alie> of the \umi ehapeeand well flnlehed. but 

u> .. i . h . elr *uperlor rutting quality Is mal .y due the reputation wlik b Uiey have held for so many years, and 



methods of laying out, framing and raising tlm- , 
ber houses on the balloon principle, together with I 
a complete and easily understood system of Roof I 
Framing, the whole making a handy and aaally 



loon principle, together with 
y understood system of Roof 




PRICK, $ 160 . 

For gaining or routing out stair stringers, Utting 
n window pulleys, cutting out poofcet pieces, fitting 
In flush bolts on <loon, etc., fitting In striking and 
mortise lock -plates, dadoing fromTi In. to any width, 
either straight or on a curve. A gsa to wanted. Car- 
Den tors preferred Main pis asnt, Doetpaid to any ad 
Areas upon receipt of price. Bend for circulars. 

ROBERT ROBMKTI, 

*5 Avenst B, Bcranton, Pa. 



applied book for carpenters, builders, foremen 
and Journeymao. • 

CX>NTKNTH. 

Pa*t I. —Balloon Framing. 

Chapter I. General demTiptlon of Balloon 
Frames, Framed Hills and their oomrtnictlou. 

CThapter II. First Floor Beams or Joist*, Htory 
Hections, Beoond Floor Beams, Htuddlng, Fram- 
ing of Door and Window Openings. Wall Plates 
and Roof Timbers. 

Chapter III. Laying out and working Balloon 
Frames, Girders. Hills, Posts and Htuddlng. 

Chapter IV. L*vi 0 g out First and Heoc jd 
Floor Joist* or Beams, Calling Joists and Wall 
Plates. 

Chapter V Laying out and Framing the Roof. 

Chapter VI. Raising. 

Pa*t IL— Difficult Roof Framing. 

Chapter I. Himple Roofs. 

Chapter II. flip and Valley Roofe. 

Chapter III. Roofe of irregular Plan, 

Chapter IV. Pyramidal Roofs. 

Chapter V. Hexagonal Roofs 

Chapter VI. Conical or Circular Roofs, etc., etc. 

The work is Illustrated and explained by over 
fl» large engravings of house#, roofs, etc., and 
m ea s ures 6 x 11 Inchas. 

FRICK, - - 61.00 

Bend name, addreas and cash for hook to 

OWEN B. MAGINNIS, 

M 4 W. 14 « I h Bt. . New York City. 



ordering ars given, not forgetting to K|*cify ratutogue of carpenters' tools 

HACK 4 k CO., foot of Platt »iroot, UOCIIKRTKR, R, V. 

Manufacturer* of the most extensive line of Fins Kdge Tools In tbs United mates. 



«S 



HAMMACHER 
SCHLEMMER 
Sl CO. 



,j iWm. McNiece ^ Son, 



£09 BOWERY 



616 CHERRY 8T.. 

PHILADELPHIA A.. 

UAWxjWAomMm» m* 

Uond, FsqeLa. 

1 a^and Rip 3ows, 

nos tm( vent best cast steo. 

Wsrrwitod th* B**t In ths W*rl4. 



jVEur 



YORK 




VOL. XV.— No. 6. I 
Established J88J. f_ 



Financial Secretaries 

WIIO SHOULD I.K FINKI) KOK KAlLt'ltK TO 
8KND IN A I* HI I. RETORT. 

Un<i«*r Seo. 153, paragraph C, of the 
Constitution, it in the duty of the F. S. 
to Bend a report monthly to the <». S-T. 
ander penalty of $2.00 fine. At the 
latest the report ehould he here by the 
10th of the month. 

Here below is a list of Financial Secre- 
tariee who up to May 2s have not Bent 
in their April report*, and who must l>e 
fined for their my led to comply with 
Her. 153. 

I'NIONH NOT .SENDING APRlI. F. S. IlKPOHTB. 



PHILADELPHIA, JUNE, 1895. 



17 


*252 


*507 


38 


«234 


509 


39 


280 


*513 


46 


2 S3 


*553 


49 


«305 


560 


52 


308 


*371 


54 


323 


580 


60 


*333 


695 


M 


*336 


590 


6S 


316 


*623 


80 


348 


628 


93 


«367 


649 


103 


•368 


679 


126 


370 


Iis9 


130 


JH0 


712 


132 


403 


717 


135 


*420 


«723 


•153 


*422 


*725 


164 


423 


73H 


«165 


424 


742 


1S9 


450 


716 


21 HI 


166 


76U 


228 


*483 


779 


«244 


490 





* TUtme marked wllh * an* f « • «jMcntly i»«*kII- 
K« nl In P«*ndiuic in th«ir n and wert* pub 

lUbed IhmI month. 

The careleRBoese and delinquency of 
Financial Secretaries must be checked 
and in most cases ie entirely inexcus- 
able. The reports to the G. S-T. ehould 
be forwarded promptly and regularly 

each month. 

- ♦ • ♦ - — 

Anaconda, Mont.- On June 1, Union 
88 inaugurated the nine-hour day. We 
interviewed the contractors and had no 
trouble. 

Hohton, Mas«.— We have had a special 
Organiser in the field, Fro. Aaron Hill, 
and masB meetings were held in the 
month of May in Dorchester, Boston, 
Fast Boston, Cambridge, Brookline and 
Koxbury. 

Atlanta, Ga.— We are very much en- 
couraged by the way the men are coming 
into the union. Never were they so 
anxious before. When we had a good 
onion they let it go down. Then wages 
dropped 40 per cent., and that taught 
the leSBon. We are spreading now like 
wild fire. 

San Fkancjwx), Cal.— Our unions are 
building up grandly, and a spendid feel- 
ing exists among the men favorable to 
thorough organization. Some prospects 
of better wages When we are more gen- 
erally organized. Our contractors will 
then sign an agreement. 






John Williams. 

The subject of this sketch is a member 
of the General Kxecutive Board, selected 
last September at the Indianapolis Con- 
vention. He was born on the 30th day 
of August, I860, in the County of Angle- 
sea, Wales, and first entered the labor 
movement in 1890 when lie joined 
Union 125, Utica, N. Y. 

He has bet-n successively Vice Presi- 
dent, Treasurer, and is now President 
of Carpenters’ Union 125, and also hohls 
the office of Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees of the Utica Trades Assembly 
building fund, which has tor its object 
the erection of a home for the trade and 
labor societies of Utica. For one year 
Mr. Williams was Secretary of a Welsh 
benevolent society, u The True Ivorites,” 
of which he is still a member. 

His father William Williams deceased 
nearly seven years ago, was a journey- 
man carpenter and foreman many years 
and then started into contracting. There 
are many carpenters all over the States 
who worked under the father when he 
was foreman or for him when be was a 
contractor. Like unto his paternal an- 
cestor, John Williame is rated as an up- 
and-up, thorough going mechanic. 

He is zealously and loyally devoted to 
the labor cause, well grounded in con- 
victions, studious in nature, and well 
equipped by education and training to 
make his mark in this great industrial 
struggle. He spends many hours after 
his day’s work in attending meetings 
and speaking publicly to organize the 
working people of Utica and vicinity. 

■ ♦ » 

Indianapolis carpenters are moving 
forward, and organizing thoroughly. 

Newton, Mass •— Carpenters 9 Unions 
Nos. 124 and 125, have been actively 
working to discharge the sub-contracting 
of carpenter work by carpenter con- 
tractors. 

Chicago, 111.— We have been quite 
successful this past winter and spring in 
winning over a number of jobs where 
there was an attempt to violate trade 
rules. We have made detailed fights in 
such cases, and have done well in 
all respects, except on the Marquette 
building, and that strike wee undertaken 
at inopportune time. 



Ixkals of the U. B. dhould not pay 
any attention to circulars roming to 
them making appeal for financial aid 
from any organization, no matter how 
urgent the appeal, unless endorsed by the 
G. E. B. 

In any city where we now have two or 
more lx>cals, they should be consolidated. 
It will be a saving of expense for hall 
rent, officers' salaries, and running ex- 
penses. Besides that, it will lead to more 
united and effective action and give bet- 
ter interest in the meetings. 

Moht of our Ix>cals are now holding 
public meetings with local speakers, and 
this is stirring up the trade very thor- 
oughly. Our membership is increasing 
rapidly all along the line, and energy, 
enthusiasm and zealous w ork have super- 
seded despair and pessimism. 

Whirx I »cals have have had dispen- 
sation from the G. S T. and reduced their 
initiation fee to a reasonable sum, and 
arranged easy terms tor re-admission of 
ex-members, they have done well. These 
are no times when unions are weak to 
keep np high rates. 

Trade Movements this Spring. 

Tania, Fla.— Contractors agreed nine 
hours a day May 1. 

Union .356, Marietta, O. has secured a 
minimum scale of wages. 

K alispxll, Mont.— Union 330 secured 
the nine-hour day easily May L 

Zanehvillb, O. — Union 716 put a set of 
good trade rules into effect May 1. 

Waterville, Maine.— Union 595 pro- 
poses to move for the nine-hour day. 

Galvehton, Tex., won the eight-hour 
day solidly last month, after being out on 
strike a few days. 

8t. Paul, Minn.— Union 87 has had a 
committee out to visit the contractors to 
get the eight-hour day. 

New Orleans, Ia.— Our Unions here 
are negotiating tbrongh a committee to 
get an agreement with the builders. 

Davenport, Iowa. — Union 564 has 
held to the nine-hoar day firmly though 
some greedy bosses tried to break it. 

College Point, N. Y.— One contractor 
in this place tried to cut wages, but 
Union 640 made a stand and beat him. 

Lynn, Mass, has the eight-hour day 
firmly established since Nov. 1, last 
Union 106 is increasing at a good rate. 

Lafayette, Ind.— We have unionized 
the carpenters of the lAfayette Lumber 
mills and those employed by Contractor 
Boyer. 

Fairmount, W. Va. — We have thirty 
new men pledged to join Union 428, just 
as sown as work Is a little better. The 
Builders’ Exchange has agreed lately 
to hereafter hire none bot onion men. 



I 8lngle Copies, 5 Cts . 



Lawrence, Mass. — Union 111 has been 
working steadily forward to get the 
eight-hour day and will be the next to 
secure it. 

Bomehvillb, N. J.— Contractors bad in 
view this spring to go back to ten hours 
a day. Union 665 made a stand and 
stopped it. 

Fort Brooe, Fla — We just started up 
Carpenters’ Union No. 454, with over 50 
members, and now we have the nine- 
hour day solid. 

Watkrtown, N. Y.— Place us on the 
nine hour list. Without a strike we 
gained it early in May, just by the influ- 
ence of union 580. 

Bangor, Pa.— One firm of builders 
tried to return to the ten-hour day. But 
the union men quit, and now the firm 
is down to terms. 

Quincy, 111.— Union 189 sent a com- 
mittee out to see the contractors, and 
now the nine-hour day is established, to 
hold good for a year. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia.— Union 83 has 
been a winner in standing up against a 
proposition of a leading planing mill to 
return to ten horns a day. 

Newark, N. J. — Union 306 has had 
several very enjoyable “ smokers” the 
past few months and with the result of 
bringing out large crowds of non union 
men. With music, singing, speaking and 
refreehments, and the presence of our 
sister Union 119 in a body on one occa- 
sion, Union 306 has added largely to its 
membership. There should be more of 
these socials and smokers in all the unions 
to show we are not dry, dead “chip*.” 

Vote on Eight-Hour Propositions. 

On the circular of February 11, 1896, 
submitted by the U. 8.-T. per orders of 
the G. E. B , 296 unions voted. Tbe vote 
cast is : 



In favor. Againzl . 



Proposition 1— 


4,802 


1,402 


«1 o 


3,748 


2,197 


44 3— 


2,551 


3,377 


44 4 — 


927 


3,388 



The first and second propositions it is 
evident were agreed to ; but the third 
and fourth were rejected. 

The adoption of the first and second 
propositions carries with it, that the 
Locals in anr jurisdiction, by a vast ma- 
jority are favorable to the inauguration 
of the Eight-hour day for carpenters, 
by a general concerted movement of car- 
penters on one given day, in all cities 
w here the Eight-hour day is not now the 
rule. The rejection of the third and 
fourth propositions implies that the 
anions were not favorable to under- 
taking the aforesaid movement, until 
times had bettered and the opportun ties 
for success were more favorable. 

Borne unions voted on the subject 
under the misapprehension that the 
adoption of any of tbe propositions in- 
volved a general strike this year on their 
part for the Eight-hour day, whether in 
shape to win or not. That indeed was 
far from the mind of the G. E. B. in 
having a vote on the subject. 









THE CARPENTER. 



A Voice from the Depths. 



We hare fed you all for a thouaand year«, 

And you bail uattil) unfed, 

Though there’« never a dollar of all your wealth. 
But mark« the worker»* dead. 

We have yielded our I>c*t to give you reat, 

And you lie on a crlmaon wool. 

For if blood Ik* the price of all your wealth 
Good God, we ha* paid it In full. 

There’« never a mine blown aky ward now 
But we're buried alive for you ; 

There’« never a wreck drift* ahoreward now 
But we are It* gha*tl> crew. 

Ge reckon our dead by the forge* red, 

And the factorie* where we «pin; 

If blood he the price of your accurned wealth, 
Go4»d God, we ha’ paid it in full. 

We have fed you all for a thouaand years. 

For that wa* our doom, you know 
From the day* when >ou chained u* in your 
field« 

To the «trike of a week ago. 

You ha eaten our live« and our babe* and wive«. 

And we’re told it'* your legal «hare. 

But if blood be the price of your lawful wealth, 
Good God, we ha' bought it fair. 

R. K 



0)pen Varum. 

( This Department is oven far our readers 
and members to discuss all phases of the 
bbor problem . 

Correspondents should write on one side of 
the paper only. 

Matter for publication must be in this office 
by the tSth of the month previous to issue. ) 



Humanity’» Two Demon». 



Jose Groz. 



m^==s=. E are all familiar with 
the inexorable con- 
r A/iKI mi nations between 
[ B I M I CHUeeB and effect« 
in phyeical and 
i mental phenomena. 
In each one of those 
two department« we can notice that 
while general effect« imply and directly 
come from general causes, the incidental 
one« radiate from secondary cause«, 
which, a« euch, can themselves be traced 
to any of the grand causee at the root of 
all general results. 

Take now human life, and we can 
easily acknowledge that poverty and 
disease are the two most general and 
transcending effects among men, tending 
to shape the whole course of human con- 
duct. Even the perpetuation of vice and 
crime are nothing but the after effects of 
poverty and disease in their constant 
actione and re-actions through ail the 
ramiff cations of life on earth. We can 
prove that if challenged to do so. One 
or more grand, general, basic cause 
must then exist to which poverty and 
disease can be traced. Can we doubt it ? 
Look at the fact that poverty and dis- 
ease do not exist among animal life in 
nature, while it does as soon as men 
force some animals to live unnatural 
lives. 

Persistent deviations from natural 
laws must then be the bottom cause of 
poverty and disease among men, since 
it spreads to all they touch, to all 
animals, and even to certain country 
belts, originally rich and healthy, im- 
poverished and made unhealthy through 
wrong, unnatural processes interfering 
with the order of Creation. Is not that 
far more reasonable than to attribute 
such two general effects to a mere inci- 
dental or supposed deviation of Jaw from 
a human couple 0,000 years ago? Is 
not that assumption a cowardly device 
of men, trying not to plead guilty of 
their own sins, or looking for an excuse 
that we may keep on sinning? 

And what about the fact that while 



some men manage to escape poverty, 
none manage to escape disease? And 
yet both evils are due to the same cause, 
even the men who take the wrong view 
of the matter consider it so. 

That sin somewhere must be at the 
root of all wrong developments, that is 
unquestionable, but why to entertain 
the criminal conception of having to sin 
to-day because we did sin yesterday ? 
And that is the fatalistic philosophy un- 
derlying all educational methods, 
heathen and Christian. It sticks out of 
the thoughts of all men, up to the wisest, 
so called, who are not in sympathy with 
the sorrows of the working masses, and 
would like them to humbly accept all 
hardships, to be satisfied with the poverty 
of the present, because, they say, It ie 
not quite as harsh as it used to be. And 
we don't know anything about that. 
If we have improved by 50 per cent 
in 600 years, why not improve 100 per 
cent, in the next 20 ? Oh! that would 
be too much of a good thing, for our wise 
fatalistic friends. It would not do for us 
to improve fast. Somebody would get 
hurt then. Don't you see that the 
fatalistic philosophy rests on selfishness 
in the most criminal form, trying 
to cheat men out of the joys and man- 
hood they could rapidly obtain, endeav- 
oring to delay all fundamental progress 
through radical processes ; preferring 
that we should keep on, in that eternal 
human job of all ages that we can call— 
patching up an old coat with old rags , and 
never attempting to make a new coat out 
of good cloth ! 

As we have already indicattc not even 
those who are smart enough V manage 
to escape poverty can manage to keep 
sufficiently smart to avoid disease. And 
the latter is often the product of all those 
life methods that wealth invitee, or of 
all those processes by which alone 
wealth can be accumulated. That is very 
significant. It proves the intimate con- 
nection of the two evils, poverty and 
disease, Bince we catch the latter in our 
efforts to escape the former. 

Disease among 95 per cent, of the race 
is inevitable because of their scanty 
resources and hard lives. Not even a 
slight regard for sanitary laws is possible 
to over 5 per cent, of the race anywhere. 
6uch laws imply to-day two or three 
times higher annual earnings than most 
men can obtain for themselves and 
families. They also necessitate a more 
peaceful life. Absence of mental friction 
is indispensable for the free play of 
sanitary laws. And never in the history 
of humanity has civilisation imposed 
upon all men, rich and poor, the constant 
agitations of to-day. That is just what 
makes wealth to-day more of a farce 
than a reality, in our own nation meet 
especially. And it is here that the crasy 
scramble for wealth has attained its 
greatest intensity. And it ie just here 
that ws need a much larger proportion 
of doctors of medicine than anywhere 
else. 

We happen to be familiar with the 
history of a friend by which we can 
illustrate the fallacy of that fatalism 
about disease being an inevitable con- 
comitant of human life any more than 
among animal life in nature. The grand- 
father and grandmother of that friend 
died before 60 and were old before 50. 
His father and mother died after 70, but 
were sickly before 40, and grew more so 
as they advanced in life. Our friend 
was sickly until 30, and delicate until 
after 40, when he discovered that we had 
eanitary laws. He had already retired 
from business with what moot men would 
consider a bagatelle, but enough for him 
because of his plain habits of life. Well, 
he set to apply all eanitary laws, as much 
as possible, in the midst of mfn who 
don't care a fig about them. He soon 
eliminated the different aliments he had 



inherited or absorbed from others, and 
from 45 to 05 he has enjoyed perfect 
health, with powers of resistance such as 
are only had by vigorous young men 
below 30, with no physical pain, how- 
ever slight, ever coming to remind him 
about those <1 readful laws of inheritance 
of ours. And we know that the laws in 
question* constitute the arsenal from 
which our fatalistic friends derive all 
their arguments to defend their philoso- 
phy of despair. 

And what about the application of 
that philosophy to the evil of poverty, 
as also enevitable among men? It i« 
extremely convenient, of course, because 
it relieves us from all responsibilities in 
our general relations. We can then, as 
citizens of our own nation, silently or 
openly sanction all sinful human laws, 
and ridicule all reform movements with 
the old silly platitudes of the old uncles 
and fossils in all historical periods. 

Return now to the inexorable con- 
nections between general causes and gen- 
eral effects alluded to at the beginning 
of this essay Meditate for a few mo- 
ments on the immensities of wealth 
stored up in our planet. Add to that 
the almost boundless potentialities of 
men through their inventive faculty, 
when properly applied to the raw 
elements of nature as well as to all 
natural forces; and, the plea of poverty 
among men as some thing inevitable, ie 
the most disgraceful blasphemy we can 
utter against the Power behind nature 
and all the phenomena in the Universe! 

Two grand sets of laws seem to be at 
the root of ail human development, 
viz.: 

First, ethical laws, with which to 
regulate our mutual relations with each 
other in all our activities, personal and 
social. 

Second, sanitary laws with which to 
regulate our personal habits in harmony 
with ail coemical relations around. 

There we have the two most haeic and 
central duties to be respected by each one 
of us individually, as well as collectively 
by the whole social compact, by that 
State of which most of our big fellows 
speak as some thing that has seldom 
made any mistakes, something apart 
from the working masses, and so it has 
been. The State or Nation has always 
meant the few holding most of the land 
and hence most of the wealth of nations. 
Naturally enough, the State has never 
cared lor much of anything outside of 
satisfying the selfish tendencies of the 
lew in question. What has been called 
the people was never anything but the 
cow , to be milked for the benefit of the 
few, while trying, when necessary, to 
keep the people quiet with some surface, 
false pretence reforms, and always in- 
timating that nothing else is possible, 
because of that old latalism of ours, 
because of that poverty and disease, the 
two demons we must keep feeding with 
our own eternal blunders. That alone 
shall enable the lew to for ever humbug 
the many. 

We don’t seem to have even taught 
men, or learned ourselves, the folly of 
assuming that there may be a certain 
divorce between God's laws and those 
in nature, He taking care of His own, 
and letting those ol nature play hide 
and seek. Just as if there could be 
more than One Law Making Power in 
God's Univeree, for universal good! 
And the absence of good, unmixed with 
evil, among men, comes from our repu- 
diation of that Power as a symmetrical 
whole, and so from our non adaptation 
to the natural order in the midst of 
which we are born, grow and die. We 
thas overlook the grand fact that the 
meaning of life here below is that of 
enabling us to enjoy the grander life 
beyond, np to the measure of our obedi- 
ence to divine ideals while on earth. 



The Danger of Too Much Stale Posier« 

Let me congratulate you on the excel- 
lence of Tiik Cari’Kntkk, both in its typo- 
graphical appearance and editorial tune. 

1 like its 11 pure and simpleism, 1 ’ go lo 
epeak ; and also its dislike of State con- 
trol. The fever ol governmentalem 
which so thoroughly permeated nearly 
all the labor organizations some fe w 
years ago is abating gradually but surely 
As our comrades look into the prohit j| J0 
of industrial equities and social freedom 
they will learn that by going toward 
State control they are approaching the 
terrible maw of the beast which i*. re . 
sponsible lor their past and present n» n . 
ditions. It is very gratifying to ki iMW 
that so many ol the old time union n 
who had been led astray by the alluring 
promises o! authoritarianitui, havef« m 
their proper bearings, and now see clearly 
that the ealvat'on of the industrious «rul 
euterprising classes lies in voluntary 
association and personal freedom from 
the power of the politician, 

The "Co-operative ( ’ommonwealih,” 
which is simply State Socialism in ,j, e . 
guiee, has no charms lor the student nf 
social science who pendele in hie study 
and investigations. The solution < i the 
industrial problem does not lie in the 
accumulation of collective or common 
wealth, but in removing those laws w hit h 
take Irom the individual worker the 
results ol his own toil. The fundam« ntal 
principle of the labor movement j H that 
the product shall belong to the producer, 
not that it shall be tl e properly of the 
whole community. Community proprty 
Irelongs to the idler as well as to the 
worker, notw ithstanding it is solelv the 
product of the latter's efforts. Thu 
surely, cannot he in harmony h iih 
equity. 

The taunt of "pure and simple," 
which our good but mistaken comrade« 
hurl at some cf the tradis unions, i* »re 
wldch is destined in the luture to heron- 
sidered as a wise distinction bet w ten 
those bodies of laborers who adher« to 
well-established ami safe rules of action, 
and those who in their zeal and haH< to 
better economic conditions advocate and 
adopt methods which are abortive. The 
cry that "In political action alore can 
the working people gain their economic 
freedom !" has lost its power of inspiring 
enthusiasm in the trade union. The idra 
is gaining ground that it is safer, more 
economical and harmonizes more nearly 
with the division of labor which l as 
been so productive of good in other 
fields of activity, for trade unions to con- 
fine their efforts to those things which 
especially effect them as tradesmen, and 
leave toother bodies those things which 
effect them as human beings, regard!« es 
ol their particular trade or calling. 

It is very pleasing to note your dis- 
approval of the legal incorporation «if 
trades unions. The p'utociats are wise 
indeed If they could only get the trades 
unions within the power of the law, how 
they would chuckle with malicious satis- 
faction. Poor, innocent working pec pie 1 
I wonder how long it will he yet behire 
they learn that the State is their worst 
enemy ! 

Detroit. Mich. Jo. La «aim a. 



May 6th, 120 delegates representing 
50,000 organized textile workers met io 
sixth annual convention at OJneyville, 
R. I. and enacted several serviceable 
measures for their constituents. 

Latäst monthly report of Amalga- 
mated Carpenters’ for May shows they 
have 074 branches and 43,354 members, 
89 branches and 1472 members art* in 
the United 8'ates and 8 branches and 
191 members in Canada. The 4 brauche« 
in Chicago have 200 members, New 
York has 422 members and Philadelphia 
166 member. 







i 



THE CARPENTER. 



8 








(mh><1 Reason* For An Unemployed 
Benefit. 



HE feet of being out of 
employment does not 
bo readily appeal to 
our sympathy, but a 
email amount of 
thought should con- 
vince us that combi- 
nation to palliate the 
effects of want of 
employment isequaly 
necessary as in the 
caee of eic knees. 
Theie is the same 
principle in it— the 
same duty — the fortunate helping the 
unfortunate. It is to our advantage as 
wage-workers to do so. In the case of a 
partial strike against a reduction of 
wages is it not upon those on strike 
the maintenance of the standard rate 
of wages depends? Should they give 
way must it not then come to either a 
general strike or else a reduced rate of 
wages ? So is it the case when a number 
are out of employment. Men seeking 
work, especially if it be known there 
are a number, are continually being 
offered work at something lesB than the 
standard rate, and it depends upon their 
resources and the claims they have upon 
their resources how long they can resist 
the temptation. 

Borne may say, some do say, that no 
trade unionist worthy the name would 
ever take work at less than the standard 
rate ; but let all those who talk so try it 
for three months, with perhaps previous 
to that aa many calls upon their earnings 
as to prevent them putting into practice 
that glorious gospel, thrift, and see how 
many of them will stand the test. Men 
cannot live upon air alone, no matter 
how fresh, neither can wives nor chil- 
dren. 

Some admit the good of an unem- 
ployed benefit, but say also it is right 
that only those who want it should pay 
for it. This is a selfish argument from 
those who have been fortunate all their 
lives. Apply the same reasoning and 
act upon it in regard to the sick benefit 
and where would it be? The duty of 
supporting our unemployed brother is as 
urgent as in the case of sickness. The 
fear of being preyed npon by loafers is a 
baseless one. How many men are con- 
tent with fonr dollars where it is in their 
power to have twelve or twenty? How 
many can afford to do it? Few such will 
be found contributing to the funds of a 
trade union. 

Here is another point during a time 
of depression,— suppose there are 500 
joiners in a district, and work can only 
be found for 450, what matters it though 
a few of the other 50 do not look for 
work? The only effect is to leave the 
chance of work to perhaps the moet 
needful Better for the 450 working to 
pay the other 50 and not to seek work 
till they know where there is some 
chance of it being found ; better to 
withdraw them from the labor market 
altogether. 

If we are not prepared to share the 
work with the unemployed, they have a 
claim upon us as brother trade unionist 
to share the wages, and the trade union- 
ists who do so through an unemployed 
benefit are fulfilling their duty to their 
power brothers better than those who do 
not— they are better trade unionists. 

A redaction in the hoars of labor and 
an unemployed benefit should go hand 
in hand. 




Eight-Hours a day is the rule now for 
some months back on all carpenter 
work in Boston, where done by fair 
minded bosses. 



Polygons And Iheir Mitres. 



«V A. W. WOODS, LINCOLN, NKH. 



Mr. Editor.— With your kind per- 
mission I herewith submit the following 
article on polygons and their mitres. 
This subject and all others pertaining to 
framing is fully covered in my chart 
Vie &[uar§ Root Delineator in the Art of 
I'raminq advertised in Thk Carpenter. 

To bear out the statements therein 
made I have chosen the above subject 
because it is probably as difficult as any 
to comprehend. By the aid of the 
chart the mitre for any polygon is 
accurately given. In the illustration 
here presented we exemplify fourteen. 
It will readily be seen that it is the 
degrees that determine the mitres. 

Then bring 360° in a circle and 
by dividing that number by the 
number of sides desired will give 



In the next issue of the Cabpxntrr 
we will preeent our method of develop- 
the hips for O. G. or any other Bhape, 
length of jacks etc. 

Th e Carpenter has taken the agency 
of the Woods chart above referred to, 
for the Unions, and all orders for same 
should be sent to the Editor. 

Price, postpaid, |3 00. 



Unions Still Dilatory. 



Below is a list of Unions from which 
no list of officers has been sent ns up to 
date, since the election last December: 

200 

252 

368 

403 

422 

519 

543 

590 




# r A * *30cu or »Nf *9 ua 4( noor oeimtAron in 

Thf ART Of fRAMlNt, 



the degree that the mitres stand 
with each other, but in order to 
find the figures on the steel square to 
lay out the mitres we must divide 360° 
by doable the number of sides desired 
in polygon, the quotient will be the 
degree of the mitre with the centre of 
the polygon. Thus to find the figures to 
lay out the octagon mitre dividing 360° 
by 16 equals 22A°. Now referring to the 
diagram of the equare with 12 on the 
tongue at the starting point, a direct line 
intersecting 22 \ ° passes at 4ji on the 
blade. These figures will give the mitre, 
the blade giving the cut. This propor- 
tion exists at any place on the square. 
We use 12 on the tongue for all polygons 
because it is one foot and the figures on 
the blade represent the length of side 
for one foot inscribed diameter. For 
more accuracy we express the exact 
length decimally. (Bee column to the 
right.) That for the octagon is 4.9705 
inches Multiplving this number by a 
given diameter will give the required 
length. Example : What is the side of 
an octagon eight feet in diameter. 
Operation, 

4 9705 X 8- 89.7640 or 3' 8J" 

To find the side of a polygon in a 
circumscribed diameter, proceed as 
above but multiply the decimal given in 
the left hand column. 



Practical Hints. 



BY OWEN B. MAQINNIH. 



TO FIND MITRES ON THE STEEL SQUARE. 

12"and 12 =8qoare Mitre, or 45° 

7 11 4 —Triangle 44 equilateral 

18} 44 10 —Pentagon 44 or 5-sided fig. 
4 44 7 —Hexagon 44 44 0 44 41 

12 J 44 6 =Heptagon 44 44 7 44 4 4 

18 41 7} Octagon 44 44 8 44 4 4 

22J 0 — Nonagon 44 44 9 44 44 

9J 44 3 -Decagon 14 44 10 44 44 

In response to a correspondent I here 
give common ratter cute on eteel square 
for different pitches; alio hips, and 
valleys. 

For 

1 pitch take 3 in. rise 12 in. level or plate 



i 


44 


4 


4« 


12 “ 


44 


i 


14 




44 


12 “ 


44 


i 


«4 


6 


44 


12 “ 


44 


i 


44 


8 


44 


12 “ 


4 4 


* 


44 


12 


44 


12 “ 


44 


i 


• 4 


16 


44 


12 


44 


Goth. 


41 


21 


44 


12 “ 


44 



For hipe and valleys substitute 17 
inches on level or plate for 12 inches. 



TEN FOOT BOARDS TO A SQUARE. 

24 hoards 5 inches wide 







20 


- «4 


6 


44 <4 






17 


44 


7 


•* “ add 1 foot 






15 


44 


8 


44 44 41 ^ ** 






13 


14 


9 


44 41 A4 | 14 






12 


44 


10 


44 44 4| | 44 




TWELVE 


FOOT BOARDS TO A SQUARE. 


20 boards 5 inches wide 


16 


44 


6 


44 




44 add 4 feet extra 


14 


44 


7 


• 4 




44 44 2 ** 41 


12 


44 


8 


44 




• 1 


11 


44 


9 


4« 




•• add 1 foot 


10 


44 


10 


44 




44 



TABLE OF SAFE PROPORTIONS OF TIMBER 
FOR POSTS, GIRDERS, ETC. 

Load on floor ISO to ISO pouhde per eq ft. 

Oak. 

Bearing post 10 feet high 6x6 inches 



44 


12 


44 


8x8 


41 


44 


14 


44 


10x10 


44 


4« 


16 


44 


12x12 


14 


44 


18 


44 


14x14 


44 


44 


20 


44 


16x16 


44 



SPRUCE OB YELLOW PINE. 



Bearing post 


8 feet high 


8x8 


inches 


44 


10 


4« 


9x!l 


44 


44 


12 


44 


10x10 


44 


44 


14 


«4 


12« 12 


44 


44 


16 


44 


14x14 


41 



GIRDERS. 

Oak. 

16 a. bet’n centres bear'g posts 10x12 in. 
20 44 44 12x14 44 

24 14x16 “ 



SPRUCE OR YELLOW PIN*. 

16 ft. bet’n centres bear’g pouts 10x12 in. 
20 44 41 •• 12x14 44 

24 “ “ •• 14x16 “ 

JOISTS OR FLOOR BEAMS. 

6 feet span 2x4 inches 
8 44 44 2x6 44 

10 4 4 4 4 3 x 8 44 

SPRUCE OR YELLOW PINE. 

6 feet span 2x6 inches 
8 44 44 2x8 44 

10 44 44 2x10 44 

Joitts spaced 12 inches on centres. 

BARTERS. 



For 8 ft. span 2x3 inches 



44 10 44 


44 


2x4 


44 |2 44 


44 


2x4 


.4 ]4 «4 


44 


2x4 


44 16 44 


44 


2x6 


4« J 8 .4 


44 


2x6 


44 20 44 


44 


2x6 


44 4« 

a. a. 


44 


2x6 


44 24 44 


14 


2x8 


“ 26 •• 


44 


2x8 


“ 28 “ 


44 


2x10 


“ 30 “ 


44 


2x10 



«« 

<« 

i< 

4« 

4 1 

M with collar tie 

“ •• 44 4 4 



4* 44 1 4 I« 

** 44 «• || 

44 44 «« 4 



All above proportioned for 1-inch roof 
boards and shingles and spaced 16 inches 
on centres. 

For slate space 12 inches on centres, 
and add 1 inch ol depth * „ach rafter. 

For hipe and valleys -Id I inch to 
thickness and 2 inches to depth np to 
fall pitch, above full pitch add 3 inches 
to depth. 



St* Louis, Mo.— We are now beginning 
to grow, aa the boys have had all the 
bitter experience they want in getting 
along without a onion. 



(too. II. C handle«. II. C. Chandleo. 

7 i wh jy m 

Trade-Mark», Caveat*. Etc. 

CH ANOLKB A CHANOLEE. 

PATENTS AND PATENT CAUSES 

El.otno.1 and M.oh.nie.l Expert., 
POLACK BUILDING, ATLANTIC BUILDING. 
York, P.. W.okMfton, O. C 





the carpenter. 



THE CARPENTER 



PHILADELPHIA, JUNE. 1895. 



mm ü 



The Trades-Union. 



. trades union ie destined 

to develop the highest 
-A^, type of manhood in the 
ryr march of civili/ation. 

I i As followed 

barbarism, so eduea- 
^ ^ tion and enlighten- 
er ment, have slowly bat 

successfully brought 
about the freedom of 
thought and action which averts the 
the equality of rights before the law. 
Trades unionism is not a wild or vision- 
ary theory to he spoken of contempt- 
uously, as are many other isms. It is 
not a theory, but a fact. It is not a 
privilege, but a right. It ib a right 
founded upon principles consonant to 
justice; upon just claim; lawful, true, 
honest, equitable, proper. It does not 
Bland aB a creed at war with all other 
creeds. It in rather cosmopolite in tenet 
than dogmatic, an<l regards the interests 
of mankind rather than of itn own class 
or kind. In this respect it bars no one 
to its communion ; It is open to the 
world, regard less of age, sex, color, sect, 
nationality or political alliliation. It is 
far and above all others in the precept, 
“ one for all and all for one "— typifying 
in the fullest and hroadeet sense the 
universal brotherhood of man. 

In its organization it is a« lawful and 
holy as the church. It takes no private 
road, pursaee no forbiddpn paths nor 
strives to monopolize the privileges of 
others. It seeks to guard and protect 
its belongings; to advance the interest« 
of the weak and helpless and to amelio- 
rate the condition of all mankind. 

It in not a secret oath-bound cabal, 
combined for plot and intrigue. Its 
counsels arc private only iu the sense of 
a propriety which prevails in a firm or 
corporation. It has no more secrecy in 
its actions than is allotted the domestic 
circle in the most humble of family 
relations. Notan Action ie taken within 
its dosed doors that would disturb the 
harmony of society or benefit the com- 
munity as a mass by its published dis- 
closure. Its business is within itself, 
and can in no sense bring evil effect to 
either Htate or Church; nothing of a 
nature so detrimental that might not be 
proclaimed from the altar of the cathe- 
dral or forum of the citadel. 

While organized on a principle ot 
polity as with all other established insti- 
tutions, it is only in so far as that 
principle is applicable to the science of 
government. It is political in the sense 
of prosecuting economic reforms for the 
betterment of its class ; but it is also 
strongly ethical, as in teaching precepts 
of morality, character, human duty, one 
to another. 

Capital in the hands of one or more 
persons is invested under certain econ- 
omic rules which may bring increased 
returns upon the amount of Investment. 
In the various modes of reproduction the 
price upon the raw material is not fixed 
by the buyer, but by the holder and 
seller. With millions invested in com- 
modities for the production of articles 
for ornament or use, capital would still 
be helpless, ’ t for the application of 
labor to the methods of producing the 
finished article. As before said, as 
commodities regu ate their own value to 
the buyer, so labor, in the sense of a 



thought and 



commodity, has an unquestioned right to 
fix its own price. It can not do this 
single-handed anti alone, as an indi\- 
idual, hence it must organi/e, as a mane, 
to meet projH*rly the demands of force 
already organized which Beeke its appli- 
cation for ti e increase in value of minor 
commodities. Capital in the hands of 
one man or a dozen would be worthless 
as investment without organized system 
in the conduct of business. It has, how- 
ever, no exclusive power to organize, 
simply because it represents money. 
Labor haB, and can exercise, the same 
power to protect itself as can capital. 
One represents money capital and the 
other labor capital, and organization ie 
just as lawful and legal for one as for the 
other. Hence the trades union.— 7 hr 
7»// >o*jra i*l deal Journal . 

• • ♦ ■ “ 

WE DON’T PATRONIZE. 

Union Workingmen ami working women anil 
pynip*tlii«er» wilh lal*or have rrfu»*r«l to |»ur- 
cIihmc article* produced by t lit» following tlrnm. 
l.nl*»r paper*« please* copy : 

H. OTTENItKKO & BKOS.’ CIGARS 

GKO. EH RETS’ LAGER BKKU. 

JA< KSON RKKWKKY, LAGER BKKIt 

MTU DEB AKER BROM. MANTO CO.'HC'Alt- 
R I AO EM AND WAGONS. 

HT. I.OU I A BREWERS* ASSOCIATION, 
LAUER BEER. 

PRAY, SMALL A CO., SHOES 

AMERICAN BISCUIT CO.’S BISCUITS. 

MEYER, JON ASSEN A Co., CLOAKS. 

BICYCLE WHEEL WORKS, BICYCLES. 

WESTERN WHEEL BICYCLE CO.. CHI- 
CAGO. “Black haw k," ’*Crcaoent, M 
” E.Hcoit,” " Juno,” M Rob Roy.” 

RAND- Mi'NALLY PUBLISHING OO., CHI- 
CAGO. 

W ASII BU RN-CROSBY CO., FLOUR, MIN 
NBA POLLS. 

SCHOOL MEAT CO., FURNITURE, GRAND 
RAPIDS. 

PPAFF BREWING CO., BOSTON. 

YOCUM BROS , CIGARS, READING, PA. 

BOSTON PILOT, BOSTON REPUBLIC. 

GLENDALE FABRIC CO., EAST HAMP- 
TON, MASS. 

IIOPKDALK MFG. CO., HOPKDALE, MASS. 

A. F. SMITH, SHOES, LYNN, MASS. 

UNITED STATES BAKING CO. 

WERNER PRINTING CO., AKRON. O 

HAMILTON-BROWN S||OK CO , ST. LOUIS. 

DAUBE, COHEN A CO., CLOTHING, ( HI 
CAGO. 

MESKER BROS., ST. LOUIS. 

CLEMENT, BANE A CO., CLOTHIERS, CHI 
CAGO. 

HACK ETT, CARII ART A CO , CLOTHIERS, 
NEW YORK. 

OBITUARY. 



i fii 



Jatkhon villi, Pi.A , April 26, 189ft 
Al a regular meeting of local U..ion No. 006, 
Carpenter«’ ami Join era’ United Brotherhood, 
held on Monday la»t, It having I »een learned of 
tho death of Brother William Havdkn, who 
departed thi« life April 11, 1825, the following 
reaolutionn wire unantmoiiHly adopted : 

While thin Brotherhood humbly how* to the 
will of the Manter Workman of the Universe, 
we deeply deplore the loss of Brother Hayden, 
for In him this Union loses a true and faithful 
member, his family a kind and loving brother 
and dutiful son. 

Brsolved, That this Union tender Brother Hay- 
den's family their sincere sympathy, and com- 
mend them to Him In their hour of grief who 
doeth all things well. Be It further 
Briolred. That they be suitably inaerilwd on 
the records of this Brotherhood, ami a copy sent 
to the family of deceased , also H copy he fur- 
nished the local press for publication. 

B F. Hawiee, J 

Hio. Mit.LN.ft, V Committee. 

Feed Ooraw, j 

Evansville, Jnd , April II, Ixift, 
Whereas, It has pleased the all wise Ruler of 
the Universe to take from our midst Brother 
Michael Foley ; belt 

BtMolrrd, That w e, members of Union VO, have 
lost an earnest worker In the cause of labor and 
unionism. 

Bt&olved, That we tender our heartfelt sym- 
pathy to the bereaved widow and family; lie it 
also 

Braved. That a copy of these resolutions Ins 
sent to the fsinily of our deceased brother, and 
also In* spread on the minutes of our Union, 
and they Ins published In our ofllclal journal 
Tn« Carpenter, and that we drape our Charter 
for thirty days. 

F. W Klein. 1 

John B. Banks, l Committee, 

J. J. H< HOETTLIN, I 



Buo. VVm. Taggart, of Buffalo, lately 
addressed the carpenters of Niagara 
Fall, N. V., under auspices of Union 575, 
with good ellect. 

* 

a * 

(Harry McCormack, Union No. 1, 
Chicago, formerly Secretary of the Dis- 
trict Council, is now assistant superin- 
tendent of the bridge department of that 
city. 

a 

a a 

Patrick I>ol»n of Union 1M, Provi- 
dence, K. l.,ie a zealous, nntirinc worker, 
lie suited u|>a new union in < Hney ville, 
U. I. Pro. .1. II. Cook acted ae Uiutrict 
Organizer. 

a 

a a 

Howard M \ddov, formerly of Union 
11, Cleveland, (>., is the inventor of the 
patent self-locking and adjustable 
shoulder plane. 

a 

a a 

Kusinksh Agknt Kotiert Beatty, of the 
Brooklyn, N. Y., carpenters, has becu 
very successful in prosecuting violations 
of the Fight hour law and Alien Labor 
law’ of the State of New York. 

a 

* a 

District < »rganizer .fames Frazier of 
Cincinnati, without expense to thisollice, 
visited Dayton, u., April 25th, and 
aroused a lively interest in the work. 
He also took quite a hand in reorganising 
Union 405, Ludlow, Ky. 

a 

a a 

Samukl Gomieks’ speech in New Or- 
leans was a rouser, and Odd Fellows' 
Hall was crowded by an immense audi- 
ence to hear him. His Southern trip 
has been very helpful to union carpen- 
ters of that section and to all organized 
labor. 

a 

a a 

W. F. Srorr, Kecording Secretary, 
Union <>90, Tampa, Fla , has been ap- 
pointed Sanitary Inspector of that city, 
with police authority to enforce the sani- 
tary laws. The trade unions of Tarnpa 
at the last mnnicipal election elected the 
city clerk and two councilmcu. 

a 

a a 

J. J. Oallagiikk, President Union 176, 
Newport, K. I., on the ninth anniversary 
of the union, May 13, was the surprised 
recipient of a testimonial for his efficient 
services as a union man and shop steward. 
He was presented with a reclining chair 
and meerschaum pipe. The meeting 
was largely attended, and happy speeches 
were made by »Secretary P. B. Dawley 
and P. C. Mulqueeny, .Secretary of the 
Trades’ Council. 

« • 

Karl Kiuiikr, is not only a true and 
zealous union man ; he is likewise a 
poetic genius, whose facile pen has often 
graced these columns in metered verse. 
Recently two songs of his, set to mash;, 
have aroused great interest, viz.: u The 
Ideal Greater Pittsburgh" and "Dear 
Remembrance of Atlantic City, N. J.” 
These songs are at popular rates. Write 
Karl Keuber, Boston street and Fifth 
avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Ohkonta, N. Y . — Union No. 101 has 
been growing very rapidly. On April J 
we intended to inaugurate the eight-hour 
day and a set of trade rules, and so 
notified the l>o«ses. But trade was too 
dull, and the contractors gave no ear to 
us. Now we have the bulk of our men 
employed on the co-operative basis, and 
are getting plenty of work at nine hours 
a day. 



What tho Trades Union is Doing. 

It is the trade union which is bringing 
the laborers together, teaching thim t 0 
know each other, and to learn their com. 
moD interest. 

It is the trade union which is advising 
the means of practical advance, obtain- 
ing higher wages, reductions of hours of 
labor, or checking the pressure of cor- 
porate greed upon the weak and help, 
lees. 

It is the trade union which is carrying 
on the agitation of great social reforms, 
originating legislation in behalf of the 
masses, and providing the means for dis- 
tinguishing the friends and the enemies 
of labor among legislators. 

In the face of these facts, measurtd as 
a test of value, the true unionist can 
afford to “let the heathen rave,” ami 
the followers of visionary theories claim 
the superior eflicAcy of their ideas. 

Let destructionietH try to tear down 
this work if they will let small iiiimln 
sneer and mean minds revile the tnule 
union needs no apology hut its own 
achievement, no defence hut the con- 
tinuance of the work it has nobly inatigu- 
rated and carried on Ashland l/»/*n/. 

The State ami Trade Unions* 

It is a sound view of the functions of 
the State, says Mr. Bernard Holland in 
the A 'in* be». /A ( evtury, that it should 
interfere as little as possible with in- 
dividuals in the conduct of business and 
industry. If any country allows its 
central government to absorb into its 
organs nil the capital and industrial man* 
aging power of the (Commonwealth, and 
to give the ablest and moet energetic 
citizens the sad choice Udween becoming 
regulation-fettered officials and betaking 
themselvee to less enslaved regions, that 
country will, in the industrial sphere, as 
surely fall before the competition or lee« 
highly civilized rivals as, in the field of 
arms, centralized and bureaucratic Rome 
fell before her vigorous and free Barbar- 
ian invaders. 

By the time that theState has acquired 
all tiie 14 means of production, distribu- 
tion and exchange,” it is to be feared 
that the subject-matter of the operations 
will have vanished. But the principle 
that the State uhould interfere as little as 
possible in industrial matters is tem- 
pered or checked by this other ancient 
and well founded principle; namely, 
that the State, as the organ of the w hole 
Commonwealth, shonld protect the weak 
against abuses of power by the strong. 
It is on this ground that alike rest things 
so different as an action for assault and 
battery and the factory legislation of the 
last fifty years. 

Here, then, is seen the advantage of 
drawing as clearly as possible the main 
distinction between the crafts which are 
able to and should form themselves into 
strong organizations and the industries 
which are unable to do so. Hvery one 
admits the expediency ot State interven- 
tion in the case of the labor of women 
and children. 

— — ■ ■■■ 

Rock land, Me. — Union 83b secured 
the nine-hour day, and now, as per 
agreement with the contractors, the men 
are getting the old ten-hour rate of pay. 

Flushing, N. Y.-We work nine hours 
a day. Union 714 had its members out 
two days for an advance in wages, from 
12.50 to S3. 00 for April 1. We gained it 
to go into effect June 17, and also recog- 
nition of the union. 

Nxw Havkn, Conn.— We had two 
meetings here in March last with the 
otuer two Carpenters' societies of this 
city to start for the eight-hour day. But 
the want of unity prevented. Btill, 
Union 700 is working ahead. 



THE CARPENTER. 



i 



ISM 



RECEIPTS- MARCH 1895. 

Protu the Unions (Thi, etc.) 

44 \d vertlaers 

14 S.iIjhctIImtm Hiitl Clearances . . , 
44 Kent ami (tan . . . • 



$5,442 18 
6 41 
6 75 
S3 70 



Total $5,480 04 

DIVISION OK MARCH RECEIPTS. 

(Am per Section $8). 

General Kuml, »even tenths $3.842 34 

Protective Kuml, two-tcnllm 1,007 HO 

Organizing Fund, «»ne-tenth $48 00 

Total $5 480 04 

SUMMARY OK GENERAL FUND. 

Mitr«‘li Percentage , $3,842 34 

Organizing Kuml 548 90 

Special A»»«*H»nicnta, 4»ec page 3 of May 
Oa itf KRTKit miller head of moneys 

mtiived) 4,761 $0 

Cash Balance Mar. 1, 1895 711 09 

Total 10,863 83 

KXPKNSKS -MARCH, 1895. 

For Printing $542 50 

44 Office, etc 641 13 

44 Organizing II 50 

44 Law Kipcuaca 112 91 

44 Ki. 4 Jen. Treaa., Troy 139 00 

44 Tat to A F. of L, 50 00 

44 HenctitM No». 3,148 to 8.182 4,700 00 

Canti on haml, April 1, 1896 3,703 76 

Total $9*6183 

Octal Ini Expense* -March« 1H95, 



Printing $.000 appeal» t 7 50 

44 5,000 agitation cardH 12 50 

44 500 poHtal cards I 25 

44 1,000 |HMital receipts 3 00 

44 1,000 enveloped 12$ 

44 6,000 4 ierman constitutions • • 90 00 

44 10,000 English 44 . . 100 00 

*' 600 password « ircular» 3 2$ 

44 16,250 copied April Journal . . . 323 75 

Pontage on April Journal 18 33 

Hpeelal wrllerd for April Journal .... 27 25 

Pontage on supplies, etc« 23 28 

500 (.ostal cards 500 

1,000 »tamped envelope* and 1,000 pu»tal 

card» * 31 80 

Telegram 64 

Kxpreaaage on supplies 20 87 

Oflloe rent for March 26 00 

Salary and clerk hire . . $57 66 

Tax to A. F. of L.« (February) 50 00 

Itiihher seal», etc. 1100 

M CJ Roberta, prize drawing In Car* 

I'lNTKK . • . 10 00 

F J. Lambert, attorney, for services ... 20 00 

Hugh McKay, Org- (n Mass., Aug., 1894 . 11 50 

Wide A McNulty, law ex|M'tiNCs In Field» 4 

Suit vi. U.B 62 50 

l>. 43., Brooklyn, N. Y., law expenses in 

Hcltepp Suit l i. II. B. 40 44 

Stationery 90 

JatiMit Troy, service» an Gen. Treasurer to 

Jan. 14, 1895 139 00 

Cloal and Wood 1 40 

Janitor, cleaning oflloe .......... 5 00 

Benetlt«« Noe. 8148 to 3182 4700 00 





Claim» Approved in March, 1895. 

i. Nam*. Union. Amt. 

8. Geo. Selgle 1 $200 00 

9. A. Melll 1 200 00 

0. A. Witt 1 260 00 

1. Mrs. M. Guertler 2 60 00 

2. I). Willette 11 200 00 

3. Mr». L Hahn 16 50 00 

4. L. H. Reilly 20 20000 

3. Mr». K. lamliert 25 50 00 

6. F. Timlin 29 200 00 

7. Mr» M. Wool ford 29 60 00 

8. M. Mueller 30 200 00 

9. Mm. J. McNeil 33 50 00 

0. Jaa. McNeil 33 100 00 

L Mr». C. Buaeli 61 50 On 

2. D. Zweifel 73 200 00 

3. Roht. Killonde 76 400 00 

d. David Bacon 121 50 00 

Ä. O. Gray, Sr. 83 200 00 

6. Bin«. K. Maloney 138 60 00 

17. Mr» R. Cotton 151 60 00 

M Geo Simona . 169 200 00 

>9. Mr». A. laracu 181 50 00 

'0. Pcder Rund 181 2U0 00 

1. D. Melntoah 190 200 00 

12. Ja*. Thompson 340 200 00 

ra. Mra. S. A David 340 60 03 

'4 I . K < Til| .mini 374 2U0 00 

r&. Mra. K N. Lanmon 407 50 (8) 

r6 A. D Romm 446 5tj 00 

17. Mra. 8. Coyle . . 4$1 60 00 

1H. Mra, F. P. Loefller 513 50 00 

)9. Thoa. Frolland 567 200 00 

10 Mra M Stlegler 628 60 00 

41 W.J Hebtirr 638 200 00 

42. K. B. Cunningham .... . 736 200 On 

Total $4,700 00 



( lui ms Approved Id April« IMIu, 



Nank. 

Mr». M Ka»holz . 

S K Bell 

Mra. A Metnerdlng 
Geo. Shaw .... 
V Stall Ihut .... 
D Dugan .... 

I Foley 

II B Wright. . . 
Mr» C. V. Ward . 
Thu», liroadhead 

K. Vavrtnec 

Mr» O. I .arson • • 
J. K. Kelly .... 
G K. Hmiihoii . . . 
It. K Munro . . . 
Mr». T Farrell . . 
II . J. H. Kvera . . . 
J It lilalr .... 
A. A. B re water . . 

A Anderten . . . 

C. Neldon 

Mr». L. K. Morton 
George L. Ilazlett 
Mra. M T. Co veil 

F. J. Huker .... 

D. A Stoner • • . 
J. C. Hendrick» . . 
T. II David .... 

G. T. Mar»hall . . 
Mr». M Haw key . 
M M. Donal.l . . 
Win. Walah . . . 

L. Fritauf. «... 
H Me later .... 
Mrs K Mueller . . 
S II. Sk dlinan . . 
P. Lcldecker . , • 

F. Mar* 

Mrs M. Wandel . 
C. Schalk 



Union 


Amt 


. . 1 


|S0 00 


. . 2 


200 OO 


a . 2 


60 00 


. . 4 


300 04) 


• . 6 


200 00 


. . 8 


105 AS 


. . 1ft 


200 00 


. . 20 


206 00 


. . 29 


50 00 


. . 31 


200 90 


. . 64 


200 00 


. . 62 


64) 00 


. . 73 


24)0 4)0 


. . 72 


200 041 


. . 82 


200 00 


. . 14)9 


50 09 


. 119 


200 00 


. . 140 


200 00 


. . 181 


204) 00 


. . 181 


100 00 


1HI 


200 00 


. . 198 


50 06 


. .211 


204) 00 


. . 221 


60 00 


. . 241 


200 00 


. . 241 


200 00 


. . 281 


60 00 


. . 301 


50 00 


. .3 27 


204) 00 


. . 359 


50 00 


. . mi 


24M) 00 


. .461 


200 00 


. . 464 


204) 00 


. .507 


204) 00 


. .618 


50 00 


. . 62«; 


49 50 


. . 561 


204) O0 


. . 586 


200 00 


. .611 


60 0 0 


. .786 


60 00 



Report of Protective Kuud. 



MORBYS III'BItliKD. 

1865. 

Match 13, D. G. of Chicago . , . . 
March PJ, 44 «»it 

April IS, “ . . » » 

March 10, Man». State Council . . . 
April SU, D. Ü. of Brook ly it, N. Y. . 



Total $2,360 00 





FOR TAX. SPECIAL ASSESSMENTS, ETC., 
During the month ending April 30, 1896. 
Wbaiva toy rron appear ooüfy Um O. B T. wltfcaal «alaj. 



p ^ ö p a 0 

i Is i b i 



1,100 07 $$,806 16 

Pitthbuhcim, Pa.— Oar District Council 
is in negotiation with the 1 tailclera* Ka- 
oliang* to secure An agreement an to 
wages and hours anti the signs are 
favorable. 

$500 tio WiiKJci.iNti, W. Va. We are having 
500 oo j 0 j nt conferences, from time to time, this 
JJJU JJJJ spring with a committee of the HuiMers’ 
5 oo ou Kxchange, and with gootl effect. This 

covers Wheeling, Martin's Ferry and 

D*>°° Hellaire. 



utatbmbrt of ranrauriva roRD. 1 ’rivatk ownership of railroads, among 

FROM risaiJARY ], 189$, TO MAY 1, >896. its other fruit*, says the Iwmrrn 9 'Jribunt, 

Leah on hand Feb. i, 1895 $ 7 . 7*9 05 DO w includes a Freuch count just bought 

Keonlpld, February, Mwrcli and April . . 3,132 47 f or g husband at the price of $2,000,000 

by Miss Anna Gould, heiress of the late 

Total $16,87 1 62 ce i e brated railroad pirate. Probably 

Moneys expended (detail» given almve.) 2,366 00 nine-tenths of this llttl* Slice of the 



Total $16,671 52 



l-$l$5 60 146 $7 20 8 

3 57 20 147 12 65 3 

3 7 40 149 4 90 3 

4 47 20 161 19 80 4 

5 21 $0 164 13 95 1 

6 1 8u t55 ]1 f.O J 

7 2 80 158 3 HO 1 

8 3 00 160 10 20 4 

9 9 OB 162 19 84) 4 

11 28 30 164 6 69 1 

12 13 00 166 6 40 1 

14 2 60 167 18 20 J 

15 10 36 D44 1 1 40 \ 

16 83 70 169 16 6»’ I 

17 9 20 170 2 CO i 

18- 4 20 171 9 HO \ 

19 2 4M) 173 2 80 i 

20 12 70 175- -30 20 1 

21 19 20 176 21 40 1 1 

22 82 80 177 7 84 i 

23 30 40 179 14 83 \ 

2$ 14 40 181 91 40 ] 

35 e 00 |86 6 40 1 

17 7 20 189 8 HO 1 

28- 117 00 190 6 20 ,j 

29— 68 40 191 $ 24» 1 

80 ]o 30 192 6 80 j 

31 2 20 193 $ 80 J 

33—119 60 194 3 41) >1 

36 5 00 196 6 60 ! 

87 3 20 19« 3 64) \ 

88 6 20 198 8 40 i 

40 6 85 199 13 M) 1 

42 9 mo 200 12 20 1 

43 «2 00 301 6 10 

44 9 40 303 19 35 

45 1 40 307 1« 40 

46 6 30 Jjfl 6 MO 

49 2 64» 309 17 20 ' 

51 81 «0 211 18 40 I 

52 10 O'» 214 3 40 i 

54 82 00 215 13 M) i 

5) 11 0) 218 5 2«) { 

99 7 »0 221 10 60 

6« — 11 60 223 3 10 

51 1m 70 2)5 6 40 

62 38 10 226 3 40 

63 54 60 227 20 8« 

64 2$ 40 228 9 HO 

67 4 40 229 5 45 I 

70 15 M) 230 7 65 

72 2« 30 231 6 50 

78 j 7 60 232 5 0o 

74 5 10 233 4 50 

76 4 70 235— 4 

78 5 40 238 10 00 

90 5 20)23» 12 20 

82 6 60 MO 18 60 

83 18 * 142 5 20 

87 — 13 00 143 6 60 

88 1 5 70 >44 2 4*> 

99 5 «4 340 4 60 

90 18 40 )47 — 26 84) 

92 8 00 219 4 8» 

93 9 00 2V> 4 60 

94-- II "0 251 7 10 

9« 14 55 253 6 20 

97 2 HO 257 32 80 

99 « 00 258 14 20 

100 3 7)> 260 21 10 

10] 9 24) 268 4 40 

102 14 Hi) 266 1 80 

103 8 25 266 1 60 

104 15 20 267 2 4«) 

108--I00 40 268 7 10 

109 54 44) 969 31 60 

HI 17 20 270 15 

119 22 40 *78 10 60 

118 3 60 274 20 40 

114 2 10 275 4 50 1 

116 7 30 276 24 03 

Hg 5 80 277 6 70 

119 18 64) 281 18 00 

Ifl 13 80 284 7 HO 

in 14 04) 286 15 20 

124 4 40 287 12 50 

125 22 20 288 7 84) 

126 7 10 290 1 25 

130 9 20 291 7 00 

132 6 00)294 8 50 

134 10 50,296 9 60 

186 9 «0 298 14) 00 

180 5 no ,300 2 00 

187- - 6 80,304 $ 60 

138 6 00 1 305 6 00 

J40 3 04) 306 15 20 

141 13 40' 308 12 04) , 

142 16 04» 109- -153 80 

143 I 30 314 6 10 

144 n 00 lift- - 4 00 i 

141 2 4C .116 10 80 i 



REt 4 E I PTH— APRIL, 1895. 

From the Union» (Tax, etc,) $1,826 99 

44 Monsonia, Cal., lapsed 133 00 

44 Advertisers $7 50 

44 Subscribers und cl earn ticca ... 4 60 

•• tent io oo 



amenta in* 



— Si 90 615--$30 40 

— 2 00 618 14 oo 

— 2 60 519 2 00 

— 8 40 521 12 00 

-11 20 422 8 50 

— 6 «0 JV2A--37 20 

— 3 60 634 3 60 

— 6 40 519 8 80 

— 3 00 451 2 20 

— 36 80 453 1 60 

— 4 40 444 36 80 

— 3 80 55$ 6 60 

— 5 »0 %57 4 59 

77 10 660 2 40 

— 11 40 558 43 20 

— 14 50 564 13 40 

— 4 40 567 21 05 

— G 80 468 3 00 

— 8 20 574 7 80 

— 11 10 475 5 00 

— 2 30 581 8 15 

— 12 05 ft>ft 2 «0 

— 5 80 586 7 65 

— 2 20 591 8 40 

— 4 00 592 8 00 

— 5 00 *96 2 10 

— 9 20 596 3 20 

— 2 Hi 602 1 40 

— 15 *20 503 10 70 

— 7 20 504 10 50 

— 1 80 50.5 II 00 

— 5 55 506 4 20 

— 4 20 611 14 15 

,_24 «17 7 2o 

— 55 00 519 11 30 

— 9 10 «22- — ft 85 

-5 10 «23 9 30 

-14 CO 526 5 no 

— 3 HO 528 14 40 

- 9 80 «29 4 Ou 

— 9 0u 536 2 20 

— 1 80 6*47 9 HO 

— 8 5m £8 18 80 

— 6 00 «39 10 0O 

31 50 549 10 20 

— 82 00 541 1 60 

— 8 20 646 6 60 

— 20 20 .547 9 50 

— 6 40 '549 S 00 

— 8 20 ,540-— 50 

— 5 60 1 >54 6 70 

1 60 588 50 

Ih HO 569 10 40 

4 HU 561 1 80 

10 50 564 4 44) 

— 4 80 567 16 80 

— 17 20 376 8 »4) 

— 8 00 578 43 80 

17 30 579 10 04» 

— 2 40 )5M3 8 60 

3 00 585 7 3 ft 

— II 00 1 587 7 20 

-- 8 34 589 5 20 

— 3 00 502 10 44 

2 84) 506 6 80 

II 40 598 7 40 

11 25 599 7 «0 

— 2 80 701 4 40 

— — 14 80 ’08 18 20 

— 19 10 704 11 45 

— 10 00 712 7 «•• 

2 01 714 1« 5A 

— 34 60 716 24 10 

8 64) 716 28 00 

6 00 717 6 60 

— 10 60 71» 4 00 

8 05 *38 8 30 

22 60 72$ 2 10 

6 60 7)6 12 80 

— 4 40 72« 1 «0 

17 64) 780 1* 80 

8 40 78| 6 0« 

10 00 784 1 80 

— 13 60 786 6 50 

6 00 780 5 64) 

— 14 60 741 2ft 50 

~ ® 40 '74« 3 54) 

— ?6 00 74ft | 4)0 

— 7 60 TftO H CO 

— 10 00 7ft2 9 10 

7 CO 756 11 $0 

ft 00 747 2 60 

3 40 756 8 60 

8| 00 766 9 00 

5 20 772 6 00 

9 40 788 4 40 

— 3 20 786 5 60 

l8 JO 7M 6 90 

-—81 20 790 8 40 

HO 806 2 00 

-- 41 90 | 



Total $6,012 09 

DIVISION OF APRIL RECEIPTS. 

(Am per Section 68). 

General Fund, seven th-tcntLd $3,622 48 

Protective Fund, two-tenth» 1,4)06 41 

Organizing Fund, one-tenth 503 20 

Total Sft.Oü*-' I» 

STATEMENT OK GENERAL FUND. 

April Pereentage . $3,522 48 

Orgnril/.lng Fund 54)3 *20 

Special A*Me»Mineul» received in A|»til . 283 50 

GrmIi Balance, April 1, 1196 ....... 3,76170 

Total $8,072 91 

EXPENSES, APRIL, 1896 

For Printing $369 CO 

44 Ofthc, etc 626 42 

44 Organizing 126 61 

44 Tax to A. F or 1 60 00 

44 Expenses of CJ. K. 11. 486 20 

44 Attorney 4 » ICximmi»«*» ........ 41 80 

44 lieuelilM Non. 3183 to 3222 5,805 16 

(■autboti hand, May 1, 1896 • 673 76 



«6,110 49 



Total received, ............ 16,110 49 

Deducting Special Asscaamenti In- 
cluded above, . . 283 60 

Total for Tax and Supplies $4,826 99 



Total $8,072 94 

Detailed Kxpeu»e»— April, 1K1).>. 

Pi tilling 1,000 atamped enveloped .... $12$ 

44 6,nno notice» of arrearn ..... 10 00 

44 6,0C0 notch cad» ......... 12 60 

44 16.530 copied May Journal . . . 326 50 

Ream of heavy wrapping pa|»er 8 7$ 

Pontage «m May Journal 17 76 

Special writer» for Apvil and May .... 38 00 

Engraving» for May Journal 12 86 

PoMlage on supplied, etc. il h$ 

1,000 -tamped envelopes 21 80 

12 telegram» 0 61 

KxprcHisge on supplies 14 40 

Oflii «• rent for April 2$ CO 

P, O. liox rent for f|uaitcr 3 00 

Ga» bill for < j uarter 16 70 

Premium on (ire Insurance . 12 48 

Salary and clerk hire 330 66 

Tag to A. F. of L. (March) 50 00 

P. J. Mi*G litre, es|»*n»e» to UomIoii, Provi- 
dence« etc. 26 50 

P.J. McGuire, extra expenses to Chicago 

fr«un Indianapoli», etc 12 50 

P.J. McGuire, expenses to Brooklyn, N.Y. 6 60 

F. t\ Wheeler, ex|M*nne» to MonMonin.Cal. 3 HO 

L. K. Tonne y, cx|h*u»cm to Grand Rapid», 

Midi 3 90 

H. J. Kent, expenses ou Amalgamated 
Committee to New' Ymk and to visit 

Newark, N. J 2102 

A. < atterrnul), expenses on Amalgamated 
Committee to New York ami in visit 

Kewurk, N. J 21 02 

P. J. McGuire, on Amalgamated Coin- 
mil tee to New York 6 60 

A. Catterniull, investigation at Pittsburgh, 

Pa 18 $7 

Attorney*» ex |ienae» in (he Field » claim, 

j: St. I.O.II», III 41 80 

Junltor, cleaning office 600 

Stationery 2 30 

W. J. Shields, attendance at G. KB... 64 76 

John W illiam», ... 69 00 

J oh. C. Gernet, * 4 44 ... 93 *25 

A. Catterniull, 44 44 ... 14)9 no 

A. Catlerniull, Inventigatlnna 6 00 

8. J. Kent, G. K. 14 160 21) 

Benefit» No». 8)83 to 3222 6,805 1$ 

•Total $7.899 18 






Gould estate represent* extortionate 

*4 000 00 ratefl converted into divitlendi 

J on watered etocka and wrang from the 

$12,671 63 industry of the country. 



extortionate 



Cash on hand Mayl, 1896, • 

lioaned General Fund . • 

Total Protective Fund 



DmTK4)IT, Mich. — Union GN9 is growing A. Haroumi, formerly of Union 661, Scranton, 
steadily, and hopes to increase its mem- p * ' ,1 ® fr *'“ ,ed » nu "‘ ,M!r ‘* f w " r “«“'•«« ,u 
bersh.p ten fold w.thm the next«0 days. f#f pKr( , unknown . He , f< ) . t I0 * me«. 

BUFFALO, N. Y. — We have a4lopted high, 183 pounds weight, ami red faced, 
the plan of paying a commission on all Jo» Jam k*ok. from Union 67. Rnxhury, Mass., 
new members brought in, and it seems for mtapproprut»«* money b.lonatn K to the 
to have a good effect. Union. 

Nxwton, Mass.— Union carpenters here RKJ KtTKl). 

are urging the Board of Aldermen to have 

the carpenter work of the city done by cit- Hbemenkoii.b Fortin, was rejected recently 

isens and resident workmen, and we have ln II,|io11 li.Cbtuago. He was an ex-member 

also sent out circulars to all architects to w(w for work ,„ Kon ,„e8u>. k B,rh.., K * 

get their co-operation against sub-con- building during a strike and for inducing a few 
tracting. members likewise io do so. 




THE CARPENTER. 



Organization Tin* Primary Necessity, 



Not till Ilf«*** hca* »aw conic«!, 

The headlong r%»i»h plowed In a quiet pace, 
And every purblind pftwlon that had ruled 
Our notnier yearn, at laut, 

Spurn um In vain, and, weary of the race, 
We care no more who Ionen or who wtna — 
Ah ! not till all the Im*hI of life neeinn pan! 
The heat of life la'gfllta. 



A d 



but sensible men naturally ssk, "What trades are alive to the danger, they are Organization l lie l rimary Necessity. 

is Labor going to gain by a policy of hardly likely to play the part of the lly 

wreckage?” It reminds one of the occa- to any spider. Ooe great diflerence — ftrM . 

And every purblind paaplon that had ruled have been known, when refueed help hy conference and the Lahor Electoral Lon- ' VH \ MT f haa in ita mV 

our nnWrr y. »r«,*i Iasi, a householder of the Celestial land, to gress is that in the former the trade / .£■ I IWl • / ' y ’ j, er8 j,j n _ . * 

Hpun) us in v»in. »nil, w«»ry of Hie r*w, commit enicide on his doorstep. Of organizations find no place, and stand / zVtB J .Wr Jlv • * Jor * 

We care no more who loaea or who wins— r ... * 4 u «u *i.~ latter liy OX Hie Voters, 

Ah ? not till at i tin heal of life aeen.a paat course, it makea things very uncomfort- without the pale, whereas to the latter, * (Jlf it is idle to look 

The heat of life bcgina. able for the householder, hut that doesn’t every tradea council and trades union in ^ a< , 

bring the eccentric beggar back to life, the country ie invited to eend delegatee. 0 f a noliti - l T" 

Tq t«u only fur fame. However advanced genuine Britieh trades The Labor Electoral Congress takes its O ! yfl , (K a ' 

Hand-clAppIng* and the fickle RUNtM of praise, ... , ® . . . » . , A j~ a + a i «radon / » V 3 \\ M bor programme. 

For pin! ” nr power or gold 1 « gild • name amoniflta may be, they have no wish stand upon the granite pedestal of trades , VJ ), The |ftw e 

Above the grave wherein to bring the organised labor of this unionism, whereas the Independent <'*•*•,* i,[> shortened 

All patha wi’l hring ua, were to hwe our daya, country into the unenviable pofiitiofi Labor Party is baaed upon the more fl . 1 1 e 

, ‘ Mr, ‘ ysuh's i , im*inKi» , iii tiiv» tolled, th#t German Socialism holds, ci*., unstable and uncertain foun.iations of 
Koractiinis s\e arow old that of a hobby horse and football for Socialism -Worn //., Manche«« Weekly ,, ahlii . opjnion , )rece<1 „ B , RW Un< , £ 

every erratic politician who qnarrels with limes, April 1». 189.». . ^ orvanizaiinn ,.r . ... 



To toil only for fame, 

Hnnd-clnpplngM and the fickle gunt* of pralae, 
For place or power or gold lo gild a name 
Above the grave whereto 
All put lit* wi'l bring um, were to hwt* our day«, 



NT1L organized la- 
l*or controls, or 
has in its nicni. 
be rehip, a major, 
ity of the voters, 
it is idle to look 
for the adoption 
of a political I». 
bor programme. 
The law never 
shortened the 
hours of labor 



Forgetting we grow old 



Hill llu* worhl widen«* when 
Such hope of trivial gain that ruled ua Ilea 

Broken among our childhood'* loya, for then 
We win to aelf-control 

And mail ouraolvea In manhood, and there rim? 
l' poll uh from the vied and wind lean height 
ThoM* clearer thoughta that are unto the aoul 
W hat Mtrtrn are to the night. 

American. 



the party he has hitherto been identified 
with, and ia anxious for a cover from 
which to Öre upon hia erstwhile friends 
The Socialist party in the German Reich- 
stag consists almost wholly of lawyers, 



Judge Gaynor oil tlie Duties of Corpo- 
rations. 



The Labor World. 



journalists, manufacturers, landowners, , ( . om . 

and nearly every class but workingmen. Judge Gaynor, in one of his decisions . { » .. >n . 

Whether it is desirable or not to have a in the Brooklyn trolley strike, said: no I of the , ^ ” V'" 

duplicate ol such a party in our House ‘‘These railroad companies are not in a narfv iBth # ; ' ,r 

ot Commons is a question I don’t pre- position of a mere private individual, or ... ' , . f 101 ' r 

tend to discuss just now ; but the Ubor company carrying on business for private , . , .. . 1 ««»^constant 

... tA. o«.Wa tn an »Hin which miv susnend huninp«« tem- e I' ,, >* nen L t*'gh or h gber wages and 



elector, are too wide awake to elect as gain, which may suspend business tem- T * ’ T "’p 7 - , ' , , ana 

Ijibor candidates men who never did a porarily or permanently at pleasure. On ‘ ... .. C ° n npv *' r 

uv councii.i.ok t. R. thru. kall, of man* day’s manual work in their lives. These the contrsry, it has a dual relation ; a *“ nor never will come hrst. CounM 
cues mu, ikulanh. people ere endeavoring to palm Social- public relation to thepeople of the State, ‘‘ e 18 48 song of 

ism upon the people under falee pre and a private one to ita stockholders. It 1 16 ,rene - ‘«innate such vagaries 

|Mr. Tiirrif*!) hna been for many year* « well- tenses. Socialism and Labor — I jib or as must not be forgotten here, though it r 111 y°” r Imn ss you wou < poison 
known tr»«ie unioniKt «11.1 uiM>r lidvoc*!«. lie understood in this country, and as en- may seem to be growing dim, if not r,,0,u J' 0 “ r system. Let the labor move- 



whu a nieoihor of the Trade Union Perllamen* . 

tary Committee several yearn, and prvnided nt , » or ® e( I 
the Trade Union CongTeeH of 1891. In view of COUDtry 



liUUCi ovuuu iu i/Uio uvMiiiki j | muu »ü vm — — y n ~ — n » — 

dorsed by the organized trades of this wholly forgotten elsewhere, that in ite men 4 ** on 08 ® n .!' 1 tl J; ,,te •y ,1 ‘‘ ni r,,r 
country— are entirely different things, chief aspect it is a public corporation, T* 1 *^? U . V' 1 



tot* traue i nion viongrenM oi ipvi, in view oi ouuun; »* « — • * r ' I« Btandariln nf tho n » i 

certain theoretical, prohicmaticni «levehipmente The first is theory, the second experi- having duties to perform to the public* * ^ 



in the Trade Union movement of IhiN country 
the pAnt year or no, thin nrticle nhould he exten- 
sively read and studied.] 



LABOR R1PRKHKNTATION. 



ence. One is at the best but an untried which transcend any obligation which '»P«». th ® aspirations of the trade union 
experiment, the other is au absolute in its private aspect it owes to its stock- m °v««nent ih founded on a complete or- 
fact, horning into the lives or the people holders. It has received franchises of K»n>z«t«on of all labor in one union lor 
every day. In a word, Socialism is a great value from the State and had con- P rot,,< ' tlo n- There always will be organ- 
coat of opinion which may tit the roil- ferred upon it the State’s transcendent ,Iat 'ons of capital. Then the two great 



i^t.ESPITE the fact that excor- «’0®» of opinion which may tit the roil . . •„ , nmm . , 

eion trains were ran from llonaire and the peasant ; but Labor rep- power of eminent domain. In return it ®”* B 4 ' ll ‘ * ' ,0t „ or 



nSWlt- 'W* eion trains were ran from iionaire anu me peasant. ; ou* i^aoor rep- ^wrr«. .m.u.u. uu u...u. , , * 

fllF® all parts of Great Britain to reeentation is the corduroy jacket of took upon itself the performance of ™ 8n ‘‘ ‘ e4t * lth e4< h oU,er ‘ bro, "' t ' 
viML^W/ ^ . ■ . t._ .I.. , a.- u:. .„j r ,i i„ .».. intelligent reuwenlativis. am when 



SligjR the north, and that Easter experience, to be worn by the bona-fide public datiee and functions in the per- ^ r an< * ^‘" n 

is par excellence a time workmen. (ormnnee of which it is, in law and in ®bor is thus, or in some better manner, 

when workmen can attend congresses at ^ course, all this baa been said fact, notan independent individual or i'*^ ■Vln ^ >r * * °*>*I* 4< 1 ■ > 



minimum 



gates attending. Sach a fact is aignifi- — * — — r ~ . ... . . ,. . . . 

cant, and shows that the movement is Labor Party, has 83,000 paying members, in the recent rapid growth of corporate cU urly . tatee in < ue 

not really making the headway ita ad vo- t b »l c® n control 60 per cent, of the power and of the tendency to use public un ' on > Bh,,w t,,tt ‘“«»or ie equal if not 
catea would lead the people to believe, electoie, that it is growing every day in franchises tor the aggrandizement of * a l ,erior jo strength to capita), and l y 
When one remembers the lavish expen- force and numbers, and that it will are individuals first and for the benefit of r *'* 8onB 0 ‘ f«»«« silent force there should 
diture of these people at election times, long be the party of the State, they the public second, they have come to be ,,B mor « con ll lets of yearly orrumm e 
the bazaars, the profits from Indepen- naturally contrast such statements with overlooked and need to be restated.” as at present Capt. John O'Hrien. 

dent Labor Party matches, tobacco, and very awkward facte. To begin with, “The directors ot a private business 

other commodities named I. L. P., and there was, not long ago, the silly fiasco company may, actuated by a private — . 

also bow on the highest authority the et the London County Council elections : greed or motives of private gain, stop 

members pay a subscription of one penny the extremely poor results of running a business and refuse to employ labor at Straight Trade Union Doctrine 
per week and a 3d levy freq ne- M - — ie hoetof Independent Labor Party candi- all unless labor comee down to their con- 

is prompted to ask how it comes about dates at tbe last municipal election, and ditions, however distressing, for each 

that every one of the 400 branches as- now we have this decreasing conference, are tbe existing legal, industrial and It is worthy of remark, that of late it 
serted to exist did not send delegates. In politics nothing succeeds like success, social conditions. Bnt the directors of ha« become popular in certain quarter«. 
In view of this lavish expenditure and when any political party— whether a railroad corporation may not do the to inject into the labor problem about 
and repoted self-sacrifice, tbe plea ot connected with Labor or not— can show like ; they are not merely accountable everything politicians wrangle over- 
poverty does not count- Surely an only a rapid succession of defeats, the to the stockholders; they are account- such as government ownership of rail- 
organization which counts its “Par- working class electors draw anything able to tbe public tint and the steck- roads and telegraph lines, the single tax 
liamentary Labor candidates” by tbs bnt a flattering conclusion about the holders etcond. They have duties to bimtallism, the initiative aril referendum', 
score, and which embraces university position ; and invariably withhold their the public to perform and they must per- and so on to the end of tbe chapter, in- 
men, barristers, doctors, landowners, support. form them. If they cannot get labor to eluding the transfer of labor organiza 

commercial magnates, and other men A big effort will be made on tbe part perform such duties at what they offer tione, rank and file, to some one of the 
who coaid afiord to pay their own ex- of the trades, and bona-fids working- to pay, then they mast pay more, and as political parties. 

pensea as delegates, should he able to men, to save I^bor representation from mach as is necer rury to get it. Likewise, By such a harum srarnm policy the 
organize a conference five times as big as being msde the Isoghing stock of the if the conditions in point of boors or real labor problem is practically lost sight 
the gathering at Newcastle. No, the public. The Ubor Electoral Congress, otherwise which they impose repel labor, of, however notorious the leaden in the 

reason lies deeper than that. to be held some weeke hence, will show they must adopt more lenient or just scramble may become. To make thing« 

It is abundantly evident that the In- tha other side of the shield with a ven- conditions. They may not stop their if possible, «till worse Bellamylem i« 
dependent Ubor movement is on the genes. can for one hour, much lese one week or often hitched on to the labor problem, 

decline. The novelty baa worn off; the A noteworthy featore of the confer- on • ear, thereby to beat or coerce the and thus vagary and hallucination, arm 

eager spirits who hoped it was going to ence which has been sitting in Newcastle pr • or conditions of labor down to the in arm, may be seen almost aDy 'day 

regenerate the world in a couple of yean ia the fact that trade* union* and trades pn mndltione they offer. For them blazing the way to some Utopia where 
have been sadly disappointed, and are council* as such find no place therein, todoeo would be a defiance of law and only so much labor Is required to gather 
looking further afield tor a new weapon ; They are but thus secondary organiza- of government, which, becoming general, np and stow away the wealth 
whilat soch tbooghtfol workmen who tions in the movement, and the fact con- would inevitably, by tbe force of ex- Why clamor for single tax V Why run 
Imagined it might really be an effective firms what has bean so repeatedly orged ample, lead to genera) disquiet, to the msd over nationalism another term for 
means to elevate Ubor have been com here, viz , that one of the object* of the disintegration of the social order, and parentalism ? Why resolve to go pell 
polled to admit that an Iconoclastic Socialists behind the Independent Labor even the downfall of government itself, mell into some new fangled political 
Ubor policy« foredoomed to failure. Party movement ie to push Trade* Experience shows the wisdom of our party? Why get hosras over the initia 
It may, no doubt, be entertaining to Unionism back and rear Socialism in ita father» in retaining at least some control five and referendum? Why not on the 
smash i both Liberal and Tory, and to place. Whether they will succeed of corporations to whom are given public contrary, unify, solidify end federate to 
play havoc with every section which remain« to be eeen; but, unless I am franchises for the performance of public secure honest fair and iust waves ?—/« 
does not agree with tbe latast apoaUes, sadly mistaken, now that the organized duties ” comolive Firemen's Maaatxne * 



be no more conflict«of yearly ocrurr* n< e 
as at present —Capl. John O' Hritn. 



Straight Trade Union Doctrine. 



It is worthy of remark, that of late it 






Pablit! opinion precedes lew. Untier the 
perfect and complete organization of tj, 9 
working people, totheextent of 7,fl00,<t<K) 
of voter« at least, the hours of labor and 
the entire political programme as p ro . 
malgated hy tlie American Federation nf 
Labor at Chicago, or so much of it as may 



THE CARPENTER. 






Drawing for Carpenters. 

BY OWKN B. M AGIN N IS. 

S N commeneirg these articles on 
the art of drawing in ite applica- 
tion to carpenters’ work. I do so 
with the intention of benefiting 
those who, being far removed 
from schools or instructors, can 
not obtain this knowledge; also with a 
view to give a clear practical insight into 
geometry, at the same time instructing 
the mechanic in the elements of drawing. 
The system is peculiarly my own, and has 
been so successfully followed that I have 
received letters of thanks from many 
pupils who have practised their drawing 
and found the knowledge of value in 
actual practice. 

DRAWING, 

like carpentry, involves the use of ap- 
pliances or instruments of precision for 
the proper and accurate delineation of 
objects. These consist of th * drawing- 
board, which any mechanic of ordinary 
skill can either construct himself or pur- 
chase. They can also he made in various 



i 

ways. The first and about as convenient 
and economical as the student may desire 
is that represented in Fig. 1. It is very 
simple, as may readily be seen, and con- 
sists of 3 ;" boards glued edge to edge, 
with a l x 1 1" hatter or clamp, tongued, 
grooved and nailed into each end across 
the grain, to keep it from springing or 
warping from the effects of heat or 
moisture acting on the wood. Whin 
the damps are nailed on the whole sur- 
face must lie faced up true and out of itind 
with the fore plane, smoothed off and 
sandpapered. If the carpenter so de- 
sires, he can purchase a drawing board 




screwed fast to the stock, at right angles, 
so that it is always square. This square 
can be bought or made with an edge of 
some very hard wood, as maple or ebony, 
glued on the latter wood, is the best, 
because, being black and hard, it does 
not show ink stains and keeps straight 
and true. At Fig. 4, where a Teo square 
with a 

SWIVEL STOCK 

is represented, the reader will perceive 
how the ebony edge is glued on, also 
the swivel part of the head turne t for 
use on the edge of the board. 



Vjvi rifc ^ 

In this case the head is made in two 
pieces, into one of which the blade is 
fastened. The other is movable and 
revolves on a brass set thumb screw, in- 
serted in the center of the head. Its ob- 
ject is to allow the draftsman to lay oat 
work on the pitch, and it will be found 
convenient in carpenters’ drawing. 

More expensive T-squares than those 
explained may be obtained, but either of 
the above is good enough for our pur- 
pose. The square should be at least two 
inches longer than the drawing board, 
and be absolutely accurate and well 
made. 




Til S 



TTi 

made in the manner shown in Fig. 2 at a 
store where artists* materials are sold, 
but those situated in the country, or 
small towns or villages, can easily make 
their own. There are other forms of con- 
struction tor drawing boards beside the 
above, hut these are the simplest and 
perha|>H the moat useful- 



U S 

The second instrument needed is 
termed a T, or Tee-square, which can also 
be either made or purchased. It is 
called a T-aquare on account of its re- 
semblance to the letter T, and consists of 
two parts, viz., the slock and the blade. 
Toe T-square is always made of some 
hard wood, mostly of mahogany or pear- 
wood, and the proportions are about 
those seen in the engravings, Figs. 3 and 
4. The first, Fig. 3, is the ordinary cheap 
form of manufactured pearwood square, 
and runs in various sixes, in length of 
blade from 12" to 72", the stock increas- 
ing in proportion as the blade lengthens. 
In Fig. 3 the blade is stationary, or 



Fig. 5 is the usual form of wooden 

TtlANGLB, 

or set square, as it is often termed. It 
consists of two pieces of pearwood, or 
mahogany, |" thick, with an ebony 
edge set or mitred at right angles, or 90 
degrees, to each other, with a third piece 
or hypolhenuse piece mitred and glued, to 
retain the angle and keep it fixed or set, 
thus completing the triangle. 



& 



TH 



Fig. 6 ia the triangle of 00 degree«, or 
the degree triangle, aa draftsmen call it. 
That ahown In the engraving is made of 
hard rubber, or vulcanite, and ia ob- 
viously the beet material to employ in 
their manufacture, by reason ot ita non- 
liability to shrink or expand, and thua 
vary. They are, however, rather ex- 
pensive to buy, so I would recommend 
those Just commencing the art to use 



wooden triangles, as they are reliable 
enough for ordinary drafting. 

The thumb tack, or drawing paper tack, 
is made as in Fig, 7. Ita use is to hold 
the paper securely stretched on the 
drawing boark. These are purchasable 

'T 

^ £ 7 - 

only, and should bealways obtained with 
heads not less than \ inch in diameter. 
A very cheap and excellent stamped tack, 
in which the point is stamped out of the 
head, can be obtained at a low cost. 

( To be continued ) 



The Nature of the Circle. 



The triangle, trapesoid and circle 
together with the circle sector and spiral 
surface are various formations or modi- 
fications of parallelograms. Their srea 
can be determined by the common terms 
ot measuremeot for parallelograms, r»z : 
By dividing the sum of the two opposite 
sides by 2, and multiplying with the 
altitude. 



Continuing the contraction and expan- 
sion of the circular sides the figure will 
gradually assume the form shown in Fig. 
3, but still retains thetrapesoidal quality 
and the area is calculated as before. 

Finally, we will suppose this moving 
process to continue so as to reduce the 
side C D, to the limit of a point, as in the 
first rectangle, then the figure will be a 
circle like Fig. 4, and top side of the 
circle will be reduced to a point, or the 
center Q. and the bottom side extended 
till it completes the circumference, and 
the two originally opposite sides A C 
and B D, have fallen together as one 
line O G, thus forming the radius of the 
circle. 

From this it will be seen that the circle 
is deduced from the rectangle or trapes- 
oid, bat cannot be measured like them 
on account of one parallel side having 
dwindled to a point (the center), and the 
other extended to form a continuous curve 
or circumference, but as the original 
parallelogram can be measured as given 
above, so the area of the circle, or as it 
might be called the circular parallelo- 
gram. Fig. 4 = Two oppoeite sides 
divided by 2 and multiplied by the alti- 
tude Q G = 1 inch. Area of circle = 

ii« x 1 - 3.H. 

This gradation, from a rectangle to a 
circle will only occur when the sides in 
original rectangle A 0 and A B, are in 




5 



In Fig. 1, the rectangle A B 0 D, 
assume the aide A B, to contract or 
shorten, and the opposite side C D, to 
extend in the same proportion, the 
trapesoid H P K L, would be the result, 
and its area would be equal to that of 
A BCD, the original rectangle. (Taken 
from Kuclid.) Suppose that the side 
A B, continues to shorten till it ends in 
point aa E, the bottom side at the same 
time extending, then the triangle E F G, 
would result, and be also equal in area 
to the rectangle. It might, in fact, be 
said that the triangle was a trapesoid in 
which one side contracted to the limit of 
a point, and ita area may be figured as 
for a trapezoid, thus : — 

0 * F 9 x A 0 (E = O) 

Z 

Hence triangle« and trapezoids may 
be derived from parallelograms by con- 
tracting on« aide and extending that 
opposite. 

In Fig. 2, suppose the rectangle A BCD, 
and let the aide C D, crimp or oontract, 
and A B, extend, at the eame time allow- 
ing the straight lines to bend or form 
parallel carves ; then the figures A' II 
B' C x D would result and the circular 
figure is vet a trap« sold, with two oppo- 
site and parallel sides, and it area can be 
figured aa such, thua : 



Q- 

as i : 3.14. If the proportion be smaller, 
aa U B ia to U F, so will the rectangle 
bend to shape of the sector of a circle, 
U' V G, in Fig. 4. If it be larger, aa 
R T : K B, the rectangle will bend to a 
spiral or twisted surface, or a circle or 
overlapping sector of a circle G V U', 
Fig. 3. 

Area of 8ector 

UVG- 0 + P /VQ X 1. 

Area of Spiral 

GV'U'-0±^XrjL'. xl . 



Are.~ A ' 1,B : C/XD XAC 
4 



Consequently ( except in matter of simi- 
larity) Circles or Bsctoes or Cibclis 
AS* TO OTHBB ClSCLBS OB SXCTOIB OR TrI- 

anolir ab Triangles are to Triarolm. 

The forgoing ia a fundamental problem 
and forms a basis for a series of a hun- 
dred others, of which I hope to send Tns 
Carpenter some ot those of most in- 
terest to your readers. 

Rutland, II. Maurus 0. Tenoeb. 

Federations of the building trades are 
now organised in 27 cities ot Great 
Britain. In London there are 4 separate 
and distinct carpenters’ societies, the 
Amalgamated, the General Union, the 
Associated and the Perseverance. 

Bix thousand carpenters recently quit 
work in Pesth, Hungary toe an increase 
of wages and gained the day after a short 
struggle. 



This area would be equal to that of “ ' ~ “ ~ 

original parallelogram becaose A 7 H Sutrtn* and coping? Yy OwmS^ht^ante. 
B' + C' x D =- A B + O D and A' C' = Addr ei°° A "“ <Urd 

AC. 360 W. 124th St., New York City. 





8 






i 



THE CARPENTER. 



THE CARPENTER 

OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF Tn» 

United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

published Monthly, on the f\fUenth qf each Month. 



12ft Ne Ninth St. 9 PhtU. 9 Pn. 

P. J. McGuihr, Editor and Publlnker. 

Entered at the Pout-Office at Philadelphia, Pa., 
aa second cli^ii matter. 

Rcbscriftion Prick Fifty cents a year, In 
advance, }>ostpald. 

Address all letter» and money to 

P. J. McOriRK, 

Box 881, Philadelphia, Pa. 



PHILADELPHIA, JUNE, 1895. 



Better at any time the 44 Pure and 
Simple* * than the Impure and Complex. 

Trade Unions cannot be crushed by 
insidious enemies within or open foes 
without. 

Debs’ incarceration is likely to prove 
more than a Dred Scott decision in the 
wage workers’ struggles. 

Non-union carpenters, ex members, 
and all the ‘ chips ” not with us, tell us 
what are you going to do? If you are 
against us, say so. If not, then come to 
the front. 

-■ 

Where Carpenters’ unions were 
strongest the past two years, despite 
hard times, wages were upheld and work 
men decently treated. Can the same he 
said of unorganized places? 

Trade Unions are no creature of fancy, 
no capricious whim of the moment 
They are huilt on the bed rock of human 
experience and have come to stay — 
though they are “pure and simple.*’ 

F kick , Carnegie and thei r gang thought 
to wipe out the Amalgamated when there 
were less than 400 union men at Home 
stead. Now there are fully 4,000 Amal 
g&mated members to-day in that bor 
ough. Just ten to one 



The Work of Consolidation doing on in 
Many Localities. 



lead to better attended meetings, a live- 
lier interest in the organisation and be 
an attraction to new members. 

Times dotting Hotter and Hotter. 



The Carnegie Steel Company advanced 
wages ten per cent, at Homestead, Brad 
dock, Duquesne, and at all its works, to 
go into effect June 1st. This affects 
15,000 employes in all the departments 
The recent continued Beries of succes 
sive victories of the garment workers— 
the strikes of the coat makers of Balti 
more for better wages and shorter hours 
and of the jacket makers of Phila 
delphia against the sweating system — 
are hopeful indications of the revival of 
business. Over 22,000 employes in this 
industry in a half dozen cities, have 
gained advances this spring without 
much trouble. 

Coal miners' strikes in Western Penn 
sylvania, Ohio, Virginia, the past month 
have been pushed to get some of the 
henetitsof revived industrial life. 

Iron workers when thoroughly organ 
ized, in 1892, in the Amalgamated Asso 
elation, got $5.60 to $0 per ton for pud 
dling. Through disorganization the price 
for puddling went down to $4 per ton and 
less. Now it is coming up again and 
with it the Amalgamated is growing at a 

wondrous rate. 

— 

Local Unions Pushing Ahead. 




SINCE the advent of 
hard times, two years 
ago, many impressive 
lessons have been 
taught our Locals and 
members. The policy 
of economy in manage- 
ni e n t and retrench- 
ment of expenses was 
forced on many of 
them. And with it has 
come the adoption of 
the plan of consolida- 
tion in many localities, 
as was advised by oar General Secretary 
in his report to the U. B. Convention 
last September. 

Chicago is making quite an innovation 
in this direction, and when completed, 
instead of thirty-two unions in that 
District, we will have them consolidated 
into about ten or twelve good strong 
unions at most. Indianapolis, and a 
number of cities, now see the advantage 
of the change, since they adopted it. 
They find it ie a saving of expense for 
hall rent, officers’ salaries, delegates to 
District Councils, etc., etc. It brings 
the members more closely together, and 
leads to a better understanding and far 
more effective work and harmony of 
action results in every way. Columbus, 
O., proposes next to try it, and it weuld 
pay to have the idea carried out by our 
Locals in Cleveland, O., Cincinnati, 8t. 
Louis, New Orleans, Milwaukee, Louis- 
ville, Omaha, New York and Brooklyn. 
Disease it anyhow. Its adoption will 



Within the past few months the U. B 
has shown a decidedly encouraging in 
crease in membership in a number of 
localities. Fully .'15 per cent, of our 
unions have had gains, and it is due to 
the individual and collective activity of 
the members in those places hacked by 
public meetings, or social gatherings, or 
by the liberal distribution of “appeals’ 
and printed literature for non-union 
men, which we furnish free from this 
office. 

In a number of cases it has been caused 
by placing a good, wide-awake rain in 
the field as business agent or walking 
delegate to dram up the men, where 
the locals could afford it. 

The localities which have shown 
large growth are not the ones which have 
been clamoring for headquarters to ap 
propriate a hundred dollars or some 
sum of money to help them organize. 
But the best work has been where the 
locals and members have “taken the 
bit in their own teeth, ** and pulled them- 
selves through. 

We can not mention all the places 
where there have been new initia- 
tions. But we cannot forbear special 
mention of a number of cities which re- 
cently have had a wonderful growth in 
membership by working in some one of 
the lines above indicated, nr..* Chicago; 
Cincinnati; San Francisco, San Jose, 
Cal.; St. Louis ; Galveston, San Antonio, 
Corsicana, Tex.; Newark, Bridgeton, 
Montclair, N. J.; Rochester, N. Y.; Hart- 
ford, Conn.; Lynn, Mass.; Providence, 
R. I.; Lewiston, Me.; St. Catherines, 
Canada; Yonkers, Flushing, Long Is- 
land, Staten Island, Williamsport, N. Y.; 
Lafayette, Indianapolis, South Bend, 
Evansville, Ind.; Springfield, 111.; Char- 
leston, S. C.; Atlanta, Ga.; Colorado 
Springs, Colo. 

The foregoing list is proof that the 
advancement of oar U. B. is not con- 
fined to any section, nor are there any 
sectional or local reasons why each and 
every locality may not do as well as those 
here mentioned. 

• — — — 

Cities Overcrowded with Carpenters. 

While business has quite generally a 
more encouraging outlook in all parts of 
the country, still there are a number of 
cities overcrowded with carpenters. This 
condition has been brought about by 



“ fake ** stories of real estate speculators 
and canards of interested cheap labor 
schemers and fictitious newspaper booms. 
It is best for traveling chips to not touch 
such places or go near them, as it will in- 
jure both the resident carpenters ami 
new-comers alike. Here are the places 
to be avoided for some time to come, viz., 
Chicago, St. Louis, New York, Brooklyn, 
the whole Pacific Coast, Kansas City, 
Winnepeg, Lafayette, Ind., Kalispell, 
Montana; Atlanta, Ga.; Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Williamsport, I’a. ; Denver; New Or- 
leans; Montreal; Toptka, Kan. ; Mil 
wankee, Wis. ; Pensacola, Fla. ; Zanes 
ville, O.; Wilmington, Del ; San An- 
tonio, Tex.; Green Bay, Wis ; New 
Haven, Conn.; Wheeling, W. Ya. ; 
Cleveland, O. ; Bangor, Pa. ; Taunton, 
Mass. ; l*a Crosse, Wis. ; Scranton, Pa 
Charleston, S. C. ; Helena, Montana ; 
M uncle, Ind., and McKeesport, Pa. 

The hours of labor for carpenters 
should he reduced to eight hours per day 
in every village, hamlet, town and city 
to make room for the unemployed. 

Trade Schools In the Building Line. 










ANY of our members con- 
tend fitrongly againBt 
Trade Schools in the 
building line, while 
quite a number of our 
members are favorable 
to their institution. 
In New York and Phila- 
delphia Trade Schools 
have been established 
by the Master Builders’ 
Exchanges of those cities. 

The first practical support of the idea 
was given by Col. Richard T. Auchmuty 
of New York, more than a decade ago. 
Mr, Auchmuty, since deceased, was then 
very wealthy and devoted considerable 
of his moneys to the first Trade School 
in New York and next in Philadelphia 
He was seized with the notion that the 
trade unions prevented and debarred 
American youths from learning trades. 
Of course, he failed to recognize that the 
real cause rested in the disinclination of 
American hoys to be bound under in- 
structions as apprentices, and also lay 
in the desire of young boys growing up 
to shift about with a view to better pay, 
rather than drag along at low wages in 
the old routine and learn their trade thor- 
oughly. Too many of such hoys even 
when apprentices run away when barely 
half instructed and palin themselves oil 
as journeymen. 

In Europe there ie a much stricter 
system of apprenticeship, so that the 
hulk of carpenters, masons, stone cutters 
and other mechanics when they come 
over here are quite thorough and 
competent in their respective branches. 
Mr. Auchmuty in observing this, saw 
such a large number of workmen of 
foreign birth at the building trades, and 
at the same time connected with trade 
unions, though they had learned their 
trades abroad, that he jumped to the 
conclusion that the trade unions were to 
blame for keeping American boys from 
trades, and were monopolizing the work 
in the interest of foreigners. 

There is one fact which is true under 
the old system of apprenticeship, and 
that is the first year of a boy’s appren- 
ticeship he practically learns nothing. 
His employer uses him principally as an 
errand boy and gives him little or no 
instruction. As a rule the lad is sent 
out on the work with the journeymen 
and is a mere drudge. In the vast 
majority of cases he receives no instruc- 
tion, and at the end of the year does not 
know the first rudiments of his trade. 
In all probability he will have no knowl- 
edge whatever of even the handling of 
tools. Journeymen have no more tools 
than they need and cannot stay idle 
while a boy is handling them, even if 



they are disposed to allow him to touch 
them* 

It was to do away with this and to give 
the hoy a technical and practical knowl. 
edge that Trade Schools and Manual * 
Training Schools have been founded 
The usual course is a system of «hop 
practice with tools and materials, Bup- 
plementcd by scientific instruction ] 
drawing, etc . The fee charged is merely 
nominal. 

The main object is to teach thoroughly 
how work should be done, leaving the l 

quickness required of a tiist class nj e - 
chanic to lie acquired after instruct on 1 
has finished and actual work hegut.. 

The several trades are taught in all their 
branches and the reasons why one i 
method ie right and another, which may 
seem to produce the B&me result, j B 1 
wrong, are carefully aud thoroughly ex- 
plained by the teachers who are skilUd 
mechanics. These teachers seek to aeccr« 1 
tain not only w hat the pupil knows, hot 
also in what he is deficient. Such a hvs- 1 
tem of thorough training could hardly 
be pursued in a workshop where each 
employe is necessarily engaged upon the 
work for which he is best fitted. This 
system also benefits the employer to the 
extent that such hoys are of some prac- 
tical use to him at once. Their knowl- 
edge is fairly right and all that is lacking 
ie the alertness and proficiency in hand- 
ling tools which can only come with 
practice. 

The young men in the carpentry r! rt fs 
are shown the use of the various tools 
commonly used in the trade, great care 
being taken that each is held and used in a 
workmanlike manner. After this has . 

been acquired, and boards can lie sawed 
to a line and neatly planed, niurtii-ing 
aud tenoning are taught. Then panels , 

are framed, moldings are put on, and 
later, doors and shutters are made. 
Partitions are also set, Moors and parti- , 

tions are bridged, and flooring laid. A 
small frame house is also framed, 1 

sheathed, shingled, etc. The course of 
instruction gives each member of the ] 

class a varied amount of work. The | 

scientific instruction includes the uk fil- 
ing of the terms used in carpentry, lay- 
ing out a building from a plan, the Train- 1 

ing of partitions and roof trunks, i 

girders, etc. ] 

The trades principally affected by i 

these Trade Schools are carpentry, hrick- 
laying, plastering, stone cutting, paint- 
ing, plumbing and hlackemithing. i 

In quite a number of cities this w<*rk 
of technical education is carried on by 
Manual Training Schools supported by ] 

private donations. Boys and girls are 
taught the elementary principles of 
industrial application which thereby 
becomes a valuable auxiliary to honk 
knowledge. By far too much of the 
education of our public schools is com- 
mercial and quite enervating. 

We are thorough believers in the 
Kindergarten system of instruction to 
start with for the littlest ones. From 
that then let the pupil proceed to the 
Primary and the Grammar Schools and 
top this out with technical education or 
Industrial training so to qualify ths 
hand as well as the head for us* fill 
industry. 

Bat this all should he under public 
control as part of our Public School sys- 
tem and not be left to private individuals. 

It is a matter of public concern, and be- 
fore many years will be incorported in 
our public system of edneation. The 
only contention against Trade Schools 
now is where they are misunderstood, or 
where they have been started presum- 
ably to antagonize organized labor. At 
best, a boy or young man coming from 
one of these schools cannot be expected 
to be a ripe, practical mechanic, until he 
goes out into the world and deal with 
work as it comes along. 




THE CARPENTER 



9 






1 

General Officers 

1 or tui 

I United Brotherhood of Carpenters and 
Joiners of America. 

Office of the General Secretary, 

, 124 N. Ninth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

r 

ftaneral Pre.lrient.— CI iim R. Owen*,We»tcheB' 
B ter, WtMicheHtcr Oo., N. Y. 

Oeneral RecrHary Trenmirer— P. J. McGuire, 
Box 884, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Oknkkal Vice- Pr km ident«. 

Flrsl VlfHvPrealdcnt— Henry Oalo, 330 W. Ver- 
Boontrtt , ItHlIanapollfl, Ind. 

HucoikI Vlrn-Prenlilent — Irouln K. Towey, 001 
Laruml *t, ICaMt, Detroit, Mich. 

Cl enseal Kxkcutive Hoard. 

(All corrcM|K>n<lenc« for the Cl. E. H. inunt l>e 
■Sailed Li Die (Irneral Secretary .) 

t W. J. Shields, 10 CheHhlre st., Jamaica Plain, 

( Maas. 

y 8. J. Kent, 2040 H. st., Lincoln, Neb. 

\\ J. Williams, 31 Spring st., Utica, N. Y. 

0 A. Cattermull, 8044 S. Halstead st., Chicago, 111. 

8 Jos, C. (lernet, 161 Foot Ave., Bellevue, Ky. 

1 



May lhiy— Pant aihI Present. 



shall not enlarge on 
May Day as an an- 
cient popular festival. 
That would require 
quite a n extended 
story of the basic 
Idea of which that holiday was the 
visible expression. 

1 The founders of the Roman muni- 

cipality observed May Day, when they 
1 made offerings of the May flower to 

Maia, the mother of Mercury, one of the 
deities of industry. Hut what that 
1 ancient festival meant to them and to 

* the white-robed vestals and Hamens, 

f who, during Die joyous but solemn offer- 

5 lug sang the I hierum Memoriam , is known 

* by few, and appreciated by still fewer 
people, in this so-called materialistic, 
bnt really mammon-worshipping age. 
The celebration of May Day has ex. 

, tended wherever necessity or ambition 

led the conquering legions of Rome, 
t and has been engrafted on the practical 

life of the people of such countries. 

During the Middle Ages in the early 
dawn of each recurring May-morn the 
[ younger men of city and village could 

r be seen returning with the loftiest May- 

pole the neighboring forest could yield. 

) With shouts of triumph and libations of 

f Wine or mead the mighty shaft was 

r raised and decorated with garlands of 

the mystical May flower, and pendant 

* ropes were entwined with primrose and 
violet, with blue-bell and cowslip, and 
all the wild flowers of spring. Then 

, through the long spring day, the ladsand 

) lasses, with the flowery ropes in hand, 

, threaded the ina7.es of the May-dance, 

, weaving and unweaving every intricate 

figure that mirth and ingenuity could 
devise; while the older folk directed 
i the games of strength and skill, or pre- 

I aided at the festive hoard and swelled 

tbe strains of the joyous song. Amid 
the festivities one of the lasecs would be 
chosen May Queen, or May Lady, and 
crowned with a garland of flowers. This 
custom is still maintained in a few ol 
the country villages of England. 

The time carne, however, when the 
, light-hearted mirth that generally greeted 

tbe May-morn was mingled with a graver 
feeling, and “Evil May Day“ is the 
ominons name we meet with in the 
period when wasting war and a debased 
currency were producing their inevitable 
eflecta in reducing the purchasing power 
of wages. “ Is the time coming when 
there shall be no more cakes and ale on 



May Day for those who toil the live- 
long year V'£ Such was the question 
asked by the journeymen of London, 
who, being blind to the real cause of 
their growing poverty, and attributing 
it to excessive importations of manu- 
factures, raised the well-known call to 
arms of “Clubs! Clubs! ’Prentices! 
Clubs!” during the May Day revels of 
1515, and then rushing to the houses of 
the foreign merchants levelled them to 
the ground. 

From that time, now for political rea- 
sons and then through puritanic preju- 
dice, the celebrations were frequently 
forbidden. Resulting partly from State 
confiscation of the monastic and the 
trade anion funds devoted to the relief 
of the poor; resulting also from the 
vicious State system of poor relief, which 
lirst created and then perpetuated pau- 
perism, 11 Merrie England ” was changed 
into a land haunted by anxiety, and May 
Day ceased to be a general holiday. 
Since that time, or for the past two cen- 
turies, except here and there in a few 
rustic villages, the public celebration of 
May Day has been maintained almost 
exclusively by the fraternity of chimney 
sweepers. During all these years we 
have been indebted to voluntary bands 
of these useful workers — each with its 
lord and lady of May, and each with its 
Jack O* the Green dancing and career- 
ing through busy streets— for our only 
reminder of the ancient and once uni- 
versal festival of May. 

The effort to revive the proper cele- 
bration of May Day, by giving it a 
modern and practical significance had its 
origin in this country, in the United 
States. That effort was due to the ini- 
tiative taken by the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, and dates from its fourth 
annual convention held in Chicago, 

< October, 1884. That convention decided 
that the celebration should commence 
with the practical inauguration of the 
eight-hour work day. It further decided 
that the inauguration shonld be made 
on May Day — the first of May, 1880. On 
the day thua fixed several unions through- 
out the country easily succeeded in ob- 
taining the desired concessions. In other 
cases, however, a series of strikee had 
to be resorted to in order to enforce the 
demand. 

As in every great strike, considerable 
excitement resulted, and on this occa- 
sion the excitement was intensified by 
the red-mouthings of would he- revolu- 
tionists. Yet violence was only com- 
mitted in one city. It is hardly neces- 
sary to say that the violence was com- 
mitted on, and not by, the workmen. 
This occurred in Chicago, where crimi- 
nally corrupt police olhcials took ad- 
vantage of the public alarm, caused by 
rabid red ravings, to break up meeting 
after meeting of peaceable workingmen 
and trade unionists, and to exercise 
brutal ferocity by clubbing, shooting and 
killing unarmed workingmen. The 
sequel is well known. The revolutionary 
rant. The brutal dubbing of orderly 
and wdl-dispcsed workingmen. The 
deadly bomb, thrown by an unknown 
hand. 'And, last scene of all, four dang- 
ling corpses on the gallows in the jail- 
yard. 

The prejudice created in the public 
mind by the events referred to bad its 
effect in checking, for years, the progress 
of the eight-hour movement. Two years 
afterward, however, the solid growth of 
the American Federation of l*abor en- 
couraged that body to reeume its grand 
task with greater energy than before. 
Thus, the eighth annual convention 
assembled in St. i/ouia, December, 1888, 
resolved to call mass meetings through- 
out the country on Washington’s Birth- 
day, Independence Day and Labor Day 
of 1889, and on Washington’s Birthday 
of 1890, with a view to the recommence- 



ment of the effort for the more general 
observance of the eight-hour workday 
on May Day, 1890. In obedience to 
that resolution, a total of 1,497 mass 
meetings in advocacy of the object speci- 
fied were held, on some or on all of the 
dates stated, in upward of 500 cities and 
towns of the United States and the Do- 
minion of Canada. 

At the succeeding convention held in 
Boston, December, 1889, it was further 
decided to concentrate the strength of 
the Federation on the support of some 
one trade in its effort to secure victory 
on May 1. The United Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners of America was 
the union thus honored by the confi- 
dence of the struggling workers of this 
Continent. The result obtained reflects 
the highest credit on all engaged, since 
the Brotherhood scored a series of suc- 
cesses in no less than 187 cities, in some 
eight hours a day was gained and in many 
nine hours a day. This was to the direct 
benefit of more than 46,000 carpenters, 
and the increased prestige of the whole 
trade union movement. 

The adoption of the recent May Day 
celebrations in Europe followed from 
this new impulse of the trade union 
movement, and it came abont in this 
way : 

In response to an official invitation, 
the President of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor forwarded a letter by 
special messenger to tbe International 
Workingmen’s Congress which met in 
Paris, July 14, ls89. That letter in- 
formed the delegates assembled of the 
etTorts being made to establish May Day 
on a practical industrial basis in Amer- 
ica. From the very first, it was clearly 
evident that the delegates, under the 
influence of opposing political influences, 
were divided into two bitterly hostile 
camps. On the one side, the State “So- 
cialists on the other side, the “ Poesi- 
hilists.” These warring factions, despite 
repeated efforts on the part of delegates 
unbiased by the prejudices of German or 
of French politics, continued their meet- 
ings apart and in separate balls during 
the entire week. In the congress of the 
State Socialist faction, a proposal to bind 
each country to a practical effort to se 
cure the eight-hour workday was strongly 
opposed by Herr Liebknecht, the leader 
of the German Socialist Party, on the 
ground that the labor organizations were 
not strong enough to achieve success. 
Eventually, a resolution was adopted in 
that same Congress that an eight-hour 
“ demonstration ” should be held each 
May Day, which should be organized in 
each country as the leaders of the “So- 
cialist Party ” in that country might 
decide. 

Out of this action of the Paris Labor 
Congress of 18*9, in reply to the solici- 
tation of the American Federation of 
I^ibor for co-operation of the European 
labor movement in the enforcement of 
the Eight-hour day, has grown the re- 
cent May Day celebrations in Europe, 
but they have developed more and more 
into political demonstrations, where the 
subject of the Eight-hour day has been 
made decidedly secondary. 

What May Day may be made in the 
United States may be gathered from the 
success which has attended the eight- 
hour day in the Australian colony of 
Victoria. There, in the city of Mel- 
bourne, in 185G, the masons, bricklayers, 
carpenters, plasterers, painters, plumb- 
ers, slaters, builders’ laborers and coach 
builders gained this concession. Their 
first next step was to organize the Amal- 
gamated Trades Association, with the 
understanding that euch trade was to be 
admitted to membership therein us it 
ucquired the eight hours. The next step 
was to establish an Eight-Hour Com- 
memoration Day, a prominent feature 
of which was a parade in which none 



but eight-hour unions were to participate. 
The anniversary of the first day worked 
under the eight-hour system, April 26, 
was chosen aB the day of the parade, and 
this day has now grown to be the 
National Festival of the colony. 

The first and greatest struggle in de- 
fence of the eight-hour day occurred in 
1859. At this period the decline of pro- 
duction in the gold fields had caused a 
great surplus of labor. Many employers, 
and notably the State railroad contrac- 
tors, took advantage of the general de- 
pression to force a reduction of wages and 
a return to the ten-hour work day. Ths 
workmen declared their resolve in one 
picturesque sentence characteristic of the 
Colonial spirit: " We have nailed our 
eight-hour colors to the mast, and if 
they are shot away, we will fight for the 
holes left by the shot !’ 9 The contest 
which followed was one of the severest 
in the annals of labor ; but, after a heroic 
struggle of eight months duration, vic- 
tory perched on the eight-hour banner, 
and the engineers, iron molders and 
boiler makers were recruited to the eight- 
hour ranks. 

At the close of the second period of 
the movement, which we may place in 
1883, twenty unions, including the sailors, 
had joined the Eight-hour procession, 
and the possibilities of the movement 
under the active propaganda of a new 
generation were clearly revealed. 

The opening of the third period was 
signalized by the accession of the bakers. 
This generally unfortunate trade, which 
had been working fifteen hours a day 
for twenty-five to thirty-five shillings a 
week, reduced the hours to ten per day, 
and were astounded to see that their 
mimimuui wage, without any effort on 
their part, soon roe* to forty shillings ; 
encouraged by (his striking fact, in a 
few months they resolved to join the 
procession, and then their wages rose to 
fifty shillings, at which figure they have 
steadily remained. 

The ripening of the opinion that the 
eight-hour work day is a boon which 
should be secured independent of all 
other considerations may be traced 
through the whole of this period until the 
the present time, when more than fifty 
distinct trades march uader the tattered 
banner of 185G, accompanied by the sur- 
viving veterans who fought the good 
fight forty years ago. The Amalgamated 
Trades Association has demonstrated the 
immense strength which lies in labor 
compactly united. This body has now a 
splendid and spacious edifice built with 
their own hands on a sight presented to 
eight-hour labor by the Victoria govern- 
ment. Here is centered the grand influ- 
ence which assists in the formation of 
new unions ; which assists those unions 
to obtain eight hours ; which vigor- 
ously resists every attempted encroach- 
ment on the eight-hour day, and which 
has united the whole English-speaking 
people of that hemisphere in one grand 
Federation based on the practical and 
beneficent principle of Eight Hours. 

It is now in order to secure the American 
May Day, as originally intended by the 
American Federation of Lal>or. Let us 
strive each sucresaivo year to establish 
the eight-hour day in city after city, in 
one occupation after another, until May 
Day becomes the festal day of Eight 
Hours univsreally the rule all over our 
broad land— the May day of industrial 
rejoicing, garlanded with the flowers of 
trade union achievements and trade 
union devotion. 



To-day in the northwestern cities, 
under-paid children of both sexes glaze 
sash, mold doors, run machines, and do 
the work that fairly well-paid adult 
labor performed a few years since. 




I 





A Tramp. 

A ragged gsrh ami hunger's stamp 
Doth n«»t reveal Ihr kind of heart 
That bent* within yon homeless tramp. 

Nor tell the thought* that through him dart. 

Per hap* when hunger** pang- »ire ket n 
And the blinding alee! heat* on hi«* head, 
lie think* of the happy day* he’d seen 
With father, mot her- long *ince desL 

That form la grimed wh*. too. caressed 
By loving friend* in boyhood’* time 
Ere the world *«»rrow* on him pressed 
And dragged him «town to rag** ami »lime* 

Sneer not a* him ye worldling* pfoud 
Ye too aro*harer* in hi* shame 
Aye! ye vain, selfish, grasping crowd 
For hi* downfall are mo*t to Idaine. 

Sordid Capital demon Gold, 

In yonder tramp your work * revealed 
Your blighting eiir*e in him behold 
Had victim to the power ye wield. 

Something •* rotten in the world, 

Or the poor are stricken dumb. 

Else, why *iletil a* they’re hurled 
Further in a cave of gloom* 

Brother*, are your longing* real, 

O. wou*d you win tue toilers’ light? 

Then hearken to my heart ’* appeal 
For struggling man unite, unite 

Unite! heed not f*lsa word* or blow*. 

Umitk ! our <au«e I* true and ju*t 
UNI I' K ’ till all the toller’* foe* 

Are conquered. trampled in the du*t 

T. C. Walsh. 

A. U 6j, St it' } or/;, 

<0ur 3Unil-Y!ng. 

{ I steals ami members art * rey nested to send 
fire to ten line item s of trtide interest for this 
department. Write plainly in ink on one side 
of the pnjkr only ) 

Union 4(H), Hudson, Maas., is growing 
in good shape. 

Milwaukee, Wis. — W ages and work 
are low ami Hat— never so hai in years. 

Springfield, Mo.— Trade at zero. A 
good many members have gone to farm- 
ing sooner than starve. 

Rochester, N. Y. — We are trying to 
build up our Locals this season, Bro. F. 
J. McFarlin is our business agent. 

Kansas City, Mo.— Prospects fair, 
boomers Advertising for men to reduce 
wages Lota of idle carpenters loating 
the streets. 

Dubuque, Iowa.— Keep away from this 
city ; over half the carpenters idle and 
we may possibly have trouble with the 
contractors this summer. 

Is buyiug ready made clothing be sure 
you have the label of the Garment 
Workers* Union in the same. 80 to not 
get sweat shop made clothes. 

Upon the close of the Rebellion the 
volume of onr national money (gold, 
silver and paper combined) amounted to 
$55 per capita. It is now less than $23. 

Sr. Paul, Mian.— Union 87 is hard at 
work building up. Old members are 
coming back, also some new men whom 
we never could get before, even in our 
palmiest days. * 

Los Angelas, Cal.— Union 332 has 
grown immensely iu membership. We 
have knocked out all the ninediour jobs 
and made the eight-hour day solid. 
Trade slow and city overran with idle 
men. 

The Theatrical Actors are organizing 
under the A. F. of L. Unions of Actors 
are now in operation in Boston, New York 
and Chicago, and a National Union of 
tue profession is in process of forma- 
tion . 

Jacksonville, F.a. carpenters have 
instituted the card system and non- 
union men are ruahing into the organiza- 
tion through it to protect themselves 
against the usual Indus of tramp car- 
penters this time of the year. 



The National Unions of Granite 
Cutters, Iron Moulders, Custom Tailors 
and ills Brotherhood of Painters] have 
been dismissing the advisability of dis- 
persing with conventions and substitut- 
ing the system of the initiative and 
referendum in the framing of their 
Uwe and the election of general otii ‘ere 

Glasgow, Scotland.— Win. McIntyre, 
Genera! Secretary of the Associated Car- 
penters and Joiners, writes us: 14 1 find 
many interesting articles in Tiik Carpen- 
ter and I hope it may go on and prosper 
along w ith your large society.** 

Fairmount, W. V a.— Twenty men 
here for one job, and more coining to 
realize they are out a few dollars by the 
trip and still no show of work. A day’s 
work here is like a grain of corn 
thrown among a brood of hungry chick- 
ens— it don’t go far or last long. 

The Hochb carpente's of New York 
City had a union in 1S0C», and the liret 
Carpenters’ Union of Boston was founded 
in 1K12. One wa^ organizrd in Philadel- 
phia in 1830, though the oldest Carpen 
tera Company of the Quaker City— an 
American offshoot of the London Guild 
—was founded in 1705. 

Wage.s of carpenters in Manchester, 
England, have been advanced this sea- 
son from 8} pence to 9 pence per hoar, to 
go into eflec: this June 1st. In Black- 
burn wages have gone up from 8 pence 
to 81 pence per hour. Trade concessions 
have also been gained last month in 
England in Burnley, Yarmouth, and 
Grangemouth, also in Ireland in Bangor 
and Fermoy. 

There is some talk of attempting to re- 
organi/.ethe carpenters of Minneapolis, 
Minn., so stys the Daily Tribune of that 
city, and then it adds: “ Mi .neapolis 

enjoys the doubtful honor of being the 
poorest carpenter town in this country ” 
Still at one time it w T as well organized, 
but in the eight-hour strike of 1880 the 
men went into contracting on a co-opera- 
tive basis, broke up the union, and are 
now down to low hard-pan, at low wages. 

Columbus, O.— Very little work. The 
trade has changed considerably the past 
three years, so there is little for carpen- 
ters to do on the large buildings until 
they are ready for finish. And then 
there is less than used to be. The floors 
and base are made of cement and the 
windows are plastered around close to 
the frames. The trade will soffer still 
more as long as we have men who call 
themselves 14 carpenters ** and willing to 
work for laborers* wages. 

— 

The luuite Co«’m Whetstone* Reduced 
in Price« 

For nearly half a year The Cakpkntk* ha* 
Leen advertising a S<>| id Emery Whetstone made 
l»y The Tan lie Company, of Htroudsburg, Ha 
Tbla article wherever used ha* been pronounced 
a practical success. Nevertheless, the trade re 
main* email ; for iio amount of advertising will 
ruwne dealers to buy mile** the Individual 
uaer make* a demand. If the Individual 
u*er ha* not made a demand In thl* can« 
we think It must be either on account of 
price or on account of old time prejudice created 
at a lime when the Ural Solid Emery Whetstones 
were Introduced many year* ago. The*c whet- 
Hloiie* did not meet with favor, but that 1« no 
reaaon why those of later make should he con- 
demned. Following the general decline of 
price*, The Tanitc Company ha* lecentl y deter- 
mined to reduce the price of the** whetstone«, 

In the hope that at greatly reduced oo*t the car- 
penter and joiner will take the artificial product 
rather than the natural *tone. These artificial 
stones were, until recently, .old to the dealer at 
W.OS per doxeti (lc**, of course, a liberal dis- 
count), but this price ha* lately been altered to 
IS 00. Thl* reduction bring* the price of the 
artificial «tone within the mean* of any work- 
man- In fact, it make* it *o low tbatevery work- 
man can afford to try the experience even If he 
should consider hi* purchase a bad Investment 
and go back to the natural stone, which 1* not ' 
likely to be the case. . j 



Standing Decisions of W. E. U. 



1MI. 

April 17- — ft I* not advisable to ex tend t| J# 



IHM. 

Jan. 2.— A member who leave* the trade I« 
enter another occupation nerd not withdraw 
from the U. B. He can *1111 remain a mcnih« « 
and in beticlU, except he engage* in the **alc o 
intoxicating drink*. 

April 22 — A Union lapsed or suspended, If re 
organized or reinstated, shall not Iu* in beticfi' 
until mix month* after dato of reinstatement. 

1866. 

Feb 19 — We favor the licensing of architect» 
Feb. 19. — In giving graft* of money to alii 
other trwdcH In ca**e* of *trikes or trade troubles. 
It Is advisable to esereise ««are and not make 
donation unless condition of local funds per 
mils and then make It in the form of a donation, 
and avoid any as*cs*ment t an assessment levied 
for such a purpose shall be purely voluntary It* 
payment by the members. 

Feb 19.— A member In the ante-room on bust 
ness authorized by the Union must he eon 
side red as present at the meeting, and Is eligible 
to noniinalioti for office. 

Dee. 28 — Funds of I^ocal Unions cannot he 
used for |>olitical party purposes. 

INH7. 

Feh 13 — Unions not holding meeting* at loa*t 
once a month forfeit their charter ami are not to 
bet flit. 

F»b 21.- Uarpenter* joining the navy cannot 
he entitled to trenetit. on the ground of unusual 
risk. 

Feb 26 — A Union cannot admit to or retain In 
raemhembip any one who, himself or any of In* 
household. Is engaged or engage* In the sale of 
Intoxicating drinks. 

March 12.— Persons ruptured and afllicWd with 
chronic rheumatism can only he admitted a* 
semi he iu flcial members. 

.fiinc 16 — The occupation of a paid city lire 
man is hazardous, and a member so engaged 
cannot Ik* allowed hem- tits 
June 22.— ! n movements for wages ami hour* 
where itieinliers are working at woodwork, out- 
side of house carpenter work, they cun he 
exempt from trade rules. 

July 30 —A member tuklng direct contract 
from owner, where the latter fun l*hcs material, 
ami the member contracting litre* union men 
ami pays union wage* by the day, I* not piece 
work; hut if the owner i* an employing con- 
tractor, it is piece work. 

Aug. 3.— Wherever a union man goes, he 
should live up to the union rules of the city he 
wo*ks in. 

Wept. 17.— Grading wage* is demoralizing to 
union principles ami to the welfare of the trade, 
and no Local Union should adopt the system of 
grading wages. 

Oct. 21.— Claim* for disability benefit must 
date from time of accident. 

Dec. 22. — All payments t.f dues made to a K. S 
in interval between meetings after Union ha* 
adjourned, must he credited under date of next 
meeting of the Union. 

18H8. 

March 10.— A Ix>cal Union can fix a fine a.* 
penalty for non-attendance of members at a 
monthly meeting. 

July 1 1.- No member of any Local Union can 
“ scab" It on any other trade by going to work 
at such trade when It 1* on strike. 

Nov. 24.— Dues are chargeable on first of 
month, hut a member does not fall In arrears 
until end of the month. 

1889. 

Jan. 5.- A union contractor must always hire 
union car|»*!!ter* where available, and where 
not available, he *hould have the non union 
men lie hires to join the Union 
Marc h 9.- In death or disability claims, the 
card of a member must Ire retained by IheG. N T. 
as evidence. 

June 1 —Each Local Union Is responsible for 
the carelessness or negligence of Its own local 
olllcers. 

June 29 - Me mt>c r* working under union rules 
during a strike must pay a strike assessment if 
levied. 

Aug. 31 - A member resigning severs all con- 
nectioii with the U. B and can only rejoin as a 
new rneinoer. 

Hep 7- A member owing a sum equal to three 
months' dues cannot pay |>art of his arrears and 
he In benefit. He must pay all he owe* the 
Union and wait three months after that to be 
III benefit. 

Nov. 2.- A fine can be Imposed by a Local 
Union on a member for not parading on Labor 
Day. 

1890. 

Jan. 18 — A Union cannot expel a member for 
owing a flue; It can only suspend him when 
with the fine his Indebtedness equals the sum of 
dues calling fur suspension. 

Jan. 28.— A fine cannot be remitted except ou 
the same night It Is imposed. 

Oct. 4.— All Local Unions are hereby ordered 
not to circulate any appeal or circular asking 
flnanolal aid or calling on the Locals In any 
form to purebaae tickets, unless by the approval 
of the O. B. B., attested by the O. B-T. 

Nov. II. — A walking delegate may be deputised 
by a Local or D. C., to collect dues, etc. 



jurisdiction of a District Council over a 
extent of